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lex yacc 2nd Edition, lex yacc 2nd Edition, Published by O Reilly Media Inc 1005 Gravenstein Highway North Sebastopol CA 95472. Revision History for the, See http oreilly com catalog errata csp isbn 9781565920002 for release details. ISBN 978 1 565 92000 2, Table of Contents, Preface xi. What s New in the Second Edition xi, Scope of This Book xii. Availability of Lex and Yacc xiii, Sample Programs xiv.
Conventions Used in This Handbook xv, Acknowledgments xvi. 1 Lex and Yacc 1, The Simplest Lex Program 2, Recognizing Words with Lex 2. Symbol Tables 8, Grammars 13, Parser Lexer Communication 13. The Parts of Speech Lexer 14, A Yacc Parser 16, The Rules Section 17. Running Lex and Yacc 20, Lex vs Hand written Lexers 21.
Exercises 23, 2 Using Lex 25, Regular Expressions 26. Examples of Regular Expressions 28, A Word Counting Program 30. Parsing a Command Line 36, Start States 39, A C Source Code Analyzer 42. Summary 45, Exercises 45, 3 Using Yacc 47, Grammars 47. Recursive Rules 48, Shift Reduce Parsing 49, What Yacc Cannot Parse 51.
A Yacc Parser 52, The Definition Section 52, The Rules Section 52. Symbol Values and Actions 53, The Lexer 54, Compiling and Running a Simple Parser 55. Arithmetic Expressions and Ambiguity 55, When Not to Use Precedence Rules 59. Variables and Typed Tokens 60, Symbol Values and union 61. Symbol Tables 63, Functions and Reserved Words 67, Reserved Words in the Symbol Table 67.
Interchangeable Function and Variable Names 69, Building Parsers with Make 72. Summary 73, Exercises 74, 4 A Menu Generation Language 77. Overview of the MGL 77, Developing the MGL 79, Building the MGL 88. Initialization 90, Screen Processing 93, Termination 96. Sample MGL Code 98, Exercises 102, 5 Parsing SQL 105.
iv Table of Contents, A Quick Overview of SQL 105, Relational Data Bases 106. Manipulating Relations 108, Three Ways to Use SQL 108. The Syntax Checker 110, The Lexer 110, Error and Main Routines 114. The Parser 115, Definitions 115, Top Level Rules 116. The Schema Sublanguage 117, The Module Sublanguage 122.
The Manipulation Sublanguage 123, Odds and Ends 134. Using the Syntax Checker 135, Embedded SQL 136, Exercises 140. 6 A Reference for Lex Specifications 143, Structure of a Lex Specification 143. Definition Section 143, Rules Section 144, User Subroutines 144. AT T Lex 145, Character Translations 146, Context Sensitivity 147.
Definitions Substitutions 148, Include Operations Logical Nesting of Files 150. Input from Strings 151, AT T Lex 151, Abraxas Pclex 152. MKS Lex 152, POSIX Lex 153, Table of Contents v, Internal Tables N Declarations 154. lex Library 154, Line Numbers and yylineno 155, Literal Block 155. Multiple Lexers in One Program 156, Combined Lexers 156.
Multiple Lexers 157, output 159, Portability of Lex Lexers 160. Porting Lex Specifications 160, Porting Generated C Lexers 160. Regular Expression Syntax 161, Metacharacters 162, POSIX Extensions 164. REJECT 165, Returning Values from yylex 165, Start States 166. yyinput yyoutput yyunput 168, yyleng 168, yyless 168.
User Code in yylex 169, yymore 170, yytext 170, Enlarging yytext 171. AT T and MKS Lex 171, yywrap 172, 7 A Reference for Yacc Grammars 175. Structure of a Yacc Grammar 175, Symbols 175, Definition Section 176. Rules Section 176, User Subroutines Section 176, Actions 176. vi Table of Contents, Embedded Actions 177, Symbol Types for Embedded Actions 178.
Obsolescent Feature 178, Ambiguity and Conflicts 178. Types of Conflicts 178, Bugs in Yacc 179, Real Bugs 179. Infinite Recursion 180, Unreal Bugs 181, End Marker 182. Error Token and Error Recovery 182, ident Declaration 182. Inherited Attributes 0 183, Symbol Types for Inherited Attributes 184.
Lexical Feedback 184, Literal Block 185, Literal Tokens 186. Portability of Yacc Parsers 186, Porting Yacc Grammars 187. Porting Generated C Parsers 187, Precedence Associativity and Operator Declarations 187. Precedence and Associativity 188, Operator Declarations 188. Using Precedence and Associativity to Resolve Conflicts 189. Typical Uses of Precedence 189, Recursive Rules 189.
Left and Right Recursion 190, Special Characters 192. Start Declaration 193, Symbol Values 194, Declaring Symbol Types 194. Calculator Example 194, Explicit Symbol Types 195, Tokens 195. Token Numbers 195, Token Values 196, Table of Contents vii. type Declaration 197, union Declaration 197, Variant and Multiple Grammars 198.
Combined Parsers 198, Multiple Parsers 199, Recursive Parsing 202. Lexers for Multiple Parsers 202, y output Files 202. Yacc Library 203, yyerror 204, YYABORT 204, YYACCEPT 204. YYBACKUP 205, yyclearin 205, yydebug and YYDEBUG 206. YYDEBUG 206, yydebug 206, yyerrok 206, YYERROR 207.
yyerror 207, yyparse 208, YYRECOVERING 208, 8 Yacc Ambiguities and Conflicts 209. The Pointer Model and Conflicts 209, Types of Conflicts 212. Parser States 213, Contents of y output 215, Review of Conflicts in y output 219. Common Examples of Conflicts 220, Expression Grammars 220. IF THEN ELSE 222, Nested List Grammer 223, How Do I Fix the Conflict 224.
IF THEN ELSE Shift Reduce 225, Loop Within a Loop Shift Reduce 227. viii Table of Contents, Expression Precedence Shift Reduce 227. Limited Lookahead Shift Reduce or Reduce Reduce 228. Overlap of Alternatives Reduce Reduce 229, Summary 231. Exercises 232, 9 Error Reporting and Recovery 233, Error Reporting 233. Better Lex Error Reports 236, Error Recovery 237, Yacc Error Recovery 238.
Where to Put Error Tokens 240, Compiler Error Recovery 241. Exercises 242, A AT T Lex 243, Error Messages 244, B AT T Yacc 251. Options 251, Error Messages 252, C Berkeley Yacc 261. Options 261, Error Messages 261, Fatal Errors 262, Regular Errors 262. Warnings 264, Informative Messages 265, D GNU Bison 267.
Differences 267, E Flex 269, Flex Differences 269, Options 270. Error Messages 272, Flex Versions of Lexer Examples 276. Table of Contents ix, F MKS lex and yacc 279, Differences 279. New Features 280, G Abraxas lex and yacc 281, Differences 281. New Features 281, H POSIX lex and yacc 283, Options 283.
Differences 284, I MGL Compiler Code 285, MGL Yacc Source 285. MGL Lex Source 289, Supporting C Code 290, J SQL Parser Code 299. Yacc Parser 299, Cross reference 310, K SQL Parser Code 323. Lex Scanner 323, Supporting Code 327, Glossary 331. Bibliography, x Table of Contents, Lex and yacc are tools designed for writers of compilers and interpreters although they.
are also useful for many applications that will interest the noncompiler writer Any. application that looks for patterns in its input or has an input or command language is. a good candidate for lex and yacc Furthermore they allow for rapid application pro. totyping easy modification and simple maintenance of programs To stimulate your. imagination here are a few things people have used lex and yacc to develop. The desktop calculator bc, The tools eqn and pic typesetting preprocessors for mathematical equations and. complex pictures, PCC the Portable C Compiler used with many UNIX systems and GCC the GNU. C Compiler, A menu compiler, A SQL data base language syntax checker. The lex program itself, What s New in the Second Edition. We have made extensive revisions in this new second edition Major changes include. Completely rewritten introductory Chapters 1 3, New Chapter 5 with a full SQL grammar.
New much more extensive reference chapters, Full coverage of all major MS DOS and UNIX versions of lex and yacc including. AT T lex and yacc Berkeley yacc flex GNU bison MKS lex and yacc and Abraxas. Coverage of the new POSIX 1003 2 standard versions of lex and yacc. Scope of This Book, Chapter 1 Lex and Yacc gives an overview of how and why lex and yacc are used to. create compilers and interpreters and demonstrates some small lex and yacc applica. tions It also introduces basic terms we use throughout the book. Chapter 2 Using Lex describes how to use lex It develops lex applications that count. words in files analyze program command switches and arguments and compute sta. tistics on C programs, Chapter 3 Using Yacc gives a full example using lex and yacc to develop a fully functional. desktop calculator, Chapter 4 A Menu Generation Language demonstrates how to use lex and yacc to. develop a menu generator, Chapter 5 Parsing SQL develops a parser for the full SQL relational data base language.
First we use the parser as a syntax checker then extend it into a simple preprocessor for. SQL embedded in C programs, Chapter 6 A Reference for Lex Specifications and Chapter 7 A Reference for Yacc Gram. mars provide detailed descriptions of the features and options available to the lex and. yacc programmer These chapters and the two that follow provide technical information. for the now experienced lex and yacc programmer to use while developing new lex and. yacc applications, Chapter 8 Yacc Ambiguities and Conflicts explains yacc ambiguities and conflicts. which are problems that keep yacc from parsing a grammar correctly It then develops. methods that can be used to locate and correct such problems. Chapter 9 Error Reporting and Recovery discusses techniques that the compiler or. interpreter designer can use to locate recognize and report errors in the compiler input. Appendix A AT T Lex describes the command line syntax of AT T lex and the error. messages it reports and suggests possible solutions. Appendix B AT T Yacc describes the command line syntax of AT T yacc and lists. errors reported by yacc It provides examples of code which can cause such errors and. suggests possible solutions, xii Preface, Appendix C Berkeley Yacc describes the command line syntax of Berkeley yacc a. widely used free version of yacc distributed with Berkeley UNIX and lists errors re. ported by Berkeley yacc with suggested solutions, Appendix D GNU Bison discusses differences found in bison the Free Software Foun. dation s implementation of yacc, Appendix E Flex discusses flex a widely used free version of lex lists differences from.
other versions and lists errors reported by flex with suggested solutions. Appendix F MKS Lex and Yacc discusses the MS DOS and OS 2 version of lex and. yacc from Mortice Kern Systems, Appendix G Abraxas Lex and Yacc discusses PCYACC the MS DOS and OS 2 versions. of lex and yacc from Abraxas Software, Appendix H POSIX Lex and Yacc discusses the versions of lex and yacc defined by the. IEEE POSIX 1003 2 standard, Appendix I MGL Compiler Code provides the complete source code for the menu. generation language compiler discussed in Chapter 4. Appendix J SQL Parser Code provides the complete source code and a cross reference. for the SQL parser discussed in Chapter 5, The Glossary lists technical terms language and compiler theory. The Bibliography lists other documentation on lex and yacc as well as helpful books on. compiler design, We presume the reader is familiar with C as most examples are in C lex or yacc with.
the remainder being in the special purpose languages developed within the text. Availability of Lex and Yacc, Lex and yacc were both developed at Bell Laboratories in the 1970s Yacc was the first. of the two developed by Stephen C Johnson Lex was designed by Mike Lesk and Eric. Schmidt to work with yacc Both lex and yacc have been standard UNIX utilities since. 7th Edition UNIX System V and older versions of BSD use the original AT T versions. while the newest version of BSD uses flex see below and Berkeley yacc The articles. written by the developers remain the primary source of information on lex and yacc. The GNU Project of the Free Software Foundation distributes bison a yacc replacement. bison was written by Robert Corbett and Richard Stallman The bison manual written. by Charles Donnelly and Richard Stallman is excellent especially for referencing spe. cific features Appendix D discusses bison, Preface xiii. PCC the Portable C Compiler used with many UNIX systems and GCC the GNU C Compiler A menu compiler A SQL data base language syntax checker The lex program itself What s New in the Second Edition We have made extensive revisions in this new second edition Major changes include Completely rewritten introductory Chapters 1

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