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CURRENT ISSUES IN COMPARATIVE EDUCATION,Volume 15 Issue 2 Spring 2013. Special Guest Editors,Dierdre Williams Open Society Foundations. Mark Ginsburg FHI 360,Executive Editor Dr Amra Sabic El Rayess. Co Managing Editors Samar Farah Laura Evers, Senior Editors Amy Crompton Darbi Roberts Marisol Vazquez Cuevas. Editors Esthella Kamara Amanda Witdarmono Rebecca Meade Marisol Vazquez Cuevas Emily. Richardson Kai Jia Esther Goh Jade Sharify,Web Editor Leonardo Franco.
Assistant Web Editors Jade Sharify Kai Jia Esther Goh. Copy Editors Amy Crompton Darbi Roberts Marisol Vazquez Cuevas Esthella Kamara. INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD, Michael Apple Mark Bray Michael Cross Suzanne Grant Lewis Noel McGinn Gary Natriello Harold. Noah Gita Steiner Khamsi Frances Vavrus, Unless otherwise noted copyrights for the texts which comprise all issues of Current Issues in. Comparative Education CICE are held by the journal The compilation as a whole is Copyright by. Current Issues in Comparative Education all rights reserved Items published by CICE may be freely. shared among individuals but they may not be republished in any medium without express written. consent from the author s and advance notification of the CICE editorial board. CICE holds exclusive rights in respect to electronic publication and dissemination The journal may not. be posted or in anyway mirrored on the world wide web or any other part of the Internet except at the. official publication site at Teachers College Columbia University CICE reserves the right to amend or. change this copyright policy For the most current version of this copyright policy please contact. cice tc columbia edu Questions about the journal s copyright policy should be directed to the Editorial. DISCLAIMER, The opinions and ideas expressed in the CICE are solely those held by the authors and are not necessarily. shared by the editors of the Journal Teachers College Columbia University CU as a publisher makes no. warranty of any kind either expressed or implied for information on its CICE Web site or in any issue of. CICE which are provided on an as is basis Teachers College CU does not assume and hereby disclaim. any liability to any party for any loss or damage resulting from the use of information on its CICE Web. site or in any issue of CICE,ACKNOWLEDGEMENT, The editors of this special issue wish to thank all those who responded to the call for proposals and shared. the rich and thought provoking work in which they are engaged We received over 45 submissions on a. range of geographies and topics Thanks also goes out to those who gave generously of their time serving. as peer reviewers including the graduate students at Teachers College under the guidance of Dr Amra. Sabic El Rayess Finally many thanks to the team of graduate students at Teachers College who. coordinated the publication of this special issue,2 Current Issues in Comparative Education.
Educating All to Struggle for Social Change and Transformation. Introduction to Case Studies of Critical Praxis,Special Guest Editors. Dierdre Williams Mark Ginsburg,Open Society Foundations FHI 360. Article 26 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights specifies that everyone has the. right to education United Nations 1948 1 A commitment to the universal right to education. mobilized various actors in 1990 to issue the World Declaration on Education for All EFA. which states that every person shall be able to benefit from educational opportunities. designed to meet their basic learning needs required by human beings to to live and work. in dignity and to improve the quality of their lives Inter Agency Commission 1990. Article I The universal right to education also motivated a similar set of actors in 2000 to. develop the Dakar Framework for Action Education for All Meeting our Collective. Commitments which re states a global commitment to the achievement of education for all. EFA goals and targets for every citizen and for every society UNESCO 2000 p 8. However recent reports monitoring progress toward achieving education for all by 2015 offer. sober assessments UNESCO 2012 p 4 indicates that on current trends the goal of universal. primary education UPE will be missed by a large margin Between 2008 and 2010 progress. stalled altogether UIS 2013 pp 1 3 reports that new data show that the world is unlikely. to get every child in school by 2015 Moreover there has been little progress in reducing. the rate at which children leave school before reaching the last grade of primary education. Additionally although the Dakar Framework for Action affirms that no countries seriously. committed to education for all will be thwarted in their achievement of this goal by lack of. resources UNESCO 2000 p 9 there is dispiriting evidence that the international community. has not lived up to this responsibility This is despite the fact that many low and middle income. countries have increasingly demonstrated their commitment to education for all According to. the EFA Global Monitoring Report UNESCO 2012, Among low and middle income countries with comparable data 63 have. increased the share of national income spent on education in the past decade. Coupled with economic growth and greater government capacity to raise revenue. this led to significant increases in total educational expenditure p 42. Just as a final push is needed to reach the Education for All goals by 2015. there are worrying signs that donor contributions may be slowing down More. money alone will not ensure that the EFA goals are reached but less money will. certainly be harmful 2 p 142, Global discussions about EFA goals for 2015 and more so global deliberations regarding post. 2015 education goals have moved beyond access to concerns about improving the quality of. 2012 Current Issues in Comparative Education Teachers College Columbia University ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Current Issues in Comparative Education 15 2 3 14, Educating All to Struggle for Social Change and Transformation.
education for those who gain access see UNESCO 2004 Both the 1990 and 2000 EFA. declarations gave attention to issues of educational quality 3 though in recent years quality. often has been defined narrowly in terms of performance on basic literacy and numeracy tests. As Education International 2012 pp 4 5 points out, Much attention in current post 2015 discussions is focused on a narrow view of. learning mainly testing in reading and mathematics This is a mistake. Evidence shows that other capabilities that foster innovation and build character. are also crucial education outcomes including creativity curiosity civic. mindedness solidarity self discipline self confidence compassion empathy. courage self awareness resilience leadership humility peace and more. That is unless the post 2015 discussion includes a broader conception of educational quality. schools will be emaciated spaces Jamil 2013 where children and youth mainly engage in. rote learning and memorization of content that is decontextualized from the realities of their. Of course there have been calls for broader views of education quality For instance Leon Tikly. and Angeline Barrett 2011 argue that quality education should be grounded in three dimensions. from a social justice perspective First they contend that quality education must provide learners. with access to quality inputs that facilitate the development of capabilities that they and their. communities have reason to value Second quality education must ensure that the outcomes of. education are meaningful and relevant for learners and their communities and consistent with. national priorities as well as a changing global context And third quality education must prepare. learners to meaningfully participate and have a voice not just in the classroom but also in. decisions at the local national and global levels, Defining education quality in this way moves us in the direction of engaging in a form of critical. praxis that is combining theory and practical action designed to promote social change or. transformation One of the central questions for educators concerned with critical praxis is. Education for what purpose This philosophical political and practical question gains. expression in sub fields within the field of education including multicultural education Banks. 2004 Banks Banks 2006 McLaren 1997 Sleeter 1996 citizenship education Biesta 2011. Kennedy 1997 Sehr 1997 education for social justice Anyon 2009 Ayers Quinn Stovall. 2009 critical education Apple Beane 2007 Apple Au Gandin 2009 critical pedagogy. Giroux McLaren 1989 Kirylo 2013 Weiler Mitchell 1992 and human rights education. Bajaj 2011 Taken in their richest forms these sub fields seek to break the tradition of. schooling that reproduces inequities inherent in wider society. Whether one adopts a human rights multicultural feminist post colonial ecological or socialist. stance it is clear that the world we live in requires change even transformation e g see Apple. 2013 Guajardo et al 2008 Kreisberg 1992 4 For instance Mark Ginsburg Steve Moseley. and Mary Joy Pigozzi 2010 pp 2 3 argue from a human rights perspective. Currently we are not living in a world where all people can realize the full range. of human rights including the right to education To contribute to building a. 4 Current Issues in Comparative Education,Williams and Ginsburg. world in which such rights are realized 5 educational system policies and. structures in all countries need to be transformed while at the same time the. content and processes of education have to be altered so they more effectively. contribute to economic political and social cultural transformation of local. national and global communities see also Bernstein Tarrow 1987 Spring 2000. Another example is provided by the words of bell hooks 1994 pp 11 12. My pedagogical practices have emerged from the mutually illuminating interplay. of anticolonial critical and feminist pedagogies I t has made it possible for. me to imagine and enact pedagogical practices that interrogat e biases in. curricula that reinscribe systems of domination such as racism and sexism while. simultaneously providing new ways to teach diverse groups of students The. classroom remains the most radical space of possibility in the academy I. celebrate teaching that enables transgressions a movement against and beyond. boundaries that makes education the practice of freedom. And Paulo Freire 1970 2000 p 51 draws on socialist and liberation theology perspectives to. articulate an approach labeled pedagogy of the oppressed. Reality which becomes oppressive results in the contradistinction of men as. oppressors and oppressed The latter s task is to struggle for their liberation. together with those who show true solidarity This can be done only by means. of the praxis reflection and action upon the world in order to transform it To. achieve this goal the oppressed must confront reality critically simultaneously. objectifying and acting upon that reality, We should remember however previous generations also posited that education can and should. be used as a vehicle for social transformation For example in his provocatively titled volume. Dare the Schools Build a New Social Order George Counts 1932 p 3 comments. We are convinced that education is the one unfailing remedy for every ill to which. we are subject whether it be war poverty injustice or race hatred. We even speak glibly and often about the general reconstruction of society. through the school We cling to this faith in spite of the fact that the very period in. which our troubles have multiplied so rapidly has witnessed an unprecedented. expansion of organized education, A year later in his book The Mis Education of the Negro Carter Woodson 1933 p 145.
poses and then answers the question about whether teachers can revolutionize the social. order But can we expect teachers to revolutionize the social order for the good of the. community Indeed we must expect this very thing The education system of a country is. worthless unless it accomplishes this task see also Apple 2013 p 42. Current Issues in Comparative Education 5, Educating All to Struggle for Social Change and Transformation. When engaging in critical praxis to foster social change and transformation educators need to. move beyond the classroom Ginsburg 1995 For example Nicholas Fox 2012 p 15 suggests. that classroom activities are not enough, As much as we talk politics with our students read political novels and highlight. the activism of the past the walls of the classroom present a problem for radical. teachers Our meetings host passionate discussions where students begin to tackle. assumptions dismantle ideas of privilege even critique capitalism But when. class ends what happens to the political fervor Where does that revolutionary. spark go Does it spread out into the streets Or does it end up at the bottom of. backpacks forgotten like last week s homework, Similarly Jean Anyon 2009 p 392 advises colleagues who are engaged in social justice. education not to limit their and their students actions to the context of the school. A lthough critical educators do well to share with students information about. systemic causes of subordination that is not enough to get students involved in. the struggle for social justice By giving students direct experience with social. justice work we can educate them to appreciate and value those forms of. democratic process that are aimed specifically at creating a more equitable. society public contention toward progressive social change. At the same time though many scholars have concluded that education institutions often play. the opposite role that is they contribute to economic political and social cultural reproduction. of existing human relations nationally see Bourdieu Passeron 1977 Morrow Torres. 1995 and internationally Brown Laudner 1997 Altbach Kelly 1978 Some researchers. have identified cases in which students or teachers resist these reproductive processes Ginsburg. 1995 Giroux 1983 Nevertheless education seems more often to be a reproductive force. providing unequal access to learning opportunities preserving structures that limit at least some. groups from realizing their human rights and transmitting ideologies that legitimate structures or. discourage people from trying to transform them Tomasevski 2006 The point is that education. is not neutral as Richard Schaul 1970 2000 p 34 so nicely articulates in his introduction to. Paulo Freire s volume Pedagogy of the Oppressed, There is no such thing as a neutral educational process Education either functions. as an instrument that is used to facilitate the integration of the younger generation. into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity to it or it becomes. the practice of freedom the means by which men and women deal critically and. creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of. their world, Recognizing that the content processes and outcomes of education are not neutral we have.
decided to focus this special issue of Current Issues in Comparative Education CICE on. education for social change and transformation We have sought to include in this volume case. studies that illuminate a range of initiatives in various educational programs and institutions and. in a variety of contexts,6 Current Issues in Comparative Education. Williams and Ginsburg, Giving attention to these case studies is important because critical educators often toil in. isolation or with support from only a few colleagues striving for change one lesson one. student one classroom one school or one community at a time They refuse to accept the idea. that the is ness of our present condition makes us incapable of striving for the eternal ought. ness that confronts us King Jr 2001 Educators laboring to promote change and. transformation through education represent possibilities for wider systemic change at the. national regional and global levels working from the bottom up. These case studies illuminate different conceptions of how education can be used to promote. progressive social change and indeed signal different notions of what progressive social. change means Each of the case studies also illustrates some degree of success in achieving. program goals while simultaneously identifying the challenges faced by those involved Their. stories encourage us to remember that critical praxis is both absolutely essential and profoundly. In her article Theatre Arts Pedagogy for Social Justice Anne Hickling Hudson analyzes the. socio educational significance of a theatre arts approach to learning for young adults from less. privileged communities in Jamaica She discusses how the pedagogy employed by the Area. Youth Foundation AYF in its workshops rehearsals and performances is a form of critical. praxis informed by Paulo Freire s pedagogy of the oppressed and Augusto Boal s theatre of the. oppressed Based on interviews with AYF s leader and some of the participants Anne describes. how violence and oppressive conditions become the focus of their critical analysis and their. artistic expression The workshops provide space for sharing and analyzing their personal stories. which subsequently inform the content of plays and other public performances She documents. the powerful impact that the AYF experience has in developing the participants humanist. epistemic technical and public literacies Many of the youth acquire knowledge and skills that. are not available through the formal education system in Jamaica and that open up career. opportunities Equally important they also gain deeper understandings of their social context. learn strategies for reducing inter group antagonism and violence and develop commitments to. challenge injustices in their society, In her article Promoting Change within the Constraints of Conflict Karen Ross explores the. approach to transformative education utilized by Sadaka Reut a binational civil society. organization in Israel that works with Jewish and Palestinian youth She draws on interviews and. observations focused mainly on activities organized for Jewish Israeli youth prior to their. involvement in joint activities with their Palestinian Israeli peers She describes how the program. seeks to educate youth for social change by using their personal experiences as the basis for. initiating discussion and then guiding participants to see broader cultural and structural features. of society in which these personal experiences are embedded She presents qualitative evidence. that the youth develop more complex and critical views of their lived experiences though it is. less clear to what extent they develop the commitment and capability to pursue cultural and. structural changes that seem warranted given their emergent critiques of society Karen also calls. attention to the dilemma faced by Sadaka Reut In order to attract participation from a broad. group of Jewish Israelis the staff Jewish as well as Palestinian Israelis have felt the need to. organize many of the activities separately for Jewish and Palestinian Israeli youth and to create a. Current Issues in Comparative Education 7, Educating All to Struggle for Social Change and Transformation. public image of the organization as not focused solely on the Jewish Palestinian conflict or on. binational partnership as a strategy for change, In their article Promoting Civic Engagement in Schools in Non Democratic Settings.
Maryam Abolfazli and Maryam Alemi analyze the Online School of Civic Education This. initiative funded by the U S government and organized by an NGO based in the United States. seeks to encourage teachers in Iran to exchange ideas toward changing their classroom practices. to encourage students active learning reflection and critical thinking on topics in civic. education The authors state that Iranian authorities define citizenship as devotion to religious. ideology and obedience to political religious elites The article indicates that the participants in. the Online School courses are diverse in terms of their ethnic religious identities their. geographic locations and the subjects they teach We learn that pedagogical strategies. encouraged by the project organizers or shared by on line participants are implemented with. varying degrees of success It appears that teachers participating in the course are enthusiastic. about the strategies they learn and they report that many of their students appreciate the different. way of being involved in the classroom Given the nature of the case study presented however it. is not clear in what ways the Iranian students experience in the particular class affect what they. try to do in other classes they have let alone whether the experience leads them to act differently. in their families and communities, In their article Teacher Education for Social Change Scott Ritchie Neporcha Cone Sohyun. An and Patricia Bullock present findings from a qualitative practitioner research case study. undertaken at a large public university in the southeastern United States The authors report on. their efforts as faculty members teaching four content methods courses language arts. mathematics science and social studies to a cohort of 16 primary school teacher education. students in the semester prior to their student teaching They designed the class sessions. readings and field experiences of these courses to emphasize social justice dimensions of. teaching rather than just focusing on skills and strategies Drawing on focus group interviews. class discussions and students written reflections on readings and field assignments the authors. indicate that students from a politically conservative community came to recognize the racial and. social class inequities in American society and the role that teaching and schooling can play to. reinforce or reduce these inequities The participating students also began to consider what. actions they could take as teachers to improve things at least for their own students The. authors however acknowledge that while their collaboration with the four courses likely. increased the impact of their teachings compared to prior more isolated efforts there was a. need for a more comprehensive approach in the College and in the schools where field. experiences occur This would reinforce students commitment and capacity to pursue social. change in their classrooms and perhaps within the community at least locally. In their article focused on Re framing Re imagining and Re tooling Curricula from the. Grassroots Isaura B Pulido Gabriel Alejandro Cortez Ann Aviles de Bradley Anton. Miglietta and David Stovall explore the work of the Chicago Grassroots Curriculum Taskforce. CGCT This group based in the city of Chicago in the United States produces curricula that. more adeptly capture the cultural economic and political realities of students who attend the. city s public schools As members of the CGCT the coauthors examine the collaborative. processes involving parents teachers students community members activists and educational. 8 Current Issues in Comparative Education,Williams and Ginsburg. researchers to produce CGTC s first unit Urban Renewal or Urban Removal A series of. meetings and workshops involving more than 155 people resulted in a unit curriculum map. content outline essential questions key projects and learning activities Subsequently 22. classroom educators 20 artists 18 displaced residents 15 college students 12 high school. students five housing activists and four university faculty contributed poems stories and. visuals for the unit The article also explores how faculty members and students in the College of. Education at Northeastern Illinois University became involved in the CGCT For example. courses in the teacher education and administrator education program made use of and extended. the content of the Urban Renewal and Urban Removal unit The article does not document. how the experiences may have changed participants perspectives let alone how they may have. become involved in collective action aimed at changing the conditions of life in inner city. Chicago However it does provide evidence that people can be mobilized to discuss and reflect. critically on aspects of their context in ways that likely not only increased their insights but also. challenged at least some of their assumptions about why things are the way they are. In their article Education Community Dialogue towards Building a Policy Agenda for Adult. Education Tatiana Lotierzo Hirano Giovanna Mod Magalh es Camilla Croso Laura. Giannecchini and Fab ola Munhoz share the experience of the Amplifying Voices initiative. This initiative which is organized by the Latin American Campaign for the Right to Education. conducts interviews with students involved in adult education programs in a range of countries in. Latin America and the Caribbean Their stories their concerns and their program and policy. advice are then uploaded to a website as well as presented to policy makers and other. stakeholders at various public events The article presents excerpts from rich narratives elicited. via interviews It is clear that those whose voices have been recorded and broadcast value. education very deeply and also have cogent recommendations for how adult education could be. improved for them and for others who did not benefit fully from schooling as children Less clear. for readers is how their voices are heard by decision makers and how the structured reflection on. their personal experience encourages those interviewed to become more active in individual or. collective struggles to improve the education system and the political and economic institutions. that affect their lives, In their article Chilean Student Movements Cristi n Bellei and Cristian Cabalin examine. two recent mobilizations initiated by students in Chile that challenged the neoliberal education. policies of that country They discuss the 2006 Penguin Revolution led by secondary school. students and the issues and events of the 2011 Chilean Winter led by university students In. both cases the students and later other societal actors protested the extreme degree of. privatization and marketization of the Chilean educational system In this article we learn little. about how and why students came to critique these aspects of the education system which. survived and indeed were strengthened after the end of the Pinochet dictatorship However. Bellei and Cabalin inform us about how the activist students used a variety of strategies and. media to educate and mobilize others to join marches rallies and other forms of political action. We also come to see how governing elites were forced to act although such actions did not fully. respond to the demands of the protesters The article helps us understand how students can be. highly relevant political actors in educational as well as broader social policy debates. Current Issues in Comparative Education 9, Educating All to Struggle for Social Change and Transformation. Often academic spaces fail to make room for voices of practitioners or activists So it is. significant that this special issue of an open access journal presents a collection of voices of. academics practitioners and activists The voices highlighted through these case studies are. significant in two main senses First they underscore a conception of education as a holistic. endeavor that engages both the learning institution as well as the community in which it is. embedded The successes as well as the challenges inherent in these initiatives highlight the need. for coalition and consensus building within learning institutions as well as between those who. are involved in these institutions and others who live and work in the surrounding communities. Second the inclusion of this range of actors recognizes the importance of allowing voices to. speak that are ordinarily unheard excluded or silenced in debates about schooling for. instance about how best to educate all not just some in our societies. By broadcasting the voices of those directly engaged in the struggle to improve conditions we. make important strides towards breaking down barriers that separate people we connect the. disparate threads of endeavors aimed at a common purpose and we illuminate possibilities for. larger scale change that is informed from the bottom up By capturing the rich complexity of. these small stories we answer the call by Apple et al 2007 to serve as critical educators by. challenging what counts as research through acting as secretaries to those groups of people. or social movements who are engaged in challenging structural inequalities. 1 As Spring 2000 and Tomasevski 2006 detail the idea that education is a human right has. been reaffirmed subsequently in other international declarations covenants and conventions. including the UNESCO Convention Against Discrimination in Education 1960 the. International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights 1966 the Convention on. the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women 1981 the Convention on. the Rights of the Child 1989, 2 Additionally the Report indicates that the private sector is not making a significant.
contribution Private organizations contribute to EFA in several ways but their support. is equivalent to 5 of what was spent by official donors on education in 2010 and of that. only a small share is spent on EFA priorities UNESCO 2012 p 169 see also van Fleet. 3 For instance Article III Universalizing Access and Promoting Equity of the Jomtien World. Declaration on Education for All states Basic education should be provided to all children. youth and adults To this end basic education services of quality should be expanded and. consistent measures must be taken to reduce disparities Inter Agency Commission 1990. And point seven of the Dakar Framework for Action identifies as a commitment ensuring. that by 2015 all children particularly girls children in difficult circumstances and those. belonging to ethnic minorities have access to and complete free and compulsory primary. education of good quality UNESCO 2000, 4 However Patti Lather 2001 p 192 encourages critical educators to avoid assuming that. existing conceptualizations provide a definite portrait of the nature of the transformed. society As an arena of practice critical pedagogy might serve a transvaluation of praxis if it. can find a way to participate in the struggle of these forces as we move toward an experience. of the promise that is unforseeable from the perspective of our present conceptual. frameworks Similarly Guajardo et al 2008 p 16 suggest that we must be patient with. 10 Current Issues in Comparative Education,Williams and Ginsburg. people respect them and meet them where they are as Myles Horton Adams Horton. 1975 professed We see this change as a long sustained effort where the work must focus on. both micro and macro levels we work for local change but a change that is couched in. broader social cultural and economic contexts, 5 Human rights can be grouped in the following categories see also Marshall 1964. economic welfare rights political civil rights and social cultural rights see Ginsburg et al. Dierdre Williams is a Program Officer in the Education Support Program Open Society. Foundations She is responsible for critical thinking and education quality initiatives She holds. a Ph D in International Education Policy from the University of Maryland at College Park. E mail dierdre williams opensocietyfoundations org. Mark Ginsburg is a Senior Technical Advisor for Research Evaluation and Teacher Education. in the Global Learning Group at FHI 360 formerly the Academy for Educational Development. and Visiting Scholar in the International Education Program at the University of Maryland. Until recently he was a coeditor of the Comparative Education Review 2003 2013 and served. as President of the Comparative and International Education Society 1990 1991 He has. published extensively on topics of teachers teacher education globalization education and. social reproduction transformation policy institutional reform and policy practice oriented. research and evaluation E mail mginsburg fhi360 org. References, Adams F Horton M 1975 Unearthing seeds of fire The idea of Highlander Winston. Salem NC John F Blair, Altbach P Kelly G 1978 Education and colonialism New York Longman.
Anyon J 2009 Critical pedagogy is not enough Social justice education political. participation and the politicization of students In M Apple W Au L A Gandin Eds The. Routledge international handbook of critical education pp 389 395 New York Routledge. Apple M 2013 Can education change society Du Bois Woodson and the politics of social. transformation Review of Education 1 1 32 56, Apple M Au W Gandin L A 2009 Mapping critical education In M Apple W Au. L A Gandin Eds The Routledge international handbook of critical education pp 3 20 New. York Routledge, Apple M Beane J A Eds 2007 Democratic schools Lessons in powerful education. Portsmouth NH Heinemann, Ayers W Quinn T Stovall D Eds 2009 Handbook of social justice in education New. York Routledge,Current Issues in Comparative Education 11. Educating All to Struggle for Social Change and Transformation. Bajaj M 2011 Schooling for social change The rise and impact of human rights education in. India New York London Continuum Publishers, Banks J A 2004 Democratic citizenship education in multicultural societies In J A Banks.
Ed Diversity and citizenship education Global perspectives San Francisco CA Jossey Bass. Banks J Banks C 2006 Multicultural education Issues and perspectives 6th edition. Hoboken NJ John Wiley Sons, Bernstein Tarrow N Ed 1987 Human rights and education New York Pergamon Press. Biesta G J J 2011 Learning democracy in school and society Education lifelong learning. and the politics of citizenship Rotterdam Sense Publishers. Bourdieu P Passeron J C 1977 Reproduction in education society and culture Beverly. Hills Sage Publications, Brown P Lauder H 1996 Education globalization and economic development In A. Halsey H Lauder P Brown A Wells Eds Education culture economy and society pp. 172 192 New York Oxford University Press, Counts G S 1932 Dare the schools build a new social order New York The John Day. Education International 2012 Education for all and the global development agenda beyond. 2015 Principles for a post 2015 education and development framework Brussels Education. International Retrieved from http educationincrisis net resources ei studies item 855. education for all and the global development agenda beyond 2015. Fox N 2012 Teaching is not activism Radical Teacher 94 14 23. Freire P 1970 2000 Pedagogy of the oppressed Trans Myra Ramos New York. Ginsburg M Ed 1995 The politics of educators work and lives New York Garland. Ginsburg M Moseley S Pigozzi M J 2010 Introduction Reforming education for. transformation Opportunities and challenges Development 53 4 451 456. Giroux H 1983 Theory and resistance in education A pedagogy for the opposition South. Hadley MA Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Giroux H McLaren P Eds 1989 Critical pedagogy the state and cultural struggle. Albany NY SUNY Press,12 Current Issues in Comparative Education.
Williams and Ginsburg, Guajardo M Guajardo F Casaperalta E C 2008 Transformative education Chronicling. a pedagogy for social change Anthropology and Education Quarterly 39 1 3 22. hooks b 1994 Teaching to transgress Education as the practice of freedom London. Inter Agency Commission 1990 World declaration on education for all Document adopted. by the World Conference on Education for All Meeting Basic Learning Needs Jomtien. Thailand 5 9 March 1990 New York Inter Agency Commission. Jamil B R 2013 Quality in the classroom A conference on school education Keynote. address at the Quality in the Classroom Conference on School Education Kathmandu. Kennedy K Ed 1997 Citizenship education and the modern state London Falmer Press. King M L Jr 2001 Acceptance address for the Nobel Peace Prize In C Carson K. Shepard Eds A call to conscience The landmark speeches of Dr Martin Luther King Jr pp. 101 110 New York Warner Books, Kirylo J 2013 A critical pedagogy of resistance 34 pedagogues we need to know Rotterdam. Sense Publishers, Kreisberg S 1992 Transforming power Domination empowerment and education Albany. NY State University of New York Press, Lather P 2001 Ten years later yet again Critical pedagogies and its complicities In K. Weiler Ed Feminist engagements Reading resisting and revisioning male theorists in. education and cultural studies pp 183 196 New York Routledge. Marshall T H 1964 Class citizenship and social development Essays by T H Marshall. New York Doubleday Co Inc, McLaren P 1997 Revolutionary multiculturalism Pedagogies of dissent for the new.
millennium Boulder CO Westview Press, Morrow R Torres C 1995 Social theory and education Critique of theories of social and. cultural reproduction Albany State University of New York Press. Schaul R 1970 2000 Introduction In Paulo Freire Author Pedagogy of the oppressed. Trans Myra Ramos New York Continuum, Sehr D 1997 Education for public democracy Albany NY State University of New York. Sleeter C 1996 Multicultural education as social activism Albany NY State University. of New York Press,Current Issues in Comparative Education 13. Educating All to Struggle for Social Change and Transformation. Spring J 2000 The universal right to education Justification definition and guidelines. Mahwah New Jersey Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Tikly L Barrett A M 2011 Social justice capabilities and the quality of education in low. income countries International Journal of Educational Development 31 3 14. Tomasevski K 2006 Human rights obligations in education The 4 A scheme Nijmegen. Netherlands Wolf Legal Publishers, United Nations 1948 Universal declaration of human rights Retrieved from.
http www un org en documents udhr, UNESCO 2000 The Dakar framework for action Education for all Meeting our collective. commitments Text adopted by the World Education Forum Dakar Senegal 26 28 April Paris. UNESCO 2004 Education for all The quality imperative EFA Global Monitoring Report. 2005 Paris UNESCO, UNESCO 2012 Financing education for all In EFA Global Monitoring Report 2012 Youth. and Skills Putting Education to Work pp 138 169 Paris UNESCO. UNESCO Institute for Education Center for Universal Education Brookings Institution. 2013 Toward universal learning What every child should learn Report of the Learning. Metrics Task Force Washington DC Center for Universal Education Brookings Institution. Retrieved from, http www brookings edu media Research Files Reports 2013 02 learning 20metrics LMTF. Rpt1TowardUnivrslLearning pdf, UNESCO Institute for Statistics UIS 2013 EFA global monitoring report Policy Paper 9. Schooling for millions of children jeopardized by reductions in aid Montreal UIS. van Fleet J 2011 A global education challenge Harnessing corporate philanthropy to. educate the world s poor Working Paper No 4 Washington DC Center for Universal. Education Brookings Institution Retrieved from, http www brookings edu media Files rc reports 2011 04 corporate philanthropy fleet 04 co.
rporate philanthropy fleet pdf, Weiler K Mitchell C Eds 1992 What schools do Critical pedagogy and practice. Albany NY SUNY Press, Woodson C 1933 2010 The mis education of the Negro Las Vegas CreateSpace. 14 Current Issues in Comparative Education,Theatre Arts Pedagogy for Social Justice. Case Study of the Area Youth Foundation in Jamaica. Anne Hickling Hudson,Queensland University of Technology Australia. In this paper I describe and analyse the socio educational significance of a. theatre arts approach to learning for young adults in Jamaica implemented by. the Area Youth Foundation AYF Briefly outlining the genesis and development. of the AYF I provide snapshots of the experiences and destinations of some of its. young participants The paper discusses AYF workshops to show how the. pedagogy was shaped by the expressive arts and based on the critical praxis. approach systematized by Paulo Freire in adult education and Augusto Boal in. theatre Based on interviews with AYF s leader and some of the learners I. discuss how the foundation s motto Youth Empowerment Through the Arts is. played out in workshops and creative productions that are simultaneously. learner driven and teacher guided with the powerful impact of inspiring. politically thoughtful creativity and skills in youths from less privileged. communities, This paper is a case study of a theatre arts approach to learning for young adults in Jamaica.
implemented by the Area Youth Foundation AYF a non profit non government organisation. The essay is based on qualitative methods that describe and reflect on the socio educational. significance of the pedagogy and learning practised in AYF Following a case study approach. proposed by Robert Yin 1984 I study the phenomenon within its real life context when the. boundaries between phenomenon and context are fluid using multiple sources of evidence I first. set the Jamaican context that frames the work and development of the AYF The content of the. case is drawn from information that I obtained from AYF participants students and the. executive director leader through semi structured interviews conversations and observation of. their workshops and rehearsals Themes that arose from the transcribed material are described. and analysed I relate this to my theoretical understandings of literacies Hickling Hudson 2007. and Freirean pedagogy Hickling Hudson 1988 and I apply these to explore the significance of. the work of AYF, Stating my background in the tradition of qualitative research I start by indicating that I was. introduced to the AYF by Sheila Lowe Graham a Jamaican friend and colleague who. established AYF and leads the implementation of its work Over several visits to Jamaica. between 2000 and 2012 I was excited to see more of the work of the group for it seemed to be. establishing the kind of alternative approach to education that I knew was desperately needed. My interest in this field stems from my Caribbean origins upbringing and experience as an. educator working in the 1970s and 1980s in the less privileged schools teachers colleges and. adult education programs in Jamaica and Grenada see Evans 2009 Hickling Hudson 1995. My commitment gradually became one of developing a postcolonial approach to curriculum. 2012 Current Issues in Comparative Education Teachers College Columbia University ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Current Issues in Comparative Education 15 2 15 34.

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