Investing In Children Unicef-Books Pdf

Investing in Children UNICEF
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UNICEF June 2012, Division of Policy and Strategy, Policy Advisory Unit. This document is a review of the literature The findings interpretations and conclusions do not reflect policies or. views of UNICEF nor do any of the studies cited here imply official endorsement. This is a publication of the UNICEF Division of Policy and Strategy DPS For questions or comments please contact. David Anthony Chief of the Policy Advisory Unit danthony unicef org Jingqing Chai Chief of the Policy Analysis. Unit jchai unicef org or Nicholas Rees Policy Analysis Specialist Policy Advisory Unit nrees unicef org. Cover photo credits UNICEF NYHQ2009 2042 Youngmeyer UNICEF NYHQ2011 1697 Pirozzi. UNICEF NYHQ2012 0283 Holt UNICEF NYHQ2012 0197 Pirozzi UNICEF NYHQ2008 1279 Estey. Why an investment case for children, The principle of investing in children rarely pressing global issues The top five included. evokes controversy However we look at it to in bundled interventions to reduce undernutrition in. vest in a child is to invest in our common future pre schoolers a subsidy for malaria combination. The world of tomorrow will inherit the children treatment expanded childhood immunization. of today Whether nations grow and prosper will coverage de worming of schoolchildren and ex. depend heavily on the survival health educa panding tuberculosis treatment all of these are. tion and protection of their citizens particularly highly relevant for children. the youngest There are several compelling, reasons to invest in children Investing in children can help promote eq. uitable inclusive societies allowing more, Investing in children is fundamental to ensuring people to effectively participate in their. the realization of their rights The 1989 UN Con economic development Because childhood. vention on the Rights of the Child the most rapidly is a unique window of opportunity investments. and widely ratified human rights treaty in history sets in poor children help create a level playing field. out the legal obligations of national governments to All children should have access to the essen. realize children s economic social civil political and tial health educational and nutritional require. cultural rights to the maximum extent of their avail ments Providing these will allow more equal. able resources Article 4 access to better paying jobs later in life as well. as improve productivity, Childhood is a unique window of opportu Furthermore because the poorest and most.
nity The science of child development tells us vulnerable groups in society might be unable to. that even temporary deprivations experienced by make the optimal investments on their own there. young children can have irreversible effects on is a strong rationale for public investments in so. their future capabilities and in turn a nation s fu cial sectors related to children especially when. ture prospects aimed at those most in need, Interventions and policy choices made today The benefits to investing in children are not. will determine whether millions of children and limited to those receiving the investment Health. youth are able to reach their full potential or are ier and more educated societies benefit every. left to face a future of worsening inequity and mar one in them And although there might be some. ginalization Many would agree that there could time between when investments are made and. be no more compelling argument than that the benefits to the society and economy are fully. felt the gains can be significant and long lasting. The benefits far outweigh the costs Repeat, ed studies find that investments at relatively low Over the years as cost effective interventions to. financial costs during childhood can yield a life address childhood deprivations have emerged. time of gains not only for individuals but also for the case for investing in children has steadily. societies and economies strengthened Below are some key findings from. For example in 2012 the Copenhagen Con the literature For a complete list of examples and. sensus a panel of some of the world s leading references please see the full UNICEF Social. economists was asked to identify based on as and Economic Policy Working Paper Right in. sumptions of cost effectiveness the priorities for Principle and in Practice A Review of the Social. policymakers and philanthropists over the com and Economic Returns to Investing in Children. ing four year period to address some of the most, Early Childhood Development. Early childhood represents a unique window of opportunity for investing in children s cognitive. and physical development When a baby is born his or her billions of brain cells are mostly un. connected To function they must be organized into networks that require trillions of connections. synapses These connections depend both on genes and on environmental factors In this way. the way a child s brain is wired is extraordinarily interactive with experience. The human brain is malleable and its capacity for reorganization continues throughout life and. can be enhanced by interventions Yet it is widely accepted that there are periods in life when. the developing brain is particularly open to new experiences and especially able to take advan. tage of them These critical or sensitive periods vary according to different functions e g vision. hearing cognitive skills but mostly occur early in life These periods are also critical for physi. cal development as risk of stunting and anaemia is particularly high in the earliest years Thus. even temporary deprivations experienced during this crucial time period can have irreversible. negative effects on children s future capabilities. There are several additional benefits that stem from early childhood development. Early childhood development investments can improve cognitive and physical development. This can have implications for better educational performance future productivity and wages. when the children become adults, Investment in early childhood development has been shown to reduce crime rates and en. gagement in risky behaviour, Governments benefit too Early childhood development programmes have been shown to in.
crease future wage earning potential Where more people are working and paying taxes govern. ment revenues increase Furthermore wise investments early on in children s lives can reduce. the need for welfare remedial education and out of work programmes later in life. Did you know, An evaluation of the High Scope Perry Preschool project one of the most well known. in the US found up to around 16 in benefits for every dollar invested with public. benefits estimated to be 12 90 per dollar invested Schweinhart et al 2005. A simulation on increasing pre school enrolment in 73 countries. found benefits in terms of higher future wages of 6 4 17 6 per. dollar invested The simulation indicated potential long term ben. efits which range from 11 to 34 billion Engle et al 2011. UNICEF NYHQ2011 1697 Pirozzi, For The Chicago Child Parent Center a half day programme for low. income children benefits included increasing economic well being and. tax revenues reducing public expenditures for remedial education. criminal justice treatment and crime victims The benefits are estimated. to be approximately 7 14 per dollar invested Reynolds et al 2002. Health is a fundamental human right recognized in regional and international covenants and con. ventions as vital to all aspects of a person s life and well being and as critical to realizing many other. rights and freedoms Yet nearly 8 million children died in 2010 before reaching the age of 5 largely. due to highly preventable causes such as pneumonia diarrhoea and birth complications. There are several ways improved health can additionally benefit society and the economy. Better health can improve individual productivity Healthy individuals are more likely to be. efficient at assimilating knowledge have stronger mental and physical capabilities and in. consequence obtain better educational outcomes both through school attendance and per. formance higher productivity levels and higher incomes. Better health can facilitate demographic dividends As children become healthier and more. likely to live longer fertility rates decline and as the proportion of the population that is of. working age increases national income per capita can rise. Healthy environments can help propel investment and development Where conditions are. favourable and an educated and healthy workforce available businesses and entrepreneur. ial activity can flourish, Did you know, Childhood interventions are among the most cost effective in terms of Disability Adjusted Life. Years DALYs saved Treating childhood illnesses for example have been found to cost be. tween 9 and 218 per DALY saved DALYs is a measure that combines mortality and mor. bidity one DALY is equivalent to one year of healthy life lost Laxminarayan et al 2006. Expanding an immunization programme in Sub Saharan Africa can cost between 1 to 5. per DALY averted in Sub Saharan Africa and 8 per DALY averted in South Asia By compari. son health interventions that treat other diseases have been shown to be much more costly. For example interventions to treat stroke ischemic in Sub Saharan Africa has been found. to cost between 1 284 and 2 940 per DALY averted and interventions to treat depression. in South Asia can cost between 1 003 and 1 449 Laxminarayan et al 2006. A one year improvement in a population s life expectancy is. associated with a 4 increase in output Bloom et al 2004. One study found that reducing child deaths by 4 25 per thou. sand children born about 5 of the sample studied to moth. ers with low levels of education can result in an almost 8. increase in GDP per capita 10 years later Grimm 2010. UNICEF NYHQ2009 2042 Youngmeyer, Reducing health inequality by 1 per year could increase a coun. try s annual rate of GDP growth by 0 15 This makes reducing. health inequity by targeting the poorest children a very strong pol. icy alternative for improving economic growth Grimm 2010. Water and Sanitation, Almost half of the developing world s population 2 5 billion people lack improved sanitation.
facilities and over 780 million people still use unsafe drinking water sources Children are dis. proportionately affected by poor water and sanitation provisions carrying the highest burden. of diarrhoeal diseases and worm infections Better water sanitation and hygiene practices are. very closely linked to good health and can significantly help reduce illness Undernutrition has. also been shown to improve productivity save families and children considerable amounts of. time improve school attendance and prevent unnecessary deaths Furthermore safe water. and sanitation systems are very important in agricultural development and food production. Did you know, Taking into account reduced patient expenses due to avoided ill. nesses value of time savings productivity days of school attendance. gained health sector costs saved and prevented deaths the benefits. of achieving the MDG target on water and sanitation are estimated to. be between 3 and 34 per dollar invested Hutton and Haller 2004. Other studies on specific low cost water and sanitation interventions deep. boreholes with public hand pumps total community led sanitation cam. paigns and biosand filters and one high cost intervention large multi. purpose dams in Africa have found more conservative yet still significant. benefit cost ratios ranging from 1 8 2 9 per dollar invested depending. on the nature of the intervention see Whittington et al 2008. Achieving the MDG targets on water and sanitation could yield a total. annual economic benefit of 84 billion Hutton and Haller 2004. The estimated global savings to the health sector could. be around 7 billion per year from meeting the MDG, water and sanitation targets Hutton and Haller 2004. Time saved due to closer location of facilities such as the re. location of a well or borehole to a closer site the installation. of piped water and closer access to toilets was the greatest. benefit at 64 billion globally Hutton and Haller 2004. UNICEF NYHQ2012 0283 Holt, Another study estimated the economic impact of poor sani. tation to be between 1 2 5 of GDP for 18 African econo. mies Water and Sanitation Program World Bank 2012, Access to adequate nutrition is an essential component of overall good health and studies have. shown very strong linkages between nutrition and cognitive physical and emotional development. Undernutrition is associated with low birth weight and stunting which studies show impact cognitive. development Undernutrition also contributes to more than a third of under five deaths globally. There are several ways improved nutrition can additionally benefit society and the economy. The links between nutrition cognitive development and schooling can ultimately affect future. incomes fertility and the well being of future generations. Nutrition has been shown to enhance the productivity of labour decreasing susceptibility to. illness and improve school performance, People living on the edge of starvation are more likely to be risk averse when it comes to.
making investments having cumulative effects on the macro economy. Did you know, The loss in adult income from being stunted could be up to 22 Grantham McGregor et al 2007. Stunting which results in a 1 loss in adult height is asso. The principle of investing in children rarely evokes controversy However we look at it to in vest in a child is to invest in our common future The world of tomorrow will inherit the children of today Whether nations grow and prosper will depend heavily on the survival health educa tion and protection of their citizens particularly

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