Journal Of Veterinary Behavior Thebehaviourclinic Co Uk-Books Pdf

Journal of Veterinary Behavior thebehaviourclinic co uk
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P Mongillo et al Journal of Veterinary Behavior 9 2014 158e163 159. the city green areas GAs with fewer stimuli median N of stimuli. video frame 2 minimum 0 maximum 11 ManneWhitney U, test 128 P 0 000 The number of couples recorded was. balanced between the 2 types of area N 88 per type The videos. were taken between May and November 2010 in good weather. conditions in sessions of 60 120 minutes in daylight during hours. in which owners and dogs are typically found in the two contexts A. total of 23 sessions was necessary to complete the recordings The. operator had the camera mounted on a tripod with a rotating video. head and monitored a sector of approximately 40 m of radius and. 160 angle in front of him Each time a dogeowner couple entered in. this eld the operator started recording moving the camera so to. keep the two subjects in the frame and continued recording as long. as they were frontally visible while recording a given dogeowner. couple other couples entering the mentioned eld were ignored. Also ignored were subjects who had been recorded previously in. this study or couples engaged in activities different from walking. e g playing jogging No other criterions were used for sampling. Figure 1 Video still of a dogeowner dyad walking in the city center Arrows N 10. Notices stating that the area was subjected to video recording were. indicate the position of people and objects in motion exemplifying the high density of placed in these areas in accordance with the Italian law Apart from. stimuli in this context such notices the owners were not aware in advance of being. recorded and the position of the camera and its operator was cho. sen so that it was unlikely that the latter were seen or noted by dog. the same activity Range et al 2009 Another manipulation situ owners Immediately after they had been lmed another experi. ation used by Horn et al 2013 indicated that such increase in menter approached the dog owners to ask their explicit consent for. attention levels requires a close relationship rather than mere fa collecting data from the video and to acquire information about the. miliarity The owner s capacity to elicit particularly high levels of dog s age and sex All the interviewed owners consented to have. attention by dogs becomes especially evident if the animal is pre their videos analyzed and provided the requested information. sented simultaneously with 2 human targets a condition in. which dogs will look at their owner with much longer gazes than at Data collection. a stranger Mongillo et al 2010, The studies cited so far have all been conducted in strictly Video recordings were imported into Noldus Observer XT soft. controlled experimental conditions However a possible limitation ware Noldus Information Technology Wageningen The. of these laboratory based studies is that they may not adequately Netherlands Data were collected from all videos by continuous. model how attention is deployed between dogs and owners in sampling on focal subjects recording at any point in time whether. more natural circumstances for a laboratory can hardly incorporate the dogs were visually oriented toward their owners body or not. the quantity and types of stimuli to which dogs are likely to be and vice versa As the distance did not allow to determine the exact. exposed in real life Although there are a few studies that focused orientation of the eyes head orientation was used as a proxy for. on dogs social interactions in natural contexts Bekoff and Meaney gaze direction These data supplied 3 measures of dogs and owners. 1997 Westgarth et al 2010 Rez, c et al 2011 there are no data on attention the average gaze length GL gaze frequency GF gazes. dogehuman attention in such contexts minute and the percentage of time looking time LT in which. This study aimed at providing a characterization of attention dogs and owners were oriented to the respective partners The. between dogs and owners in non laboratory conditions to this aim same data were used to compute parameters of mutual attention. we chose to run the study in urban areas which allowed us to that is GL GF and the percentage of time in which dogs and owners. observe a great number of dogs and owners engaging in sponta were concurrently oriented toward each other Intervals in which. neous behavior which would have been harder to obtain otherwise the head orientation of dogs or owners could not be clearly deter. for example by recording in owners private properties The urban mined were excluded from the computation of attention parame. environment also provides well characterizable contexts varying ters Last data were recorded on whether the dogs were on leash or. in the type and density of stimuli which gave us the opportunity to off leash. assess as a further aim of the study how dogs and owners. attention is deployed in the presence of a great number and type of Data analysis. stimuli as opposed to a relatively less rich context. Because none of the variables was normally distributed. Materials and methods nonparametric statistical tests were used for all analyses Interob. server reliability was assessed by computing correlations between. Subjects and procedure data collected by two independent observers on 20 of the videos. N 36 and was found to be good for all the parameters of dogs. The present study was carried out in the city of Padova Italy and owners attention Spearman rho 0 7 P 0 01 in all cases. Short videos were taken of 176 dogeowner couples walking in After obtaining a descriptive analysis of dogs and owners. various areas of the city In detail 2 types of contexts were chosen attention to explore whether attention levels of dogs were some. 1 the streets and squares of the old city center CC characterized how correlated to that of their owners Spearman signed rank. by a relatively high density of people and of objects in motion e g correlations were calculated between GL GF and LT of owners and. bicycles baby carriages wheelchairs Figure 1 median N of stimuli dogs Because the relatively high number of cases in which dogs and. video frame 11 minimum 5 maximum 22 as well as by owners were never oriented to their partners would have provided. sounds and noises and 2 the grassy embankments of the canals in misleading results only cases in which both dogs and owners LT. 160 P Mongillo et al Journal of Veterinary Behavior 9 2014 158e163. Frequency of dog breeds represented in sample, Breed N Percent Breed N Percent. Mixed breed 65 36 93 Weimaraner 2 1 14, English cocker spaniel 10 5 68 Beauceron 1 0 57.
Labrador retriever 10 5 68 Bedlington terrier 1 0 57. Jack Russell terrier 7 3 98 Belgian shepherd 1 0 57. Maltese 7 3 98 Bernese mountain dog 1 0 57, Beagle 6 3 41 Welsh border collie 1 0 57. Bolognese 5 2 84 Boston terrier 1 0 57, Poodle 5 2 84 Dalmatian 1 0 57. Toy pinscher 5 2 84 Doberman pinscher 1 0 57, German shepherd 4 2 27 Fox terrier 1 0 57. West Highland white terrier 4 2 27 French bulldog 1 0 57. Yorkshire terrier 4 2 27 German shorthaired 1 0 57. Basset hound 3 1 70 Great Dane 1 0 57, Boxer 3 1 70 Irish setter 1 0 57. Cavalier King Charles spaniel 3 1 70 Italian greyhound 1 0 57. Whippet 3 1 70 Italian shepherd 1 0 57, Chihuahua 2 1 14 Scottish border collie 1 0 57.
Epagneul Breton 2 1 14 Shih Tzu 1 0 57, Golden retriever 2 1 14 Siberian husky 1 0 57. Italian pointer 2 1 14 Tibetan terrier 1 0 57, Italian Scenthound 2 1 14 Toy Schnauzer 1 0 57. Figure 2 Distribution minimum rst quartile median third quartile maximum of. dogs and owners gaze frequency to respective partners. was higher than 0 were included in this analysis Then we aimed at 59 1 of the video duration and looked at their dogs 1 7 times per. assessing the effect of the type of context on attention by minute Figure 2 in bouts of 1 4 seconds Figure 3 Eighty three of. comparing attention parameters between couples lmed in GAs the dogs 47 2 and 32 of the owners 21 6 never looked at their. versus CC However although all the dogs in CC were kept on leash partners for the entire duration of the video Mutual attention was. about half of those in GAs was kept off leash and a preliminary observed in 53 of the couples who looked at each other on average. analysis had found a signi cant effect of leash use on dogs atten for 1 1 0 1 26 2 of the time and 1 time per minute 0 5 1 minute. tion Therefore a KruskaleWallis test was used to compare pa in bouts of 0 8 seconds 0 0 3 8 seconds. rameters of attention of dogs and owners using as between subjects Within both dogs and owners signi cant correlations were. a 3 level factor which took into account both context and leash use found between the parameters of attention to the respective part. CC GAs on leash GAs off leash pairwise comparisons followed ner and positive correlation was also found between the length. whenever appropriate gazes of dogs and owners indicating a certain reciprocity within. All analyses were carried out in the SPSS 20 software IBM Corp couples in the degree of attention paid to each other The length and. Armonk NY USA Charts were made using R software R Core frequency of mutual gazes were respectively correlated with the. Team 2013 length and frequency of gazes by both dogs and owners moreover. all the parameter of mutual attention correlated with the total LT of. Results dogs to owners Table 2, Sample characteristics. The overall sample included 86 small dogs height at shoulder. below 30 cm CC 48 GAs 38 44 medium sized dogs height. between 30 and 60 cm CC 22 GAs 22 and 46 large dogs height. above 60 cm CC 18 GAs 28 With regard the breeds the relative. majority of dogs were of mixed breed N 65 followed by English. cocker spaniel N 10 and Labrador retriever N 10 The fre. quency of breeds represented in the sample is listed in Table 1. There were 75 females CC 37 GAs 38 and 101 males CC 51. GAs 50 in the sample with a mean standard deviation SD age. of 4 8 3 6 years CC 4 5 3 7 GAs 5 0 3 6 With regard to the. use of a leash 134 dogs were kept on leash CC 88 GAs 46 and 42. off leash CC 0 GAs 42 notably all the off leash dogs were. observed in GAs, Characteristics of dogs and owners attention. Videos had a usable duration i e dog and owner heads clearly. visible of 85 5 53 0 seconds mean SD minimum 31 sec. onds maximum 224 seconds On average dogs were oriented. toward their owners for 0 6 0 0 61 6 of this time looking at. them 0 5 times per minute Figure 2 with gazes of 0 5 seconds Figure 3 Distribution minimum rst quartile median third quartile maximum of. Figure 3 Owners were oriented toward their dogs for 5 3 0 0 dogs and owners gaze length to respective partners. P Mongillo et al Journal of Veterinary Behavior 9 2014 158e163 161. Spearman rank correlations between GL GF and total LT of dogs and owners and for mutual attention. Dog Owner Mutual, GL GF LT GL GF LT GL GF LT, GL d 0 183 0 678 0 258 0 041 0 170 0 630 0 021 0 424.
0 079 0 001 0 013 0 694 0 102 0 001 0 878 0 002, GF 0 183 d 0 800 0 130 0 047 0 037 0 005 0 439 0 283. 0 079 0 001 0 214 0 653 0 721 0 719 0 001 0 040, LT 0 678 0 800 d 0 060 0 071 0 057 0 283 0 351 0 457. Owner 0 001 0 001 0 571 0 496 0 589 0 038 0 009 0 001. GL 0 258 0 130 0 060 d 0 493 0 673 0 333 0 101 0 257. 0 013 0 214 0 571 0 001 0 001 0 014 0 468 0 064, GF 0 041 0 047 0 071 0 493 d 0 759 0 184 0 385 0 232. 0 694 0 653 0 496 0 001 0 001 0 182 0 004 0 094, LT 0 170 0 037 0 057 0 673 0 759 d 0 099 0 014 0 079. Mutual 0 102 0 721 0 589 0 001 0 001 0 476 0 313 0 574. GL 0 630 0 005 0 283 0 333 0 184 0 099 d 0 164 0 735. 0 001 0 719 0 038 0 014 0 182 0 476 0 237 0 001, GF 0 021 0 439 0 351 0 101 0 385 0 014 0 164 d 0 750.
0 878 0 001 0 009 0 468 0 004 0 313 0 237 0 001, LT 0 424 0 283 0 457 0 257 0 232 0 079 0 735 0 750 d. 0 002 0 040 0 001 0 064 0 094 0 574 0 001 0 001, GL gaze length GF gaze frequency LT looking time. Values are reported for r upper line in each cell and P lower line bold type indicates signi cant correlations P 0 05. Effect of context and leash use on dogs and owners attention generally very low Consequently low values were also found for. the total duration of dogs orientation to owners which remained. All the parameters of dogs attention differed between groups below 1 of the time for most dogs In the lack of other data on. classi ed by context and use of leash Table 3 In detail all the spontaneous attention in a non laboratory environment it is not. parameters of dogs attention were higher for off leash GA dogs simple to contextualize the ndings The gures we obtained seem. than for on leash dogs in both GAs GL U 3 50 P 0 001 GF to tell a different story if compared with the data obtained in the. U 3 10 P 0 006 LT U 3 46 P 0 002 and CC GL U 5 80 laboratory where dogs have been shown to look at their owners at. P 0 001 GF U 3 70 P 0 001 LT U 4 78 P 0 001 least 20 times as much e g Range et al 2009 Mongillo et al 2010. With regard to owner s attention signi cant differences be Horn et al 2013 with 3 times longer e g Range et al 2009. tween groups were found for the length of gazes and the total LT Mongillo et al 2010 and more frequent gazes e g Range et al. but not for the frequency of gazes Table 3 Speci cally both the 2009 However in a day to day living context many different. length of owners gazes and their total LT at dogs were lower in factors are likely to modulate dogs attention to their human. CC than in GA couples with both on leash dogs GL U 3 93 partners. Research Reciprocal attention of dogs and owners in urban contexts Paolo Mongilloa Serena Adamellia b Elisa Pitteria Lieta Marinellia aDipartimento di

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