Introduction To Photogrammetry Gis Resources-Books Pdf

Introduction to Photogrammetry GIS Resources
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In analog photogrammetry starting with stereo measurement in. 1901 optical or mechanical instruments were used to reconstruct. three dimensional geometry from two overlapping photographs. Figure 2 depicts a typical analog stereo plotter The main product. during this phase was topographic maps,Figure 2 Analog Stereo Plotter. In analytical photogrammetry the computer replaced some. expensive optical and mechanical components The resulting devices. were analog digital hybrids Analytical aerotriangulation analytical. plotters and orthophoto projectors were the main developments. during this phase Outputs of analytical photogrammetry can be. topographic maps but also can be digital products such as digital. maps and DEMs, Digital photogrammetry is photogrammetry applied to digital images. that are stored and processed on a computer Digital images can be. scanned from photographs or directly captured by digital cameras. Many photogrammetric tasks can be highly automated in digital. photogrammetry e g automatic DEM extraction and digital. orthophoto generation Digital photogrammetry is sometimes called. softcopy photogrammetry The output products are in digital form. such as digital maps DEMs and digital orthoimages saved on. computer storage media Therefore they can be easily stored and. managed by you With the development of digital photogrammetry. photogrammetric techniques are more closely integrated into. remote sensing and GIS, Digital photogrammetric systems employ sophisticated software to. automate the tasks associated with conventional photogrammetry. thereby minimizing the extent of manual interaction required to. perform photogrammetric operations LPS Project Manager Figure. 3 which is part of the Leica Photogrammetry Suite is such a. photogrammetric system,LPS Project Manager Introduction 16. Figure 3 LPS Project Manager Point Measurement Interface. Photogrammetry can be used to measure and interpret information. from hardcopy photographs or images Sometimes the process of. measuring information from photography and satellite imagery is. considered metric photogrammetry such as creating DEMs. Interpreting information from photography and imagery is. considered interpretative photogrammetry such as identifying and. discriminating between various tree types Wolf 1983. Types of Photographs and The types of photographs and images that can be processed with LPS. Images Project Manager include aerial terrestrial close range and oblique. Aerial or vertical near vertical photographs and images are taken. from a high vantage point above the Earth s surface In those. photographs the camera axis is commonly directed vertically or. near vertically down Aerial photographs and images are commonly. used for topographic and planimetric mapping projects and are. commonly captured from an aircraft or satellite Figure 4 illustrates. a satellite Satellites use onboard sensors to collect high resolution. images of the Earth s surface,LPS Project Manager Introduction 17.
Figure 4 Satellite, Terrestrial or ground based photographs and images are taken with. the camera stationed on or close to the Earth s surface Terrestrial. and close range photographs and images are commonly used for. applications involved with archeology geomorphology civil. engineering architecture and industry, Oblique photographs and images are similar to aerial photographs. and images except the camera axis is intentionally inclined at an. angle with the vertical Oblique photographs and images are. commonly used for reconnaissance and corridor mapping. applications, Digital photogrammetric systems use digitized photographs or digital. images as the primary source of input Digital imagery can be. obtained in various ways including,digitizing existing hardcopy photographs. using digital cameras to record imagery, using sensors onboard satellites such as Landsat SPOT and IRS.
to record imagery, NOTE This document uses the term imagery in reference to. photography and imagery obtained from various sources This. includes aerial and terrestrial photography digital and video camera. imagery 35 mm photography medium to large format photography. scanned photography and satellite imagery, Why use Raw aerial photography and satellite imagery have large geometric. Photogrammetry distortion that is caused by various systematic and nonsystematic. factors The photogrammetric modeling based on collinearity. equations eliminates these errors most efficiently and creates the. most reliable orthoimages from raw imagery Photogrammetry is. unique in terms of considering the image forming geometry utilizing. information between overlapping images and explicitly dealing with. the third dimension elevation,LPS Project Manager Introduction 18. See The Collinearity Equation for information about the. collinearity equation, In addition to orthoimages photogrammetry can also reliably and. efficiently provide other geographic information such as a DEM. topographic features and line maps In essence photogrammetry. produces accurate and precise geographic information from a wide. range of photographs and images Any measurement taken on a. photogrammetrically processed photograph or image reflects a. measurement taken on the ground Rather than constantly go to the. field to measure distances areas angles and point positions on the. Earth s surface photogrammetric tools allow for the accurate. collection of information from imagery Photogrammetric. approaches for collecting geographic information save time and. money and maintain the highest accuracy, Photogrammetry vs Conventional techniques of geometric correction such as polynomial.
Conventional Geometric transformation are based on general functions not directly related to. Correction the specific distortion or error sources They have been successful in. the field of remote sensing and GIS applications especially when. dealing with low resolution and narrow field of view satellite imagery. such as Landsat and SPOT data Yang 1997 General functions have. the advantage of simplicity They can provide a reasonable. geometric modeling alternative when little is known about the. geometric nature of the image data, Because conventional techniques generally process the images one. at a time they cannot provide an integrated solution for multiple. images or photographs simultaneously and efficiently It is very. difficult if not impossible for conventional techniques to achieve a. reasonable accuracy without a great number of GCPs when dealing. with large scale imagery images having severe systematic and or. nonsystematic errors and images covering rough terrain. Misalignment is more likely to occur when mosaicking separately. rectified images This misalignment could result in inaccurate. geographic information being collected from the rectified images. Furthermore it is impossible for a conventional technique to create. a 3D stereo model or to extract the elevation information from two. overlapping images There is no way for conventional techniques to. accurately derive geometric information about the sensor that. captured the imagery, The photogrammetric techniques applied in LPS Project Manager. overcome all the problems of conventional geometric correction by. using least squares bundle block adjustment This solution is. integrated and accurate,For more information see Bundle Block Adjustment. LPS Project Manager Introduction 19, LPS Project Manager can process hundreds of images or photographs. with very few GCPs while at the same time eliminating the. misalignment problem associated with creating image mosaics In. short less time less money less manual effort and more. geographic fidelity can be obtained using the photogrammetric. Single Frame,Orthorectification vs,Block Triangulation.
Single Frame Orthorectification, Single frame orthorectification techniques orthorectify one image at. a time using a technique known as space resection In this respect. a minimum of three GCPs is required for each image For example. in order to orthorectify 50 aerial photographs a minimum of 150. GCPs is required This includes manually identifying and measuring. each GCP for each image individually Once the GCPs are measured. space resection techniques compute the camera sensor position and. orientation as it existed at the time of data capture This information. along with a DEM is used to account for the negative impacts. associated with geometric errors Additional variables associated. with systematic error are not considered, Single frame orthorectification techniques do not use the internal. relationship between adjacent images in a block to minimize and. distribute the errors commonly associated with GCPs image. measurements DEMs and camera sensor information Therefore. during the mosaic procedure misalignment between adjacent. images is common since error has not been minimized and. distributed throughout the block,Block Triangulation. Block or aerial triangulation is the process of establishing a. mathematical relationship between the images contained in a. project the camera or sensor model and the ground The. information resulting from aerial triangulation is required as input for. the orthorectification DEM creation and stereopair creation. processes The term aerial triangulation is commonly used when. processing aerial photography and imagery The term block. triangulation or simply triangulation is used when processing. satellite imagery The techniques differ slightly as a function of the. type of imagery being processed,LPS Project Manager Introduction 20. Classic aerial triangulation using optical mechanical analog and. analytical stereo plotters is primarily used for the collection of GCPs. using a technique known as control point extension Since collecting. GCPs is time consuming photogrammetric techniques are accepted. as the ideal approach for collecting GCPs over large areas using. photography rather than conventional ground surveying techniques. Control point extension involves the manual photo measurement of. ground points appearing on overlapping images These ground. points are commonly referred to as tie points Once the points are. measured the ground coordinates associated with the tie points can. be determined using photogrammetric techniques employed by. analog or analytical stereo plotters These points are then referred. to as ground control points GCPs, With the advent of digital photogrammetry classic aerial.
triangulation has been extended to provide greater functionality LPS. Project Manager uses a mathematical technique known as bundle. block adjustment for aerial triangulation Bundle block adjustment. provides three primary functions, Bundle block adjustment determines the position and orientation. for each image in a project as they existed at the time of. photographic or image exposure The resulting parameters are. referred to as exterior orientation parameters In order to. estimate the exterior orientation parameters a minimum of. three GCPs is required for the entire block regardless of how. many images are contained within the project, Bundle block adjustment determines the ground coordinates of. any tie points manually or automatically measured on the. overlap areas of multiple images The highly precise ground point. determination of tie points is useful for generating control points. from imagery in lieu of ground surveying techniques. Additionally if a large number of ground points is generated. then a DEM can be interpolated using the 3D surfacing tool in. ERDAS IMAGINE, Bundle block adjustment minimizes and distributes the errors. associated with the imagery image measurements GCPs and so. forth The bundle block adjustment processes information from. an entire block of imagery in one simultaneous solution i e a. bundle using statistical techniques i e adjustment. component to automatically identify distribute and remove. Because the images are processed in one step the misalignment. issues associated with creating mosaics are resolved. LPS Project Manager Introduction 21, Image and Data During photographic or image collection overlapping images are. exposed along a direction of flight Most photogrammetric. Acquisition, applications involve the use of overlapping images By using more.
than one image the geometry associated with the camera sensor. image and ground can be defined to greater accuracies and. During the collection of imagery each point in the flight path at. which the camera exposes the film or the sensor captures the. imagery is called an exposure station see Figure 5 and Figure 6. Figure 5 Exposure Stations Along a Flight Path,Flight path. Flight Line 3 of airplane,Flight Line 2,Flight Line 1. Exposure station,Figure 6 Exposure Station,The photographic. exposure station,is located where,the image is,i e the lens. LPS Project Manager Image and Data Acquisition 22, Each photograph or image that is exposed has a corresponding.
image scale SI associated with it The SI expresses the average. ratio between a distance in the image and the same distance on the. ground It is computed as focal length divided by the flying height. above the mean ground elevation For example with a flying height. of 1000 m and a focal length of 15 cm the SI would be 1 6667. Introduction to Photogrammetry Introduction What is Photogrammetry Photogrammetry is the art science and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment through the process of recording measuring and interpreting photographic images and patterns of electromagnetic radiant imagery and other phenomena American Society of Photogrammetry 1980

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