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Introduction to Cosmology Department of Physics
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Introduction, to Cosmology, Third Edition, Matts Roos. Introduction, to Cosmology, Third Edition, Introduction. to Cosmology, Third Edition, Matts Roos, Copyright 2003 John Wiley Sons Ltd The Atrium Southern Gate Chichester . West Sussex PO19 8SQ England, Telephone 44 1243 779777. Email for orders and customer service enquiries cs books wiley co uk. Visit our Home Page on www wileyeurope com or www wiley com. All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval. system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopy . ing recording scanning or otherwise except under the terms of the Copyright Designs. and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing. Agency Ltd 90 Tottenham Court Road London W1T 4LP UK without the permission in. writing of the Publisher Requests to the Publisher should be addressed to the Permissions. Department John Wiley Sons Ltd The Atrium Southern Gate Chichester West Sussex. PO19 8SQ England or emailed to permreq wiley co uk or faxed to 44 1243 770571 . This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard. to the subject matter covered It is sold on the understanding that the Publisher is not. engaged in rendering professional services If professional advice or other expert assis . tance is required the services of a competent professional should be sought . Other Wiley Editorial O ces, John Wiley Sons Inc 111 River Street Hoboken NJ 07030 USA.
Jossey Bass 989 Market Street San Francisco CA 94103 1741 USA. Wiley VCH Verlag GmbH Boschstr 12 D 69469 Weinheim Germany. John Wiley Sons Australia Ltd 33 Park Road Milton Queensland 4064 Australia. John Wiley Sons Asia Pte Ltd 2 Clementi Loop 02 01 Jin Xing Distripark Singapore. 129809, John Wiley Sons Canada Ltd 22 Worcester Road Etobicoke Ontario Canada M9W 1L1. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats Some content that appears. in print may not be available in electronic books . Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Roos Matts , Introduction to cosmology Matt Roos 3rd ed . p cm , Includes bibliographical references and index . ISBN 0 470 84909 6 acid free paper ISBN 0 470 84910 X pbk acid free paper . 1 Cosmology I Title , QB981 R653 2003, 523 1 dc22. 2003020688, British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data.
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 0 470 84909 6 hardback , 0 470 84910 X paperback . Typeset in 9 5 12 5pt Lucida Bright by T T Productions Ltd London . Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd Chippenham Wilts . This book is printed on acid free paper responsibly manufactured from sustainable. forestry in which at least two trees are planted for each one used for paper production . To my dear grandchildren, Francis Alexandre Wei Ming 1986 . Christian Philippe Wei Sing 1990 , Cornelia 1989 , Erik 1991 . Adrian 1994 , Emile Johannes 2000 , Alaia Ingrid Markuntyt r 2002 . Contents, Preface to First Edition ix, Preface to Second Edition xi.
Preface to Third Edition xiii, 1 From Newton to Hubble 1. 1 1 Historical Cosmology 2, 1 2 Inertial Frames and the Cosmological Principle 7. 1 3 Olbers Paradox 9, 1 4 Hubble s Law 12, 1 5 The Age of the Universe 17. 1 6 Expansion in a Newtonian World 19, 2 Relativity 25. 2 1 Lorentz Transformations and Special Relativity 25. 2 2 Metrics of Curved Space time 30, 2 3 Relativistic Distance Measures 37.
2 4 General Relativity and the Principle of Covariance 45. 2 5 The Principle of Equivalence 49, 2 6 Einstein s Theory of Gravitation 54. 3 Gravitational Phenomena 61, 3 1 Classical Tests of General Relativity 62. 3 2 The Binary Pulsar 63, 3 3 Gravitational Lensing 64. 3 4 Black Holes 71, 3 5 Gravitational Waves 80, 4 Cosmological Models 87. 4 1 Friedmann Lema tre Cosmologies 87, 4 2 de Sitter Cosmology 99.
4 3 Dark Energy 101, 4 4 Model Testing and Parameter Estimation I 106. Introduction to Cosmology Third Edition by Matts Roos. 2003 John Wiley Sons Ltd ISBN 0 470 84909 6 cased ISBN 0 470 84910 X pbk . viii Contents, 5 Thermal History of the Universe 113. 5 1 Photons 114, 5 2 Adiabatic Expansion 117, 5 3 Electroweak Interactions 122. 5 4 The Early Radiation Era 128, 5 5 Photon and Lepton Decoupling 132. 5 6 Big Bang Nucleosynthesis 139, 6 Particles and Symmetries 149.
6 1 Spin Space 150, 6 2 SU 2 Symmetries 156, 6 3 Hadrons and Quarks 159. 6 4 The Discrete Symmetries C P T 163, 6 5 Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking 166. 6 6 Primeval Phase Transitions and Symmetries 171. 6 7 Baryosynthesis and Antimatter Generation 178, 7 Cosmic In ation 185. 7 1 Paradoxes of the Expansion 186, 7 2 Old and New In ation 192. 7 3 Chaotic In ation 196, 7 4 The In aton as Quintessence 202.
7 5 Cyclic Models 205, 8 Cosmic Microwave Background 211. 8 1 The CMB Temperature 212, 8 2 Temperature Anisotropies 216. 8 3 Polarization Anisotropies 222, 8 4 Model Testing and Parameter Estimation II 225. 9 Cosmic Structures and Dark Matter 231, 9 1 Density Fluctuations 232. 9 2 Structure Formation 237, 9 3 The Evidence for Dark Matter 241.
9 4 Dark Matter Candidates 248, 9 5 The Cold Dark Matter Paradigm 252. 10 Epilogue 259, 10 1 Singularities 259, 10 2 Open Questions 262. Tables 267, Index 271, Preface to First Edition, A few decades ago astronomy and particle physics started to merge in the com . mon eld of cosmology The general public had always been more interested in. the visible objects of astronomy than in invisible atoms and probably met cosmol . ogy rst in Steven Weinberg s famous book The First Three Minutes More recently. Stephen Hawking s A Brief History of Time has caused an avalanche of interest in. this subject , Although there are now many popular monographs on cosmology there are. so far no introductory textbooks at university undergraduate level Chapters on. cosmology can be found in introductory books on relativity or astronomy but. they cover only part of the subject One reason may be that cosmology is explicitly. cross disciplinary and therefore it does not occupy a prominent position in either. physics or astronomy curricula , At the University of Helsinki I decided to try to take advantage of the great.
interest in cosmology among the younger students o ering them a one semester. course about one year before their specialization started Hence I could not count. on much familiarity with quantum mechanics general relativity particle physics . astrophysics or statistical mechanics At this level there are courses with the. generic name of Structure of Matter dealing with Lorentz transformations and. the basic concepts of quantum mechanics My course aimed at the same level Its. main constraint was that it had to be taught as a one semester course so that it. would be accepted in physics and astronomy curricula The present book is based. on that course given three times to physics and astronomy students in Helsinki . Of course there already exist good books on cosmology The reader will in fact. nd many references to such books which have been an invaluable source of. information to me The problem is only that they address a postgraduate audience. that intends to specialize in cosmology research My readers will have to turn to. these books later when they have mastered all the professional skills of physics. and mathematics , In this book I am not attempting to teach basic physics to astronomers They. will need much more I am trying to teach just enough physics to be able to explain. the main ideas in cosmology without too much hand waving I have tried to avoid. the other extreme practised by some of my particle physics colleagues of writing. books on cosmology with the obvious intent of making particle physicists out of. every theoretical astronomer , Introduction to Cosmology Third Edition by Matts Roos. 2003 John Wiley Sons Ltd ISBN 0 470 84909 6 cased ISBN 0 470 84910 X pbk . x Preface to First Edition, I also do not attempt to teach basic astronomy to physicists In contrast to. astronomy scholars I think the main ideas in cosmology do not require very. detailed knowledge of astrophysics or observational techniques Whole books. have been written on distance measurements and the value of the Hubble param . eter which still remains imprecise to a factor of two Physicists only need to know. that quantities entering formulae are measurable albeit incorporating factors h. to some power so that the laws can be discussed meaningfully At undergraduate. level it is not even usual to give the errors on measured values . In most chapters there are subjects demanding such a mastery of theoretical. physics or astrophysics that the explanations have to be qualitative and the deriva . tions meagre for instance in general relativity spontaneous symmetry breaking . in ation and galaxy formation This is unavoidable because it just re ects the. level of undergraduates My intention is to go just a few steps further in these. matters than do the popular monographs , I am indebted in particular to two colleagues and friends who o ered construc . tive criticism and made useful suggestions The particle physicist Professor Kari. Enqvist of NORDITA Copenhagen my former student has gone to the trouble. of reading the whole manuscript The space astronomer Professor Stuart Bowyer. of the University of California Berkeley has passed several early mornings of jet. lag in Lapland going through the astronomy related sections Anyway he could. not go out skiing then because it was either a snow storm or 30 C Finally the. publisher provided me with a very knowledgeable and thorough referee an astro . physicist no doubt whose criticism of the chapter on galaxy formation was very. valuable to me For all remaining mistakes I take full responsibility They may well. have been introduced by me afterwards , Thanks are also due to friends among the local experts particle physicist Pro .
fessor Masud Chaichian and astronomer Professor Kalevi Mattila have helped me. with details and have answered my questions on several occasions I am also. indebted to several people who helped me to assemble the pictorial material . Drs Subir Sarkar in Oxford Rocky Kolb in the Fermilab Carlos Frenk in Durham . Werner Kienzle at CERN and members of the COBE team . Finally I must thank my wife Jacqueline for putting up with almost two years. of near absence and full absent mindedness while writing this book . Matts Roos, Preface to Second Edition, In the three years since the rst edition of this book was nalized the eld of. cosmology has seen many important developments mainly due to new obser . vations with superior instruments such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the. ground based Keck telescope and many others Thus a second edition has become. necessary in order to provide students and other readers with a useful and up to . date textbook and reference book , At the same time I could balance the presentation with material which was. not adequately covered before there I am in debt to many readers Also the. inevitable number of misprints errors and unclear formulations typical of a rst. edition could be corrected I am especially indebted to Kimmo Kainulainen who. served as my course assistant one semester and who worked through the book. and the problems thoroughly resulting in a very long list of corrigenda A similar. shorter list was also dressed by George Smoot and a student of his It still worries. me that the errors found by George had been found neither by Kimmo nor by. myself thus statistics tells me that some errors still will remain undetected . For new pictorial material I am indebted to Wes Colley at Princeton Carlos Frenk. in Durham Charles Lineweaver in Strasbourg Jukka Nevalainen in Helsinki Subir. Sarkar in Oxford and George Smoot in Berkeley I am thankful to the Academie. des Sciences for an invitation to Paris where I could visit the Observatory of Paris . Meudon and pro t from discussions with S Bonazzola and Brandon Carter . Several of my students have contributed in various ways by misunderstandings . indicating the need for better explanations by their enthusiasm for the subject . and by technical help in particular S M Harun or Rashid My youngest grandchild. Adrian not yet 3 has showed a vivid interest for supernova bangs as demon . strated by an X ray image of the Cassiopeia A remnant Thus the future of the. subject is bright , Matts Roos, Introduction to Cosmology Third Edition by Matts Roos. 2003 John Wiley Sons Ltd ISBN 0 470 84909 6 cased ISBN 0 470 84910 X pbk . Preface to Third Edition, This preface can start just like the previous one in the seven years since the. second edition was nalized the eld of cosmology has seen many important. developments mainly due to new observations with superior instruments In the. past cosmology often relied on philosophical or aesthetic arguments now it is. maturing to become an exact science For example the Einstein de Sitter universe . which has zero cosmological constant 0 used to be favoured for esthetical. reasons but today it is known to be very di erent from zero 0 73 0 04 . the basic concepts of quantum mechanics My course aimed at the same level Its main constraint was that it had to be taught as a one semester course so that it would be accepted in physics and astronomy curricula The present book is based on that course given three times to physics and astronomy students in Helsinki

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