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Laboratory Tests Interpretation Nurses Learning Network
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and author For low cost copies contact NURSES RESEARCH. PUBLICATION 510 888 9070 Reprint Division, Notice and Disclaimers. Medicine and Nursing are ever changing sciences As new. information is gained changes in treatments and drug therapies. are required The author s editor and publisher of this text. have used every possible reliable source in order to verify. information in this text to be sure that the information is. accurate and the most current and acceptable information. available at the time of publication However due to human. error and or changes in medical science neither the editors nor. publishers nor any other parties involved in the preparation or. publication of this text warrant that the information contained. herein is in every respect accurate or complete and they are. not responsible for any errors or omissions or for the results. obtained from use of such information Readers are encouraged. to confirm the information contained herein with other sources. For example and in particular readers should check the product. information sheet for any drugs mentioned in this text that you. plan to administer, This course is designed to provide nursing professionals. with general information to assist in their practices and. professional development The information provided in this. course is based on research and consultation with medical and. nursing authorities and is to the best of our knowledge. current and accurate However this course is offered with the. understanding that Nurses Research Publication is not engaged in. rendering legal nursing or other professional advice This. course is not a substitute for seeking professional advice or. conducting individual research In applying the information. provided in this course to individual circumstances all. recommendations must be considered in light of the unique. circumstances of each situation This course book is intended. solely for individual use and not for the benefit of providing. advice or recommendations to third parties NURSES RESEARCH. disclaims any responsibility for any adverse consequences. resulting from the failure to seek medical nursing or other. professional advice or to conduct independent research NURSES. RESEARCH further disclaims any responsibility for updating or. revising any programs or publications presented published. distributed or sponsored by NURSES RESEARCH unless otherwise. agreed to as part of an individual purchase contract. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS, 5 Course Instructions. a PRETEST questions are included at the start of each chapter. Answer these questions before you read the chapter DO NOT SEND. US YOUR PRETEST ANSWERS These questions are only for the. purpose of testing your knowledge base BEFORE you read the. course material, b The POSTTEST or the Final Examination is included as a. separate FINAL EXAM BOOKLET When you finish reading and. studying the ENTIRE COURSE take the final exam and place. answers on the enclosed answer sheet RETURN ONLY THE ANSWER. SHEET TO US not the final exam booklet A passing score of 70. is required If you fail the exam you will be allowed to take. the test again no charge Your passing score will be printed. on your certificate, 6 License Renewal, In California the RN and LVN State Board requires you to.
fill out a form with continuing education information in order. to renew your license The Board in California does not normally require a. copy of your CEU completion certificate RN LVN LPT just the information. printed on your certificate Do not send the board certificates. unless they specifically ask for a copy If you should need your. certificate rushed we can FAX a copy for 10 certificate. mailed free 510 537 3434, TABLE OF CONTENTS, Instructions. Course Outline, Chapter I Introduction to the course. Terms and Abbreviations, Chapter II Collection Techniques. Chapter III Hematology Studies, Hematology Studies. Coagulation Studies, Chapter IV Special Serology and Blood chemistry Tests.
Blood Chemistry Testing, Cardiac Enzymes, Serum electrolytes. Chapter V Body fluid Lab Tests, Urinalysis, Chapter VI Select organ function Tests. Liver Function Tests, Chapter VII STD and HIV Blood Tests. Laboratory Testing for HIV, Chapter VIII Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation. Chapter IX Select Diagnostic Tests, Histology Cytology and Cytogenic Testing.
Nuclear Medicine Procedures, Electroencephalography. References, Posttest See Separate Examination Booklet. Course Outline, Chapter I Introduction, Introduction to course. Terms and Abbreviations, Chapter II Collection Techniques. Chapter III Hematology Blood Tests, A Hematology Studies.
B Coagulation Studies, Chapter IV Special Serology and Blood Chemistry Tests. A Cardiac Enzymes, B Serum Electrolytes, C Blood Groups and Blood Transfusions. Chapter V Body Fluid Lab Tests, A Urinalysis, B Cerebrospinal Fluid Examination. Chapter VI Select Organ Function Blood Tests, A Liver Function Tests. B Thyroid Function Tests, Chapter VII STD and HIV Lab Tests.
Chapter VIII Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation, Chapter IX Select Diagnostic Tests. References, Posttest See Separate Examination Booklet. Course Objectives, Global Course Objectives, At the end of this course each participant will be able. 1 give better patient care due to an enhanced knowledge. of laboratory tests and the interpretation of the results. of these tests, 2 perform satisfactorily on an objective examination at. the end of this course 70 or better, Specific Behavioral Course Objectives.
At the end of this program each participant will be able. 1 name and discuss at least 3 lab specimen collection. considerations and their nursing implications, 2 name and discuss at least 5 hematology lab tests and. coagulation tests and their nursing implications, 3 name and discuss at least 2 cardiac enzyme lab tests. and 3 serum electrolyte and blood group tests and their. nursing implications, 4 name and discuss at least 3 components of the. urinalysis lab test and describe the nursing, implications. 5 name and discuss at least 3 components of the, cerebrospinal fluid analysis lab test and the nursing.
implications, 6 name and discuss at least 5 components of the liver. function lab test and the nursing implications, 7 name and discuss at least 2 components of the thyroid. function lab test and the nursing implications, 8 name and discuss at least 2 serological lab tests and. their nursing implications, 9 name and discuss at least 2 lab tests used to detect. HIV antibodies in the blood and 2 additional tests used. to indicate levels of HIV antibodies in the blood and. their nursing implications, 10 name and discuss at least four components of the.
arterial blood gas interpretation lab test describing. how the test is performed the results of the test and. the nursing implications of the test, Laboratory Tests Interpretation NURSES RESEARCH 2001. INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE, Terms and Abbreviations. Amniocentesis is a procedure that includes the insertion of a needle. into the suprapubic area after the fetus has been located and manually. elevated and the aspiration of 5 to 15 ml of amniotic fluid Ultrasound. may be used to locate the placenta and fetal position so that needle. contact may be avoided Amniocentesis is usually performed from the 14th. to 16th week of pregnancy usually never before the 14th week due to. insuffi cient amounts of amniotic fluid, Anatomic Pathology This field of pathology deals with structural. changes These changes may be apparent to the examiner with the naked. eye or a microscopic examina tion may be needed, Blood Bank Immunohematology We all know of the responsibility of the. blood bank in obtaining storing and dispensing blood for trans. fusions There are other functions including obtaining and handling. other blood products some of which are rare and also research in blood. transmitted diseases, Bronchography Bronchogram Bronchography is an X ray examination that.
visualizes the trachea bronchi and the bronchial tree. Clinical Chemistry This section of the lab performs analyses on whole. blood serum plasma urine and other biological specimens like. cerebrospinal fluid am niocentesis fluid pleural fluid periton eal. fluid and feces, Clinical Microbiology This section of the lab is involved with a. variety of biological specimens such as urine feces blood sput um. CSF drainage exudates nail skin tissue and swabs from throat. wounds and other such specimens, Clinical Pathology Clinical pathology refers to the section of the. pathology lab which applies to the problem of find ing solutions to the. problems found in the clinical areas The members of this team in clude. medical tech nologists medical scientists tech nicians and. pathologists Together they perform tests and inves tigations into all. aspects of disease including preven tion diagnosis and treatment. Cytology Cytology is the study of the individual cells This. department has cytologists and cyto technologists who are trained to. perform prelimi nary screening on cells Any of these suspicious cells. are then usually examined by the pathologi st, Cytogenics Cytogenics is the branch of genetics that studies cellular. components concerned with heredity primarily the structure function. and origin of the chromosomes, Diagnostic Test A Diagnostic Test is an inquiry into a pathological. condition A diagnostic test can be thought of as any test used to help. diagnose a pathological condition, However for our text we will say that a diagnostic test is a test.
that involves some type of sophisticated diagnostic equipment and or lab. tests We will not refer to simple blood and lab tests as diagnostic. tests Although you could argue that these blood tests etc are simple. diagnostic tests For our text we will reserve diagnostic tests for. those more sophisticated tests and procedures, Erythrocyte An erythrocyte is a mature Red Blood Cell Immature red. blood cells cannot carry oxygen Immature red blood cells are true. cells and contain a nucleus The erythrocyte has lost its nucleus and. then it technical ly cannot be called a cell It is a corpuscle. However many persons still refer to erythrocytes as Red Blood Cells or. Fasting Specimen Instruct the patient not to eat or drink after. midnight the night before the test Do not eat or drink in the morning. before the specimen is collected It is usually a good idea to place a. sign on the bed to be sure no one gives the patient food Again check. with hospital policy and lab policy The patient may be allowed small. amounts of water prior to some tests, First Voided Specimen First morning specimen As the name implies the. first specimen of the day is to be obtained However some facilities. insist the specimen be at a certain time in the morning Be sure to. check policy at your facility, Hematology This department is responsible for the quantification of. cellular elements including red and white blood cells and platelets. Many of the tests are today performed by electronic means However some. of the tests are performed by manual means Many nurses may have closer. contact to this depart ment than most other departments of the lab The. reason for this is that the hematology section performs those tests. often seen in patients who are on chemothera py an ticoagulant therapy. and cardiac therapy and have frequent blood cell evalua tions Blood. coagulation studies are also performed in this section of the lab The. diagnosis and treatment of blood clotting disorders are the two most. important functions of this section, Hemoglobin Hemoglobin is the main component of Red Blood Corpuscles. RBC s Hemoglobin is a conjugated protein that carries oxygen and. transports it to all the body cells Hemoglobin also carries carbon. dioxide from the tissues to the lungs for excretion Three major types. of hemoglobin are found in normal blood they are Hgb A Hgb A2 and. Histology Histology is the study of the microscopic structure of. tissues and cells Histology technicians prepare frozen sections and. surgical and autopsy tissues by slic ing them to less than paper. thickness mounting them on slides and finally staining them with. special dyes The slides will then be examined and inter preted usually. by a path olo gist, Pathology is the study of disease its nature and cause Roles of the.
pathologist, 1 Provide supervision in the medical laboratory. 2 Evaluate laboratory results, 3 Identify disease, 4 Evaluate treatment. 5 Ascertain the cause of death by means of autop sies. 6 Advance medicine through research, Plasma Plasma is the liquid portion of whole blood after centrifuging. Whole blood is spun in a centrifuge removing the solid portions of the. blood such as red and white blood cells and other solid particles The. plasma is thick and rich with dissolved chemicals and other substances. such as proteins and other chemicals, Random Sample The term random refers to taking a sample any sample. at any time during the day or night Random means that you do not. have to take the sample at a particular time Sometimes the sample may. have other stipulations You might have to take the sample on a certain. day If the test is ordered today you generally take the sample today. Laboratory Tests Interpretation By NURSES REASEARCH PUBLICATION Continuing Education 2001 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this material may be reprinted reproduced transmitted stored in a retrieval system or otherwise utilized in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying or recording now existing or hereinafter invented nor may any part of this course be

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