Intuition And Analysis At Work The Role Of Cognitive-Books Pdf

Intuition and Analysis at Work The Role of Cognitive
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Custos,Professor Sari Lindblom Yl nne,Supervisor, Professor Sari Lindblom Yl nne University of Helsinki . Pre examiners, Professor Paul Ilsley Northern Illinois University University of Helsinki . Doctor Steve Armstrong University of Hull ,Opponent. Professor Stephen Rayner University of Birmingham . Cover H L fstr m E L fstr m, Helsinki University Press Finland. ISBN 952 10 1629 9 pbk , ISBN 952 10 1630 2 PDF , ISSN 1238 3465.
UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI,Department of Education,Research Report 198 2005. Erika L fstr m,INTUITION AND ANALYSIS AT WORK, The Role of Cognitive Style in Experiences of Work Contexts. Abstract, In agreement with the principles of the learning organization and lifelong learn . ing it should be in the interests of organizations not only to make an effort to keep. knowledge within them but also to facilitate the sharing of that knowledge among. colleagues The aim of the study is to gain a more thorough understanding of the. role of cognitive style that is individual differences in information processing in. work contexts in order for that knowledge to be utilized to improve the develop . ment of human resources The study focuses on whether and how intuitive and. analytic cognitive style are related to the experiencing of intuitive and analytic. demands of the work environment as well as to different types of sources of job. satisfaction dissatisfaction In addition to the cognitive variables the role of de . mographic and individual variables age gender education and work experience . and organizational variables field of trade position job tenure are investigated . Sociocultural theory directs attention towards the meaning of context and culture . In order to understand the contextual dimension in which individual and organiza . tional factors interact organizational climate has been investigated . Data were collected from 228 managers employees and workers in small and. medium sized enterprises in the service sector and production industry The inven . tories used were Finnish translations of the Cognitive Style Index CSI Allinson. Hayes 1996 and the Academic Environment Index AEI Sadler Smith 1997 . A revised response mode and scoring system was employed in order to allow the. testing of a possible two dimensional unipolar construct of cognitive style Anal . ysis and intuition were treated as separate scales Perceptions of organizational. climate were investigated using a set of variables by Forss and Karisalmi 1997 . Data on sources of job satisfaction dissatisfaction were collected through two open . ended interview questions These qualitative data were analyzed and categorized. through a grounded theory type procedure , Two overarching categories of sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. emerged 1 intrinsic content based sources and 2 extrinsic context based sourc . es Each subject was given a categorical code for further statistical analyses The. category indicates what combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic sources of job sat . isfaction and dissatisfaction dominate for the individual Further analyses include. exploratory factor analyses and univariate General Linear Models procedures with. Tests of Between Subjects Effects Effect sizes were computed to determine the. magnitude of the observed effects , Two factors representing intuitive and analytic cognitive style dimensions.
emerged supporting a two dimensional unipolar construct A similar construct is. supported through the perspectives of the cognitive demands of the work environ . ment Analytic cognitive style correlated positively with analytic cognitive de . mands of the work environment but negatively with intuitive cognitive demands. of the work environment Intuitive cognitive style correlated positively with both. intuitive and analytic demands of the work environment . Significant relationships between cognitive style and the individual and organ . izational variables emerged Women scored in general higher on the analytic scale . The stereotypic assumption that women are more intuitive than men is challenged. by most studies conducted using the CSI including this one Gender difference. may be due to the fact that men rely more on their sense of expertise whereas. women may find factual evidence and systematic analysis necessary in order to. justify their case , In general the younger age groups were less analytic than the older ones rais . ing the question to what extent analytic style is an expression of expert thinking. and intuitive style an expression of novice thinking Analytic style is related to. higher age and longer work experience Then again the lower the level of educa . tion the higher the analytic score A higher level of education may develop intui . tive style skills but in essence the question appears to boil down to a matter of. cognitive confidence and self confidence , Respondents in managerial positions scored lower on the analytic scale than. other groups of employees and workers supporting the hypothesis that education. develops intuitive style skills and that intuitive information processing may to a. certain extent be a manifestation of confidence Despite the tendency to intuitive. cognitive style the managers experienced the environment to demand more ana . lytic information processing than did other groups of staff This result supports. the idea that intuition is an important basis for grasping the overall context but. when specific decision making is required analytic cognitive style dominates . Field of trade was not related to cognitive style but significantly so to the. experience of the cognitive demands of the work environment Respondents in. production industry experienced the cognitive demands to be more intuitive than. the respondents in the service sector The result is slightly surprising in light of. what we know of the nature of the jobs in the service sector The result may be due. to the fact that intuitive information processing is not conceived of as a particular. demand of the work Rather it is something inherent in the work itself . Two organizational climate factors emerged a supportive and a prejudiced cli . mate factor Prejudiced climate correlated positively with analytic cognitive style . This indicates that intuitives may in fact be more sensitive to organizational cli . mate and work more actively to keep it positive and supportive No unambiguous. relationship between cognitive style and sources of job satisfaction and dissatis . faction emerged Despite the nature of the cognitive style or the cognitive de . mands of the work environment be they analytic or intuitive both extrinsic and. intrinsic elements constitute sources job satisfaction and dissatisfaction as well . Yet for those with a higher level of education intrinsic sources of job satisfaction. tended to dominate over extrinsic sources plausibly as a result of more variable . independent and innovative tasks requiring higher levels of education Such tasks. become in themselves sources of job satisfaction In routine tasks on the other. hand which do not provide the worker meaningful and developing doings the. person turns to find his or her sources of job satisfaction in factors external to the. task itself The search for job satisfaction appears to be an active endeavor in . duced by the person him or herself Realizing satisfaction in one s job is the right. of all employees and workers It should be taken into consideration that sources of. job satisfaction vary take on different norms and imply different meanings for. people In addition to a cost benefit perspective there is the humane value that. should not be overlooked , Keywords cognitive style work environment job satisfaction organizational. climate socio cultural theory, HELSINGFORS UNIVERSITET. Pedagogiska institutionen,Forsknings rapport 198 2005.
Erika L fstr m,INTUITION OCH ANALYS I ARBETET, Betydelsen av kognitiv stil i upplevelsen av arbetssammanhang. Sammanfattning, Det b r vara i f retags intresse att i samst mmighet med principerna f r den l rande. organisationen och ett livsl ngt l rande inte enbart bibeh lla kunskap inom organi . sationen utan ocks m jligg ra f r de anst llda att dela med sig av sin kunskap. bland kollegerna Syftet med denna studie r att ka kunskap om kognitiva stilar . d v s individuella skillnader i informationsprocessering i arbetssammanhang samt. ka f rst elsen f r relationerna mellan kognitiv stil och upplevelserna av olika as . pekter i arbetet Fr gan r hur kunskap om kognitiva stilar och deras p verkningar. i arbetssammanhang kan utnyttjas f r att befr mja utveckling av personalresurser . Fokus f r unders kningen r intuitiv och analytisk kognitiv stil och deras relation. till upplevelsen av s v l arbetets intuitiva och analytiska kognitiva krav som k llor. till v lbefinnande och missbel tenhet i arbetet F rutom de kognitiva variablerna. fokuserar studien p demografiska och individuella variabler s som lder k n ut . bildningsniv och arbetserfarenhet De unders kta organisatoriska variablerna ut . g rs av industrigren st llning i organisationen samt arbetsf rh llandets karakt r . Sociokulturell teori h vdar kontextens d v s arbetssammanhangens och kulturers. betydelse F r att ka f rst elsen f r kontexten i vilken individuella och organisato . riska variabler samspelar har organisationsklimatet unders kts . Data har insamlats fr n ett sampel p 228 ledare och anst llda i sm och mel . lanstora f retag inom branscher f r service och produktion Som m tinstrument. har anv nts finskspr kiga vers ttningar av Cognitive Style Index CSI Allin . son Hayes 1996 och Academic Environment Index AEI Sadler Smith 1997 . Modifierade svarsalternativ och skala har utnyttjats f r att m jligg ra testandet av. en tv dimensionell unipol r konstruktion av kognitiv stil Analytisk och intuitiv. stil har behandlats som separata skalor F r unders kning av upplevelsen av ar . betsklimatet har Forss och Karisalmis 1997 m tinstrument anv nts Data g llan . de k llor f r arbetstillfredsst llelse och otillfredsst llelse har insamlats med hj lp. av tv ppna intervjufr gor Kvalitativa data har analyserats och kategoriserats. genom ett grounded theory inspirerat f rfaringss tt . Tv vergripande kategorier av k llor f r arbetstillfredsst llelse och otillfreds . st llelse identifierades 1 interna inneh llsrelaterade k llor och 2 externa sam . manhangsrelaterade k llor Varje respondent har f rsetts med ett v rde som indi . kerar typ f r att m jligg ra statistiska j mf relser Dessa inkluderar exploratorisk. faktoranalys och univariata line ra modeller GLM Effektstorlekar har kalkyle . rats , Tv faktorer en intuitiv och en analytisk faktor framtr dde s v l f r kognitiv. stil som arbetets upplevda kognitiva krav vilket tyder p att en tv dimensionell . unipol r konstruktion r m jlig Analytisk kognitiv stil korrelerade positivt med. arbetets analytiska kognitiva krav men negativt med arbetets intuitiva krav Intu . itiv kognitiv stil korrelerade positivt med s v l arbetets intuitiva som analytiska. kognitiva krav , Data ger uttryck f r signifikanta skillnader mellan analytisk och intuitiv kogni . tiv stil i j mf relse av individuella och organisatoriska variabler Kvinnorna var i. allm nhet mera analytiska till sin kognitiva stil I likhet med denna studie har den. stereotypa uppfattningen att kvinnor r mera intuitiva n m n utmanats i de flesta. forskningar d r man anv nt sig av CSI m tinstrumentet f r m tning av kognitiv. stil K nsskillnaderna kan tolkas som ett tecken p att m n f rlitar sig i allm nhet. mera p sin sakkunskap emedan kvinnorna upplever att de beh ver ty sig till fakta. och systematisk analys f r att motivera sin st ndpunkt . De yngre ldersgrupperna var i allm nhet mindre analytiska till sin kognitiva. stil n de ldre grupperna vilket v cker fr gan huruvida analytisk stil kan ses som. en yttring av expertis och intuitiv stil som en yttring av t nkande p novisniv . Analytisk kognitiv stil var relaterad till h gre lder och l ngre arbetserfarenhet . Samtidigt tyder resultaten p att ju l gre utbildning desto starkare analytisk var. respondenternas kognitiva stil H gre utbildning kan s ledes utveckla intuitiva. drag i personens kognition En intressant fr ga r i vilken m n intuition r ett. uttryck f r kognitiv konfidens och sj lvf rtroende . Ledarna hade en mindre analytisk kognitiv stil n vriga anst llda vilket ocks . st der hypotesen att h gre utbildning utvecklar intuitiva drag i personens kogni . tion och att intuition utg r ett uttryck f r f rtroende i sj lvet och den kognitiva. f rm gan Trots att ledarna hade en strakare preferens f r intuitiv stil upplevde de. arbetets kognitiva krav som mera analytiska n de vriga anst llda Resultatet. tyder p att intuition utg r en viktig grund f r holistisk uppfattning av kontexten . men i situationer som f ruts tter specifika beslut dominerar den analytiska kogni . tiva stilen , Kognitiv stil var inte relaterad till f retagsbranschen men nog till upplevelsen.
av arbetets kognitiva krav Respondenterna inom produktionsindustrin upplevde. arbetets kognitiva krav som betydligt mera intuitiva n respondenterna inom ser . vice sektorn vilket ter sig verraskande med tanke p jobbets karakt r inom servi . ce sektorn Resultatet kan bero p att intuitiv informationsprocessering inte upp . levs som ett s rskilt krav utan snarare ses som en naturlig del av service. The Role of Cognitive Style in Experiences of Work Contexts Abstract In agreement with the principles of the learning organization and lifelong learn ing it should be in the interests of organizations not only to make an effort to keep knowledge within them but also to facilitate the sharing of that knowledge among colleagues The aim of the

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