Issues Of Ethnic Federalism In Pakistan A Case Study Of-Books Pdf

Issues of Ethnic Federalism in Pakistan A Case Study of
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196 Pakistan Vision Vol 18 No 1,Chronicle of Saraiki Identity. The Saraiki language and culture has developed its own distinct identity despite. bearing traces from ancient Daravadian Aryans Bheel Khool white Huns and Monda. along with significant reflection of Turkish Arab Persian and Mangol culture. Saraiki language is linked to the very roots of the ethnic people living in South. Western Punjab Many a scholar and theoristworking in the field of ethnicity are. often seen advocating the fact that language is indeed a significant factor in identity. Since long the Saraikis have been of the view that Saraiki is a complete language. in its own and that Punjabi merely one of its languages 6 At the time of British. colonialism in subcontinent the languages other than Saraiki within the areas of. Dera Ismail Khan DI Khan Bahawalpur Muzaffargarh Layyah and Multan were. known the names of their respective regions i e Multani Bahawalpuri Muzaffargarhi. Riasti Derawali Layyahi Landhi andJakti 7 During his regime Maharaja Ranjit Singh. kept Multan 1818 at its autonomous status i e the center of the Saraikis and the. language then was known by the name of Multani But after the independence for. the firsttime in 1960 with the consensus of Saraiki leaders all those languages. collectively started to be named Saraiki,Progression of Identity on Ethnic Lines. The sentiments of ethnicity are being successfully aired among the ethno lingual. groups in Pakistan Ethnicity if used as a tool to manipulate the state authorities can. pose a serious threat to national integration Ethnic accusation is often used as a tool. to fulfill socio political demands Though used to generate unity among members. ethnicity turns into political when used to cherish politico economic motives It is. denoted that political powers are the only motive of the language based ethnicity in. which the leadership has played its manipulative role since ever Our leaders. concentrate on the ethnic sentiments of certain groups and use manipulative. measures in lingual basis to get their motives achieved. Ethno Lingual Distinctiveness of Saraiki Identity and Rest of Punjab. Most of the language planners not bearing the fact that Punjabi and Saraiki are. the two languages which can clearly be mutually understood exert that one. language is merely a language of the other 8 It has been clearly stated by Gankovsky9. that Saraiki is one of the many languages of Punjabi But the Saraiki narrative is. claimant of the opposite, The two belts are different in cultural perspective the historical evaluation of. the Saraiki territory varies from the rest of the Punjab The Saraiki region maintains. historic links with Sindh and in the other hand Lahore or Central Punjab remained. Issues of Ethnic Federalism in Pakistan A Case Study of Saraiki Belt 197. connected with the Northern India Along with this Rehman says that a major part of. Saraiki and Punjabi is common on morphological basis and many a word is similar in. both of them The term language however with no exact definition is the. conflicting element 10 The Saraiki language has become a symbol of ethnic bond. among the people if Southern Punjab and keep this association alive is their top most. priority The Southern Punjab had greater mutuality with Sindh than Central and. Northern areas of Punjab regarding geography culture and politics Northern. Punjab has remained an integral region of recruitment for military and state services. The British canal colonization project benefitted largely to the districts included in. central Punjab 11 But the people from West and Southern Punjab being home. bound showed reluctance to do job at far off places 12. Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur DeraGhazi Khan DG K and Multan are three divisions that. comprise eleven districts Multan and DGK possess four districts each while the. three districts Bahawal Nagar Rahim Yar Khan and Bahawalpur are included in. Bahawalpur division The issue of Bahawalpur can be comprehended by a brief study. of its historical background In 1947 it was the first state that joined Pakistan when. Nawab Sir Sadiq Muhammad Khan Abbasi V signed the document of association on. October 3 1947 In 1951 and agreement was signed between Governor General. KhowajaNazaim ud Din and Nawab of Bahawalpur According to this agreement the. status of Bahawalpur was elevated as an administrative province According to 1961. Census Report the population of Bahawalpur was 2 574 066 and the area was. 17 058 square miles Provincial elections were held in Bahawalpur in 1952 and. according to the results Muslim League won by majority Makhdoom Syed Hassan. Mahmood became the Chief Minister and Rt Chief justice Abdul Aziz was. appointed as Chairman Public Service Commission In the meantime a plan was laid. out for the One Unit System It was proposed to create parity among all the. administrative units According to the plan Bahawalpur was merged into One Unit. East Pakistan made One Unit and the West Pakistan including Punjab the then. NWFP Sindh and Bahawalpur become another unit At that time Balochistan was. not given the status of province From 1955 to 1970 Bahawalpur remained the part. of West Pakistan In 1970 General Yahya Khan abolished One Unit and Bahawalpur. was merged again into Punjab province 13 After that Saraiki language movement. was started by ten PPP governments 1975 in order to lower the intensity of the. original movement Kamal Omer s argued in 1975 the reaction of the Bahawalpur. movement was the Saraiki movement 14,198 Pakistan Vision Vol 18 No 1.
Intra Lingual Differences, The Saraiki speakers and its advocates of ethnic identity are of a strong view that. language is the base of their identity They also claim that long ago the rulers gave. Multan to Abbasis in 750 and Bahawalpur State was a part of Multan 15 Saraiki. language was a significant part of educational courses and the language used in lower. courts as well 16It was claimed by them that a huge number of Bahawalpur. SoobaMahazi e Bahawalpur Province movement 17 supporters had joined the party. that was striving for lingual identity of Southern Punjabis Pakistan Saraiki Party. PSP The word Saraikistan used by Riaz Hashmi for the first time was one of the. major example of Saraiki struggle The supporters of Bahawalpur SoobaMahazdo not. favour the creation of a province based on linguistic identity They are of the view. that before partition Bahawalpur was a princely state and acquired the status of a. separate state after acceding to Pakistan in 1947 This fact is claimed to be made the. basis of formation of a separate province of Bahawalpur 18. The supporters of Bahawalpur Province Movement are enthusiastic for their. cause but there are six or seven parties of which just one is registered and each party. bears many a difference with the others Since long these groups and parties have. been working independently with no relation to each other rendering themselves. unsuccessful in creating awareness among the local folks regarding their lingual. identity resulting in negligible amount of development in Saraiki ethnic movement. No political party except Pakistan Saraiki Party PSP received people s. authentication who supported other parties of national level. PSP failed to leave any impression in the elections of 2002 Taj M Langah form. NA 149 Multan II received 107 votes from NA 154 received 118 votes and from. 155 he got 2322 in an alliance 19 The president of the Saraiki Sooba Movement Pakistan. Malik Mumtaz Hussain Jai received only 348 votes 20The Saraiki identity s. movement is gaining momentum as the time passes According to the former. president of SLP Mazhar Nawaz Lashari Various ethno lingual factions focus on the. issue that their provinces must base on ethnic lingual cultural historical and. religious grounds The state s administrative inefficiency and economic undermining. led to a great amount of anger and discontent between the society and state Lack of. coordination and trust among these political groups has further delayed their. collective interest s progress Without the listening to the reservations of Saraikis. the government finds it difficult to form any policy. Demand of Saraiki Province after Dissolution of One Unit. It was the first ever Saraiki Nationalist movement initiated by Bahawalpur after. partition and it was considered the first effort to politicize the Saraiki ethnic identity. A renowned member of Anti One Unit Front and a Saraiki activist Riaz Hashmi. insisted to create Bahawalpur Province 21No doubt there was no ethno political. Issues of Ethnic Federalism in Pakistan A Case Study of Saraiki Belt 199. group in Punjab till 1969 But as the time passed the Saraiki movement grew up. with clearer objectives Unlike the Fazal e Akbar Committee had suggested i e to. form a fourth province based on Multan and Bahawalpur divisions One Unit was. abolished but it was merged within Punjab province 22 Multiple associations and. political groups were formed in reaction to regain the former status of Bahawalpur. State Most significant of the organizations was Bahawalpur MutihadaMuhaaz BMM. also called Bahawalpur United Front which remained successful in imparting. awareness regarding their distinct identity and rising large public processions In its. result the government started arresting the prominent leaders of this movement. which added to its popularity The Urdu speakers of that area also took part in the. movement Ch Farzand Ali Seth Ubaid ur Rehman Sardar Muhammad Khan Mian. Nizam ud Din Haier were some of the movement s leaders sent behind bars. Two were killed along with hundreds injured in result of police s firing in a. peaceful procession on April 24th 1970 the first clash between the government. agencies and Saraiki activists 23 The movement was countered to a state of calm by. the use of force The leaders were arrested and an inquiry was initiated which later. got rejected by BMM, Though failing to keep up its momentum the Saraiki ethnic identity s. movement made the actual sense of distinctiveness in the heart of people quite. clear So was proven by the winning of BMM against PPP during 1970 s general. elections The NA National Assembly as well received minimum votes for PPP in. Southern Punjab The detail is highlighted in the following table. District with low PPP voting the NA Election 24,No of Percentage of. Districts Constituencies Vote Polled for,No Constituencies. won by PPP PPP,1 Mianwali 02 Nil 5 5,2 Jhang 03 Nil 6 13.
3 D G Khan 02 Nil 19 74,4 MuzaffarGarrh 03 02 26 08. 5 Bahawalpur 02 Nil 16 17,6 Bahawalnagar 03 02 38 14. 7 Rahim Yar Khan 03 01 31 31, The table depicts that circumstances were not in thefavour of PPP against the. BMM The Saraiki people s mandate of their separate province was not accepted in. the LA Pakistan was dismembered and Bangladesh came into being after these. 200 Pakistan Vision Vol 18 No 1, elections and this became a reason that Bahawalpur Province movement diminished. As the Prince Saeed ul Rashid made it clear that there did not exist any priority for a. new province the Bahawalpur movement faded away completely in 1972 Later an. eminent leader of the movement Riaz Hashmi and Ubaid ur Rehman Seth. continued their efforts for Saraiki Province and joined PSP. Rise of Ethnic Conflict 2000 to 2013, The military took over in October 1999 ended all the activities of political.
parties Many a leaders of PONM was sent abroad Along with this the intra party. conflict and the lack of communication infected PONM The Saraiki activists. continued their pursuits from 2000 to 2013 with not a considerable participation in. the elections of 2002 Most significantly the Bahawalpur Province Movement Ali. Durrani a vocal and senator for reviving Bahawalpur s status as a separate. administrative unit There occurred only one violent clash between the authorities. and the activists but the tension grew graver and graver But now the Saraikis. consider the Bahawalpur Province Movement mere a tool of the government against. Saraiki Waseb The Saraikis do not accept the existence of two provinces within the. Saraiki belt and the resentment regarding this group on The contemporary PPP. government did not prefer to bear conflict with Southern Punjabis Yousaf Raza. Gillani the PM of PPP tried to console them by repeatedly addressing that PPP. government would not consider and creating a Saraiki province would be an integral. manifesto of their next election Based on the lingual and ethnic grounds the Saraiki. political organizations seek supper for their separate province as the state authorities. strive to avoid any incidents of violence, Some Causes of the Politicization of the Saraiki Conflict. According to an agreement the prominent leadership of various political parties. like PML N PPP and PML Q belonged to Saraiki Waseb Derivation and. destitution became the key factor leading towards the politicization of the Saraiki. ethnicity The contemporary study would clarify the actual picture of the issue. The Identity Question, The denial of recognition of Saraiki language gave birth to the issue of Saraiki. ethnic identity The Saraiki was for the first time incorporated by literacy and. linguistic personalities of Southern Punjab in1960 Introduction of the term Saraiki. as the name of a separate linguistic community was the first objective while

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