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WIPO MAGAZINE No 6 December 2014, p 2 Pioneers of blue LEDs dazzle Nobel Committee Editor Catherine Jewell. Graphic Designer Annick Demierre, p 8 Consumers understand IP is the key to innovation. p 11 Navigating driverless cars,p 15 Commercializing IP changing academic. mindsets in the Philippines, p 19 The threat of signal piracy to broadcasters serving. minority communities,p 22 IP and sports a winning formula.
p 26 IPAN improving IP awareness in the UK,Front cover. Acknowledgements Sports events generate a deep rooted. p 2 Matthew Bryan PCT Legal Division WIPO Mosahid Khan emotional response among the public. and Hao Zhou Economics and Statistics Division WIPO and making them a high value business. Jonah Asher WIPO Japan Office proposition when supported by a strong. p 8 Marco Aleman and Tomoko Miyamoto Patent Law Division WIPO intellectual property legal framework. p 15 Andrew Czajkowski Access to Information Photo iStock franckreporter. and Knowledge Division WIPO, pp 19 22 Carole Croella Copyright Law Division WIPO World Intellectual. p 26 Yoshiyuki Takagi Global Infrastructure Sector WIPO Property Organization. p 2 2014 6,PIONEERS OF,dazzle Nobel Committee,By Catherine Jewell. Communications Division,WIPO MAGAZINE p 3,Photo iStock pawel gaul. Incandescent light,bulbs had lit the,20 th century the.
21st century will be,lit by LED lamps,Swedish Academy. of Sciences,p 4 2014 6,active layer, Illustration Johan Jarnestad The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. anode cathode,p electrode n electrode post,Zinc doped InGaN. Photos Swedish Academy of Sciences,GaN Buffer Layer. Sapphire Substrate, A light emitting diode consists of several Blue light emitting diodes LEDs are firmly embedded in our daily lives They backlight.
layers an n type layer with a surplus of the screens of mobile phones TVs and computers they illuminate homes streets. negative electrons and a p type layer with, an insufficient amount of electrons also and vehicles and are used in an impressive array of other applications from Blu ray. referred to as a layer with a surplus of positive discs and traffic lights to digital communication and dentistry This high quality source. holes Between them lies an active layer to of light offers significant economic social and environmental benefits Some have. which the negative electrons and the positive, holes are driven when an electric voltage is put the impact of blue LEDs on a par with the transformations brought about by the. applied to the semiconductor When electrons invention of the traditional incandescent light bulb in the early 20th century Others. and holes meet they recombine and light have heralded blue LEDs as the most successful semiconductor material of the 21st. is created The light s wavelength depends, on the semiconductor blue appears at the century So it seems only fitting that this year s Nobel Prize for Physics an accolade. short wave end of the rainbow and can only that recognizes an invention of great benefit to humanity has been awarded to its. be produced using certain materials inventors Professor Isamu Akasaki Meijo University and Nagoya University Japan. Professor Hiroshi Amano Nagoya University Japan and Professor Shuji Nakamura. University of California Santa Barbara USA, Their seminal work in the mid 1980s sparked an intensification of research and devel. opment in the field triggering a surge in patent filings as well as the rapid evolution of. the technology the emergence of a global multi billion dollar industry and numerous. far reaching social and environmental benefits,BREAKTHROUGHS SPAWN FIERCE BUSINESS RIVALRY.
In the early years the two companies responsible for initially commercializing the. technology Toyoda Gosei with whom Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano worked in. partnership and Nichia Corporation Shuri Nakamura s employer at the time domi. nated the lucrative market for blue LEDs The two companies locked horns in a fierce. business rivalry as each fought for pole position Despite multiple rounds of litigation. over patent rights which ultimately resulted in a comprehensive cross licensing. agreement their race for market dominance fuelled the technology s rapid advance. as each sought to outdo the other by producing brighter higher quality blue LEDs. WIPO MAGAZINE p 5,The inventions of,this year s Physics. Nobel Prize winners,have revolutionized,lighting technology. LEDs are extremely,flexible sources,of light capable of. producing many,different colors at,varying intensities. as required Breakthroughs in blue LED technology and its commercialization coincided with the. growing popularity and explosive demand for mobile phones and liquid crystal displays. Huge sales and even bigger profits transformed the fortunes of both companies as. well as those of Nagoya University Thanks to Japan s adoption of a law akin to the. US Bayh Dole Act whereby universities gained ownership of patents deriving from. government funded research Nagoya University was able to generate significant. licensing revenue from its blue LED related patents New market entrants including. manufacturers of consumer electronics e g Philips and Samsung and innovative. lighting solutions e g Cree and Osram seeking to tap into the technology s huge. commercial potential added further impetus bringing about multiple advances in. performance and an expanding range of applications which go far beyond those of. conventional light sources,LED TECHNOLOGY IN A NUTSHELL.
A LED is a solid state lighting solution Unlike traditional incandescent bulbs where. light is produced by heating a filament a LED consists of several layers of man made. semiconductor material which through a process of electroluminescence converts. electricity into light particles photons The wave length of the light generated by a. LED its color depends on the semiconductor material used blue light which ap. pears at the short wave end of the spectrum and which is required to create white. light can only be produced using certain materials. A white LED can be made either by mixing several colored LEDs or by using blue. LED with a type of phosphor to create light that is white in appearance A white. LED bulb currently converts around 50 percent of the energy it uses into light. compared to just 5 percent in an incandescent bulb This makes it an increasingly. favored energy efficient and environmentally friendly source of high quality light. A LITTLE LED HISTORY, Red and greens LEDs invented in the 1950s and 1960s were created using galli. um arsenide phosphide a material which proved unsuitable for creating blue LEDs. Recognizing the huge technological and commercial potential of blue LEDs which. would complete the palate of colors red green and blue required to make white. light leading industrial labs invested significant time and resources into developing. them but to no avail Harnessing the properties of the material gallium nitride GaN. which is the basis for growing and mass producing the crystals needed to efficiently. generate high quality blue LEDs proved difficult It took some 30 years to crack the. process Researchers faced three key challenges how to create high quality crystals. using GaN how to change their conductivity and how to boost their light emitting. properties, The lack of progress in working with the material caused many to abandon GaN. research in favor of other seemingly more promising materials But Isamu Akasaki. Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura remained convinced that GaN would yield the. results they sought Their dogged determination eventually paid off enabling them to. succeed where others had failed,p 6 2014 6,LEDs use less power. Illustration Johan Jarnestad The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. to emit light than,traditional lighting 300 lm W,sources As around. one quarter of the,world s electricity,consumption is used.
for lighting energy,Photo Swedish Academy of Sciences. efficient LED light 70 lm W,sources can support,efforts to tackle. climate change,OIL LAMP LIGHT BULB FLUORESCENT LAMP LED. approx 15 000 B C 19th century 20th century 21st century. of LED lighting the technology has the potential to reduce. A NEW LED IS BORN, annual energy costs by USD53 billion according to a recent. In 1986 Isamu Akasaki and his then doctoral student Hiroshi PricewaterhouseCoopers report http tinyurl com optdh6k. Amano were the first to produce and patent high quality blue. LEDs US Patent 4855249 The following year they went into LED technology is also being used within the healthcare sector. partnership with Toyoda Gosei Corporation under a project to help reduce energy costs and inhibit the spread of infections. funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency JST to within hospitals Its use in managing pain insomnia and various. further develop GaN related blue LEDs Toyoda Gosei began behavioral disorders and illnesses including Alzheimer s is. commercial production of its blue LEDs in 1995 also being explored. Independently of the Nagoya researchers Shuji Nakamura It also holds promise in alleviating the broadband crunch re. then employed by Nichia Corporation began developing his sulting from current mass data usage LiFi the latest technique. own blue LEDs US Patent 5290393 and the techniques and in the field of optical wireless communications focuses on. processes for their large scale production In November 1993 establishing communication links via LED lighting networks a. Nichia became the first company to commercially produce report by the technology consultancy iRunway explains http. high quality blue LEDs tinyurl com muz9crg, A year later drawing on its chemical expertise Nichia produced.
A FERTILE ENVIRONMENT FOR PATENTS, the world s first white LEDs by combining yttrium aluminium. garnet phosphor with blue LEDs US Patent No 5998925 The Japanese born scientists groundbreaking work sparked. These breakthrough developments spawned the growth of a renewed global interest in blue LEDs and a surge in patenting. multi billion dollar global industry and triggered a seismic shift activity Patents continue to be an important means by which. in the traditional lighting sector companies involved in the development and production of LEDs. are able to protect their intellectual property IP rights and their. market position Patents are very important because they give. MULTIPLE BENEFITS WIDE RANGING APPLICATIONS, companies a competitive advantage in the marketplace notes. White LED light bulbs are a high quality energy efficient and Professor Nakamura. environmentally friendly light source They are around 20 times. more efficient than conventional bulbs generating around 300 A recent study by iRunway found that since the early 1990s in the. lumens per watt a 40 watt incandescent bulb produces US alone around 22 662 patents have been granted in the LED. just 450 lumens with a lifespan of around 100 000 hours field 17 869 of those relating to LED technology and 4 793 of. compared to around 1 200 hours for an incandescent bulb them relating to the application of the technology The breadth. They can also operate using cheap local solar power making and complexity of technologies and applications of LED and. it possible to light up the lives of over 1 5 billion people who the innovation needed to bring them all together have resulted. currently lack access to electricity grids in aggressive patenting activity over the years the study notes. As lighting accounts for around 20 percent of the world s elec. PATENT LITIGATION IS COMMON, tricity consumption around 6 percent of greenhouse gas emis. sions the widespread uptake of LED bulbs promises to signifi Patent litigation is a common feature of the LED sector In. cantly reduce global electricity consumption In the US alone if the early days Nichia Corporation and Toyoda Gosei set the. energy usage for lighting is cut by 40 percent with the uptake tone suing and counter suing each other in some 10 LED. WIPO MAGAZINE p 7, patent related lawsuits over six years From 1996 to 2010 168 competition between inventors or the advancement of science. LED related patent lawsuits were filed worldwide according and technology explains Professor Yasumasa Iwatani a close. a 2013 paper by Amy J C Trappey et al in the International colleague of Professor Akasaki at Meijo University. Journal of Automation and Smart Technology www ausmt org. The LED sector remains in active litigation mode with major. BLUE LEDS AND THE PCT, players currently involved in almost three active litigations per.
company according to iRunway A significant number of GaN based LED patent applications. as well as key pioneering patents filed by this year s laureates. have passed through WIPO s Patent Cooperation Treaty PCT. LICENSING AGREEMENTS, This is a cost effective mechanism for applicants individuals. Licensing and cross licensing agreements remain the means companies or universities seeking patent protection in multiple. by which many patent disputes are settled within the industry countries The advantage of the PCT is that it is easy to expand. Patent licensing has been one of the leading impetuses for the patent right to other countries in order to protect the right of. international technology transfer Amy Trappey et al note the inventor notes Nagoya University s Hiroshi Amano. Patent licensing deals however also enable companies in a University technologies are generally very early stage The PCT. competitive market to avoid patent infringement and costly is critical for these early stage technologies because it gives us. litigation Toyoda Gosei for example has from the outset been the opportunity to protect our patents globally while allowing. favorably disposed to licensing its technologies to other com the market and the technology to mature further before deter. panies The company is currently licensing in collaboration with mining which countries might be most valuable to commercial. its international partners a white light technology patent using partners Professor Nakamura explains. blue LED and silicate phosphor to over 30 LED manufacturers. according to a recent report by LEDinside www ledinside com A simple search of WIPO s Patentscope a free public database. hosting over 43 million patent applications for GaN related. While the most basic LED patents are currently controlled by blue LED patent applications indicates that over 8 250 interna. key industry players Philips Nichia Osram Toyoda Gosei and tional applications were filed during the period 2004 to 2013. Cree enabling them to effectively control the industry supply A similar search revealed that Professors Nakamura Akasaki. chain and making it difficult for new market entrants many of and Amano have filed 207 65 and 53 patent applications re. these patents including US Patent 5998925 relating to white spectively over the years. LED manufacture are due to lapse in the coming years signal. ing potential changes to LED market dynamics and structure The pioneering achievements of Professors Akasaki Amano. and Nakamura are transforming the global lighting industry. and have given rise to a broad range of applications in other. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, areas including consumer electronics Incandescent light. Patents continue to be instrumental in transferring technology bulbs had lit the 20th century the 21st century will be lit by LED. within and across the industry through licensing and cross lamps notes the Swedish Academy of Sciences LED lights. licensing agreements They also enable the transfer of technol are fast becoming the lighting source of choice By 2020 LED. ogy from university research labs to industry For example as bulbs are expected to occupy around 70 percent of the lighting. holders of patents covering their breakthrough blue LED tech market the value of which is expected to rise to EUR83 billion. nology Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano at Nagoya University Mckinsey 2012 The impact of the achievements of this year s. were able to license it to their industrial partner Toyoda Gosei Nobel Physics laureates is far reaching and dramatic promising. By 2006 Nagoya University s GaN related blue LED licensing significant environmental benefits on top of significant energy. revenue rose to around JPY5 6 billion around USD48 million and cost savings The on going technological and commercial. in today s money representing at the time around 90 percent dynamism of the sector suggests that the party is far from over. of royalties from government held patents These revenues It may have only just begun. have funded the establishment of the University s cutting edge. semiconductor research facility Patents give universities. a mechanism for transferring technologies they develop to the. market through appropriate commercial partners This way. important university innovations can be turned into products. that will benefit society Without the competitive advantage that. patents offer companies would not have the same motivation to. commercialize these products explains Professor Nakamura. Through the patent system inventors and companies are able. to retain exclusive rights to their inventions for a certain period. of time which allows them to present these inventions to the. world via academic conferences and scientific papers Without. the patent system I believe there would be no room for friendly. p 8 2014 6,Consumers understand IP is,THE KEY TO,INNOVATION By Don Rosenberg. Legal Counsel,Qualcomm Corp USA, The state of innovation in our global economy is strong For now. Around the world everyone loves and praises innovation Corporations and govern. ments marketers and educators promote it as the key to survival and prosperity. For consumers it is the catalyst for individual product purchases that in total add. up to swings in the gross domestic product of one economy or another It is the key. ingredient driving the following questions is this product or service new and improved. enough to make my life better or easier Is it superior to rival products or services. Is it worth more of my money, Cars home appliances information and entertainment electronics business equip.
ment clothing name almost any industrial sector and you will find rivals trying to. out innovate each other and repeatedly offering accolades to the power of innovation. But some kinds of innovation affect human lives more than others. A dynamic the consumer rarely thinks about but that governments must consider is. that the most exceptional kind of innovation the result of inspiration and hard work. and significant investments of time money or both can earn what is sometimes. considered a more venerated name invention,WHAT IT TAKES TO INCENTIVIZE INVENTION. Yet far too many policymakers have forgotten what it takes to incentivize the hard work. investment and creativity that bring new inventions to life Even as we celebrate the. merits of innovation and laud the growing significance of a knowledge based economy. it has become too easy to take for granted the legal and economic frameworks that. made the technological wonders of modern life possible. Take the mobile phone which was found to be the most useful invention of all. time by more than 70 percent of respondents to a recent global poll published in. TIME magazine Today s smartphone in fact is not just one invention but the product. of hundreds if not thousands of them Every week it seems new smartphones appear. that have their own unique features that we as consumers value And the marketplace. is the metric we use to measure which feature is most preferred or which manufacturer. does a nicer job designing it Sometimes a new function wins consumers hearts and. sometimes it s an original form the look the feel the buttons and sometimes it s. a combination of the two We base our decisions on these distinctions. But what about the science and engineering that make smartphones possible in. the first place that allow hundreds of millions of people at any given moment to. converse with friends located anywhere in the world or to call up key business. WIPO MAGAZINE p 9,Who should protect intellectual property rights. Whose job do you think it is to protect intellectual property rights. Among consumers,59 58 59 56 52,Charts TIME magazine. 13 13 13 14 1414,6 6 7 8 6 6 7 8,5 4 5 4 55 45 3 4 4 3. 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 3, 1 1 0 0 00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 00 1 02 1 0 1 1 0 21 1 00.
The government The inventor Big companies Academic institutions Other None of these. US Brazil China Germany India Indonesia,Korea S Africa Russia UK Turkey Mexico. Singapore Sweden Australia UAE Kenya, Base Consumers US 400 BRA 200 China 400 DE 400 IN 400 ID 200 KO 401 S Africa 220 RU 201 UK 401 TR 401 MX 401 SG 400 SW 401 AUS 400 UAE 400 KEN 507. The most useful inventions, Which of the following inventions do you believe to be the most useful Among consumers. 7 8 89 8 7,4 8 8 8 8 8 8,5 5 4 6 5 5 6 5 67 6, 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 33 3 4 4 4 44 3 44 4 3 3 4 4 4 32. 2 21 2 11 22 2 22 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 21 2 1 1 2 2. 00 00 0 0000 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 000 1, Cellphone Disposable diaper Alarm clock TV clicker Velcro Cruise control Rice cooker Blow dryer.
US Brazil China Germany India Indonesia Korea S Africa Russia. UK Turkey Mexico Singapore Sweden Australia UAE Kenya. Base Consumers US 400 BRA 200 China 400 DE 400 IN 400 ID 200 KO 401 S Africa 220 RU 201 UK 401 TR 401 MX 401 SG 400 SW 401 AUS 400 UAE 400 KEN 507. p 10 2014 6, data or download a hit song or video all using the same time any inventor large or small owns the invention she or he. spectrum that less than two decades ago was limited to carrying has worked hard to create. a limited number of expensive frequently interrupted voice calls. This is what I mean by invention And as the general counsel of I make no secret of my interest in the public debate involving. Qualcomm whose inventions empower this technology I take patents Qualcomm would never have been able to create and. pride in describing them then constantly advance the technologies empowering the. world s wireless ecosystem without patents, But I am a fan of invention far beyond the fields of communi. cations technology The revolutionary technologies we brought to market two de. cades ago were met with derision and commercial resistance. from much of the wireless industry Yet we were able to reassure. INVENTION IS ENDEMIC, our early investors with the promise that our patents would. Invention is endemic to the human spirit and the history of both protect their investments Now we are a company that employs. anonymous and famous inventors is interwoven in the history more than 30 000 people mostly engineers developing the. of humankind We are unique as a species in part because we next generation of mobile communications as we continue to. have the means to discover how we can live better happier work collaboratively with nearly the entire wireless industry Our. healthier lives This has taken us from the wheel to the airplane patents allow us to keep introducing transformative technologies. from the light bulb to the radio telescope from the telegraph in ways that promote competition among handset makers and. to the smartphone and from penicillin to what we hope will be lower prices for consumers. viable treatments for Ebola, Patents are the key ingredient of our virtuous circle of investment. And if policy makers sometimes forget how we managed to in research and development invention licensing our invented. rapidly accelerate that pace of invention over the past two technologies and plugging much of that licensing revenue back. centuries I m pleased to report many consumers and business into more research and development which in turn produces. leaders around the world have not new inventions Patents allow us to take the risks of trying to. do what no one has done before and to fail plenty of times. Nearly 85 percent of the consumers who responded to the until we succeed because we know success will be rewarded. TIME poll said they think we live in an age of invention and a. vast majority said the more their country supports invention the This invention and innovation environment could be put at risk. more their country will thrive economically by some commercial interests and misguided government. agencies whose goal is to weaken patent rights They have. a disregard for patents or a lack of understanding of patents. CONSUMERS RECOGNIZE IP PLAYS A KEY ROLE, value that as we see in the TIME poll contrasts with the broader.
What I found even more fascinating is the sophistication of sur recognition of how vital patents are and have been to techno. vey respondents in their recognition that the key to this support logical and societal progress. is protection of intellectual property IP The poll found patents. are considered crucial for the invention process because they It is time IP policy makers take a step back and consider what. offer the best incentive for inventors to create something new respondents to the TIME poll already appreciate patents have. and useful and the only guarantee that inventors and their made possible so much that we value in contemporary life and. financial backers will recoup and profit from their invested the unintended consequences of weakening patent rights will. time and money Among the global business decision makers be the loss of new innovations and new inventions that could. surveyed 84 percent said they want stronger IP protection have made a difference in our lives. and respondents in emerging market economies expressing. envy for the strong patent systems of industrial nations were. the most likely to seek stronger IP rights and the promotion of. economic equality that comes with them,PATENTS ARE NECESSARY FOR INVENTION. Worldwide 90 percent of consumers said patents are necessary. to promote invention, The reasoning behind these poll results is clear recognition. that a patent represents a rule of law promise that for a limited. WIPO MAGAZINE p 11,Navigating,by Emma Poole,Lawyer and Researcher. Melbourne Australia,DRIVERLESS CARS,The five levels of. automation,1 No Automation the driver is,in complete control.
2 Function Specific Automation,a function assists the driver. electronic stability control or,brake assist technology. 3 Combined Function Automation,two functions are designed to. work together in certain scenarios,such as adaptive cruise control. with lane centering,4 Limited Self Driving Automation.
Photo Google,enabling the driver to give,up control of the car in certain. scenarios with sensors to trigger,the need to return control to. the driver In September 2014 The Economist debated whether completely self driving cars. 5 Full Self Driving Automation are feasible in the foreseeable future The 32 percent of readers who voted no. the car performs all driving have obviously missed the news that this staple of science fiction has already turned. functions and monitors road into science fact,conditions without any input. a person will determine the Whether we call them driverless self driving or autonomous these cars have nav. destination and then give up all igated downtown Parma and driven from Italy to China almost unaided a human. control of the car being had to drive through Moscow and pay the tolls A Mercedes Benz S Class. travelled between Mannheim and Pforzheim without driver input in August 2013 and. most famously the Google Self Driving Car Project has now completed over 700 000. test kilometres The prototype cars cannot always navigate potholes see a traffic. light with the sun behind it or drive in the rain but driverless vehicles are more than. feasible you can buy them,WHAT IS A SELF DRIVING CAR. A car is self driving if it can operate without the active control and continuous mon. itoring of a human being According to the US Department of Transportation this. means that the car s operation does not require driver input to control the steering. acceleration or braking However automation is really a question of degree The. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the US has identified five levels of. automation see box,ALREADY HERE, Fully automated vehicles are now commonplace in certain controlled environments.
You may have already travelled on a segregated railway or guideway also known as. Google s self driving car project has dominated light rail system in Vancouver London Singapore or between terminals at airports. coverage of the emerging driverless car sector, around the world The Park Shuttle vehicles in the Netherlands use dedicated bus lanes. p 12 2014 6, and mining company Rio Tinto has a fleet of autonomous trucks. operating at its Pilbara iron ore mine in Western Australia At the. same time an increasing number of mass produced cars now. incorporate semi autonomous driver assistance functions such. as assisted steering parking or braking drowsiness detectors. and devices to detect and help avoid potential collisions with. other vehicles or pedestrians, The next generation of semi autonomous car technologies. coordinate two or more functions Examples include Mercedes. Benz s adaptive cruise control with steering assistance Volvo s. traffic jam assistance allowing cars to automatically brake and. follow cars in slow moving queues and Audi s piloted park. ing Many other carmakers including General Motors Ford. Volkswagen Nissan Toyota and BMW are also testing ad. vanced driver assistance systems ADAS,HOW THEY WORK. Exane BNP Paribas an investment company predicts that. the tech and telecommunication sectors will see more benefit. from the expected growth in the connected car market than. the traditional automobile industry The reason for this is sim. ple something is driving driverless cars and that something. is software processing huge volumes of data,Photo Nissan.
Driverless cars operate by amassing information collected from. cameras sensors geo location devices including radar digital. maps navigation programming and communication from other. connected vehicles and infrastructure Operating systems and. software then process this information and coordinate the me. chanical functions of the car These processes mimic the hugely. complex task human drivers undertake when they monitor the. road the car and themselves in order to drive Recent examples. include Google s patent on reading traffic lights or Tesla s latest. saloon which adjusts its speed to comply with road signs. KEY BENEFITS ACCESS AND SAFETY, Fully autonomous cars will negate the need for driving restric. tions relating to age and ability because the only prerequisite for. making a journey may be the ability to program a destination A. six year old may take himself to school or an older person stay in. dependent for longer This increase in access to mobility should. facilitate the active participation of the 22 percent of the world s. population who will be over 60 in 2050 To highlight the potential. of driverless cars to assist people with disabilities a Google. car has recently driven a blind man to Taco Bell for a take out. Increasing road safety will be the most critical benefit of driv. erless cars At the moment there are 1 24 million road traffic. deaths worldwide every year 50 percent are pedestrians Driverless cars operate by amassing. information from cameras sensors geo, cyclists and motorcyclists and road traffic accidents are the location devices including radar digital. number one cause of death for those aged between 15 and maps navigation programming and. 29 years Around 90 percent of all traffic accidents are caused communication from other connected. vehicles and infrastructure, by human error whether distraction by phone calls or texts. Photo Ultra PRT, drowsiness intoxication or the effects of medical impairments or conditions Fully. automated vehicle technologies offer the potential to circumvent human driver error. completely and combine robotically rapid responses with 360 degree perception. Equally semi automated driver aware vehicles could use sensors to detect changes. in heart rate or skin temperature and then trigger extra safety or assistance measures. General Motors is already testing eye and head tracking technologies to check for. signs of drowsiness,COMING SOON, The first radio controlled cars drove in the US in the 1920s but development in the sector.
has been slow until very recently Research by the Boston Consulting Group suggests. that R D investment by the automobile industry generally including into driver assis. tance functions has rapidly expanded in the past four years http tinyurl com l38od6r. As part of this pattern purpose built testing sites are popping up around the world. from AstaZero Volvo s 2 million square meter 21 5 million square feet testing facility. in Sweden to a custom made test town built outside Ann Arbor in Michigan in the US. Testing of autonomous vehicles on public roads has been facilitated by amendments. to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic and the introduction of legislation in the UK. France and various US states including California Florida and Nevada. Since 2011 London Heathrow Airport Public sector tests include the EU s V CHARGE consortium s automated valet system. has been running a fleet of driverless that will park and charge electric cars the three LUTZ Pathfinder autonomous pods. electronic vehicles on a dedicated guideway, Designed by UK based company Ultra due to explore the pavements of Milton Keynes in early 2015 and vehicle platooning. PRT these autonomous pods ferry around by the Safe Road Trains for the Environment SATRE project funded by the Euro. 1 000 passengers each day between the pean Commission enabling cars to connect to and follow a lead vehicle driven by. airport s Terminal 5 and its car parks, a professional driver in a particular highway lane.

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