Light has wave like characteristics,The motion of a light source affects wavelengths. Emitted light depends upon the object s temperature. Light has particle like characteristics, The structure of atoms explains why each chemical element. emits and absorbs light at specific wavelengths,Interference. Wave like Characteristics,Double Slit Interference. Wave like Characteristics,Wavelength Distance between successive. 1 nm 10 9 m,1 0 1 nm 10 10 m,Frequency Number of crests that pass a. specific point in one second or f,Speed Frequency times Wavelength c. c 3 x 105 km s,3 x 108 m s,WREK Radio,91 1 MHz 91 1 x 106 s. 3 x 108 m s 91 1 x 106 s 3 3 m,Not visible to the human eye. Visible Light,Visible or Optical Light,700 nm Red to 400 nm Violet. White light is a combination of,these colors Newton s experiment. proved that prisms do not add,Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann. Electromagnetic Spectrum,Wavelength Ranges,Gamma 0 01 nm. X rays 0 01 to 20 nm,Ultraviolet 20 to 400 nm,Visible 400 to 700 nm. Infrared 700 nm to mm,Microwave mm to cm,Radio wave cm to km. Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann,Measuring the Speed of Light. Olaus Roemer 1675 timed when,moons disappeared into Jupiter s. Eclipses were retarded when Earth,was far away,Showed light did not travel infinitely. He did not know the Earth Sun,distance so he could not compute. the speed of light,Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann. Measuring the Speed of Light,Jean Foucault 1850 used a very. rapidly rotating mirror,One must measure the deflection. angle and know the speed of the,rotating mirror,Accuracy was better than 1. Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann,Modern Value. c 299 792 458 km s,Propagation of Light,Apparent Brightness. Flux Luminosity 4 d2,Inverse Square Law,Flux1 4 d22 d22. Flux2 4 d12 d12,Light s Medium,Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann. For a water wave the wave is in the water,So if Light is a wave what is waving. What is Light moving through,Scientists once believed there existed The Ether. Light has wave like characteristics,The motion of a light source affects wavelengths. Doppler Shift,If a light source is approaching or,receding from the observer the light. waves will be respectively crowded,closer together or spread out The. Doppler effect is only produced by,radial velocities. obs o o o v c,Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann. where obs is the observed wavelength,and o is the rest wavelength. Doppler Shift Example 1, The revolution of the Earth around the Sun produces a Doppler Shift. Assume one is observing a star while we are moving directly toward it. The Earth s v 30 km s Let s use rest 600 nm yellow light. Calculate and the observed,600 nm 30 km s 3 x 105 km s. 0 06 nm observed rest,observed 0 06 nm rest 599 94 nm. Doppler Shift Example 2,500 nm 500 x 10 9 m obs 510 nm 510 x 10 9 m. v c 3 x 108 m s 510 x 10 9 500 x 10 9,500 x 10 9 m. 3 x 108 m s 10 x 10 9 m 500 x 10 9 m,6 x 106 m s 6000 km s. Doppler Shift,If a light source is approaching or,receding from the observer the light. waves will be respectively crowded,closer together or spread out The. Doppler effect is only produced by,radial velocities. obs o o o v c,Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann. where obs is the observed wavelength,and o is the rest wavelength. Light has wave like characteristics,The motion of a light source affects wavelengths. Emitted light depends upon the object s temperature. Temperature Scales,Kelvin Temperature Scale,Coldest theoretically possible. Temperature 0 K,No negative temperatures,No degree symbol just K. Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann,Temperature Effects. 1 Temperature is a measure of the,average motion of the gas molecules. 2 Electromagnetic radiation is emitted,when electric charges accelerate that. is whenever they either change the,speed or the direction of their motion. Each collision results in the emission of,Temperature determines the type of. electromagnetic radiation emitted,Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann. Blackbodies,A blackbody is an idealized object,that absorbs all the light that hits it. It is in thermal equilibrium,It absorbs the entire energy incident. upon it and emits energy at the same,rate that it is being absorbed. Are stars blackbodies,Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann. Blackbody Radiation,A blackbody with a temperature higher. than absolute zero emits some energy in,all wavelengths. A blackbody at a higher temperature,emits more energy at all wavelengths. than does a cooler one,The higher the temperature the. shorter the wavelength at which the,maximum energy is emitted. Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann,Wien s Displacement Law. The wavelength of maximum energy is given by Wien s Law. max T 0 0029 m K,Sun max 500 nm 5 0 x 10 7 m,T 0 0029 m K 5 0 x 10 7 m 5 800 K. Rigel Orion max 240 nm 2 4 x 10 7 m,Wilhelm Wien,T 0 0029 m K 2 4 x 10 7 m 12 000 K. Nobel Laureat 1912,Stefan Boltzmann Law, Total energy is provided by the Stefan Boltzmann Law. For a sphere,is equal to 5 670 x 10 8 J m2 K4,Stefan Boltzmann Law. We ve seen that TRigel 2 Tsun If we know that ERigel 90 000 Esun. compare Rigel s radius to that of the Sun,1 RRigel 7 5 Rsun. 2 RRigel 12 Rsun,3 RRigel 75 Rsun,4 RRigel 120 Rsun. 5 RRigel 750 Rsun,6 RRigel 1 200 Rsun,Stefan Boltzmann Law. ERigel ESun RRigel RSun 2 TRigel TSun 4,90 000 RRigel RSun 2 12 000 5 800 4. RRigel RSun sqrt 90 000 5 800 12 000 2,RRigel RSun 75. Solar Spectrum,What do we learn if we disperse sun light. Fraunhofer 1814,Highly magnified spectrum,He counted 600 dark lines Fraunhofer lines. Joseph von Fraunhofer,Spectral Analysis, Bunsen 1857 Invented the gas burner that has no color of. its own for flame tests,Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann. Robert Bunsen,Spectral Analysis, Bunsen 1857 Invented the gas burner that has no color of. its own for flame tests,Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann. Gustav Kirchhoff, Kirchhoff 1860 Suggested that the flame tests should be. studied through a prism They created a spectrograph and. developed Spectral Analysis They cataloged lines found. new lines and recognized new elements of cesium rubidium. and helium,Universe by Freedman Geller and Kaufmann.

Banking Course Syllabus Lecturers Dr. Luca Gelsomini (e-mail: lgelsomini@hse.ru) Dr. Vladimir N. Sokolov (e-mail: vsokolov@hse.ru) 1. Course Description and Format Banking is an optional course for the master level students at ICEF. The course runs in the second semester and is divided into parts. The first part of the course (part A) is theoretical and is taught by Dr. Luca Gelsomini. The ...

Agile Mind Geometry: https: ... Students began their study of geometric concepts in elementary and middle school mathematics. In middle school, they studied area, surface area, and volume and informally investigated lines, angles, and triangles. Students in middle school also explored transformations, including translations, reflections, rotations, and dilations. The Charles A. Dana Center and ...

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Wild Animals Represent Chaos Within their settlements, the Egyptians had already become accustomed to living with domesticated animals; outside their secure location, however, they came across wild animals that were beyond their control, many of which posed a direct threat to them. The formidable

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Ollie Ollerton will be addressing Kingston businesses to inspire and drive professional and personal achievements. Ollie is an energetic and highly motivated former UK Special Forces operative with extensive experience in various international missions. Ollie will provide a motivational talk using the knowledge and skills gained through

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format section at the end of this manual. 1. Baud Rate - The software has four common baud rate values: 1000 kbps, 500 kbps, 250 kbps or 125 kbps. The user also has the option to select a custom baud rate. 2. CAN termination Resistance - The internal CAN termination resistance can be enabled or disabled here. 4 1.

Upscaling urban regeneration In cooperation with: ... (iv) an early collaboration between multiple actors with different expertise. The report does not intend to define what urban regeneration should be but rather provide inspiration for what and how it could be done. The insights and recommendations presented in the report are based on interviews with project leaders of the cases, together ...

city. The pattern of recent urban development has had negative effects in a great part of its population and in the name of modernity and progress, consolidated and traditional urban areas have been destroyed. The adoption of modern planning techniques, the prioritisation of private ways of transport rather than public ones and the process of land speculation have led to a impoverishment of ...