International Iec Standard 60076 8-Books Pdf

INTERNATIONAL IEC STANDARD 60076 8
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Publication numbering, As from 1 January 1997 all IEC publications are issued with a designation in the. 60000 series For example IEC 34 1 is now referred to as IEC 60034 1 . Consolidated editions, The IEC is now publishing consolidated versions of its publications For example . edition numbers 1 0 1 1 and 1 2 refer respectively to the base publication the base. publication incorporating amendment 1 and the base publication incorporating. amendments 1 and 2 , Further information on IEC publications. The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC . thus ensuring that the content reflects current technology Information relating to this. publication including its validity is available in the IEC Catalogue of publications. see below in addition to new editions amendments and corrigenda Information on. the subjects under consideration and work in progress undertaken by the technical. committee which has prepared this publication as well as the list of publications. issued is also available from the following , IEC Web Site www iec ch . Catalogue of IEC publications, The on line catalogue on the IEC web site www iec ch searchpub enables you to.
search by a variety of criteria including text searches technical committees and. date of publication On line information is also available on recently issued. publications withdrawn and replaced publications as well as corrigenda . IEC Just Published, This summary of recently issued publications www iec ch online news justpub is. also available by email Please contact the Customer Service Centre see below . for further information , Customer Service Centre. If you have any questions regarding this publication or need further assistance . please contact the Customer Service Centre , Email custserv iec ch. Tel 41 22 919 02 11, Fax 41 22 919 03 00, INTERNATIONAL IEC. STANDARD 60076 8, First edition, 1997 10, Power transformers .
Application guide, IEC 1997 Copyright all rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical . including photocopying and microfilm without permission in writing from the publisher . International Electrotechnical Commission 3 rue de Varemb PO Box 131 CH 1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland. Telephone 41 22 919 02 11 Telefax 41 22 919 03 00 E mail inmail iec ch Web www iec ch. Com mission Electrotechnique Internationale, International Electrotechnical Com m ission. PRICE CODE XC, , For price see current catalogue. 60076 8 IEC 1997 3 , CONTENTS, Page, FOREWORD 5. Clause, 1 General 7, 2 Characteristic properties of different three phase winding combinations and.
magnetic circuit designs 9, 3 Characteristic properties and application of auto connected transformers 17. 4 Zero sequence properties neutral load current and earth fault conditions . magnetic saturation and inrush current 25, 5 Calculation of short circuit currents in three winding three phase transformers. separate winding transformers and auto connected transformers . with earthed neutrals 51, 6 Parallel operation of transformers in three phase systems 81. 7 Calculation of voltage drop for a specified load three winding transformer load loss 93. 8 Specification of rated quantities and tapping quantities 125. 9 Convertor applications with standard transformers 147. 10 Guide to the measurement of losses in power transformers 151. Annex A Basic relations for single phase and two phase earth faults 165. 60076 8 IEC 1997 5 , INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION. , POWER TRANSFORMERS , APPLICATION GUIDE, FOREWORD.
1 The IEC International Electrotechnical Commission is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising. all national electrotechnical committees IEC National Committees The object of the IEC is to promote. international co operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields To. this end and in addition to other activities the IEC publishes International Standards Their preparation is. entrusted to technical committees any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may. participate in this preparatory work International governmental and non governmental organizations liaising. with the IEC also participate in this preparation The IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization. for Standardization ISO in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two. organizations , 2 The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters express as nearly as possible an. international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation. from all interested National Committees , 3 The documents produced have the form of recommendations for international use and are published in the form. of standards technical reports or guides and they are accepted by the National Committees in that sense . 4 In order to promote international unification IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC International. Standards transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional standards Any. divergence between the IEC Standard and the corresponding national or regional standard shall be clearly. indicated in the latter , 5 The IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any. equipment declared to be in conformity with one of its standards . 6 Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject. of patent rights The IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights . International Standard IEC 60076 8 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 14 Power. transformers , This first edition of IEC 60076 8 cancels and replaces IEC 60606 published in 1978 This. edition constitutes a technical revision , The text of this standard is based on the following documents .
FDIS Report on voting, 14 260 FDIS 14 297 RVD, Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on. voting indicated in the above table , IEC 60076 consists of the following parts under the general title Power transformers . Part 1 1993 General, Part 2 1993 Temperature rise. Part 3 1980 Insulation levels and dielectric tests. Part 5 1976 Ability to withstand short circuit, Part 8 1997 Application guide. Annex A is for information only , 60076 8 IEC 1997 7 .
POWER TRANSFORMERS , APPLICATION GUIDE, 1 General. 1 1 Scope and object, This Standard applies to power transformers complying with the series of publications. IEC 60076 , It is intended to provide information to users about . certain fundamental service characteristics of different transformer connections and. magnetic circuit designs with particular reference to zero sequence phenomena . system fault currents in transformers with YNynd and similar connections . parallel operation of transformers calculation of voltage drop or rise under load and. calculation of load loss for three winding load combinations . selection of rated quantities and tapping quantities at the time of purchase based on. prospective loading cases , application of transformers of conventional design to convertor loading . measuring technique and accuracy in loss measurement . Part of the information is of a general nature and applicable to all sizes of power transformers . Several chapters however deal with aspects and problems which are of the interest only for. the specification and utilization of large high voltage units . The recommendations are not mandatory and do not in themselves constitute specification. requirements , Information concerning loadability of power transformers is given in IEC 60354 for oil .
immersed transformers and IEC 60905 for dry type transformers . Guidance for impulse testing of power transformers is given in IEC 60722 . 1 2 Normative references, The following normative documents contain provisions which through reference in this text . constitute provisions of this International Standard At the time of publication the editions. indicated were valid All normative documents are subject to revision and parties to. agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility. of applying the most recent edition of the normative documents indicated below Members of. IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently valid International Standards . IEC 60050 421 1990 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary IEV Chapter 421 Power. transformers and reactors, IEC 60076 Power transformers. IEC 60076 1 1993 Power transformers Part 1 General. 60076 8 IEC 1997 9 , IEC 60076 3 1980 Power transformers Part 3 Insulation levels and dielectric tests. IEC 60289 1988 Reactors, IEC 60354 1991 Loading guide for oil immersed power transformers. IEC 60722 1982 Guide to the lightning impulse and switching impulse testing of power. transformers and reactors, IEC 60905 1987 Loading guide for dry type power transformers.
IEC 60909 1988 Short circuit current calculation in three phase a c systems. IEC 60909 1 1991 Short circuit current calculation in three phase a c systems Part 1 . Factors for the calculation of short circuit currents in three phase a c systems according to. IEC 60909 1988 , IEC 60909 2 1992 Electrical equipment Data for short circuit current calculations in. accordance with IEC 60909 1988 , IEC 61378 1 1997 Convertor transformers Part 1 Transformers for industrial applications. ISO 9001 1994 Quality systems Model for quality assurance in design development . production installation and servicing, 2 Characteristic properties of different three phase winding combinations. and magnetic circuit designs, This chapter is an overview of the subject Additional information is given in clause 4 on zero . sequence properties , 2 1 Y D and Z connected windings.
There are two principal three phase connections of transformer windings star Y connection . and delta D connection For special purposes particularly in small power transformers . another connection named zigzag or Z is also used Historically several other schemes have. been in use such as truncated delta extended delta T connection V connection etc . While such connections are used in transformers for special applications they no longer. appear in common power transmission systems , 2 1 1 Advantages of a Y connected winding. This type of winding , is more economical for a high voltage winding . has a neutral point available , permits direct earthing or earthing through an impedance . permits reduced insulation level of the neutral graded insulation . permits the winding taps and tapchanger to be located at the neutral end of each phase . permits single phase loading with neutral current see 2 2 and 4 8 . 60076 8 IEC 1997 11 , 2 1 2 Advantages of a D connected winding. This type of winding , is more economical for a high current low voltage winding .
in combination with a star connected winding reduces the zero sequence impedance in. that winding , 2 1 3 Advantages of a Z connected winding. This type of winding , permits neutral current loading with inherently low zero sequence impedance It is used. for earthing transformers to create an artificial neutral terminal of a system . reduces voltage unbalance in systems where the load is not equally distributed between. the phases , 2 2 Characteristic properties of combinations of winding connections. The notation of winding connections for the whole transformer follows the conventions in. IEC 60076 1 clause 6 , This subclause is a summary of the neutral current behaviour in different winding. combinations Such conditions are referred to as having zero sequence components of. current and voltage This concept is dealt with further in clauses 4 and 5 . The statements are also valid for three phase banks of single phase transformers connected. together externally , 2 2 1 YNyn and YNauto, Zero sequence current may be transformed between the windings under ampere turn balance .
meeting low short circuit impedance in the transformer System transformers with such. connections may in addition be provided with delta equalizer winding see 4 7 2 and 4 8 . 2 2 2 YNy and Yyn, Zero sequence current in the winding with earthed neutral does not have balancing ampere . turns in the opposite winding where the neutral is not connected to earth It therefore. constitutes a magnetizing current for the iron core and is controlled by a zero sequence. magnetizing impedance This impedance is high or very high depending on the design of the. magnetic circuit see 2 3 The symmetry of the phase to neutral voltages will be affected and. there may be limitations for the allowable zero sequence current caused by stray flux heating. see 4 8 , 2 2 3 YNd Dyn YNyd loadable tertiary or YNy d non loadable delta equalizer winding . Zero sequence current in the star winding with earthed neutral causes compensating. circulating current to flow in the delta winding The impedance is low approximately equal to. the positive sequence short circuit impedance between the windings . If there are two star windings with earthed neutrals including the case of auto . IEC 60076 1 clause 6 This subclause is a summary of the neutral current behaviour in different winding combinations Such conditions are referred to as having zero sequence components of current and voltage This concept is dealt with further in clauses 4 and 5 The statements are also valid for three phase banks of single phase transformers connected together externally 2 2 1 YNyn and

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