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African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com, et al 2003 investigated communication and empowerment as dimensions of internal. marketing For Chang and Chang 2009 the dimensions of internal marketing included. employee oriented measures internal communication and external activities Again Narteh. 2012 conceptualised the dimensions of internal marketing as empowerment reward. systems communications and employee training and development Similarly De Bruin. Reynolds Roberts Lombard and de Meyer 2015 considered internal product internal price. internal promotion and internal distribution as internal marketing mix Clearly there is no. meeting of minds when it comes to the elements of internal marketing This gap is a major. challenge with current internal marketing literature This study therefore explores the. internal marketing literature and attempts to develop a broader framework of internal. marketing dimensions that better reflect internal marketing especially in the small hotel. Internal marketing and the hospitality industry, Researchers have argued that the hotel industry is unique compared to other service. industries as it provides a home environment for commercial purposes Studies on internal. marketing have over the years sought to demonstrate the relevance of internal marketing in. the management of employees of the hotel industry Various studies on internal marketing. have demonstrated that effective internal marketing practices in the hotel industry results in. employee satisfaction customer focus and high service quality delivery to the guest. Kandampully 2002 Tag Eldeen El Said 2011 Sokhatskaya 2013 For instance. Kandampully 2002 argues that satisfied employees will ultimately relay their level of. satisfaction onto the guest who patronise their services Sokhatskaya 2013 posits that. internal marketing enables the provision of high standards of quality at all stages of the. operation of a hotel Effective internal marketing practices lead to the establishment of a. service culture development of a marketing approach to human resource management. information dissemination among hotel employees and implementation of a reward and. recognition system Tag Eldeen El Said 2011, The complex nature of the hospitality industry makes the management of people challenging. and different from other industries Tag Eldeen El Said 2011 Internal marketing has. been seen as a means of effectively managing employees for enhanced productivity. Yankevich 2004 An excellent internal marketing environment in the hotel would enable. employees provide high service quality Indeed several studies have confirmed the. importance of internal marketing in managing employees in the hotel industry Turkoz. Akyol 2008 Lo Stalcup Lee 2010 Sokhatskaya 2013 Lo et al 2010 for example. suggested that hotel operators must first address the needs of employees as a measure to. building good relations with customers Internal marketing is considered the means by. which employee needs can be addressed and is therefore the basis of the formation of the. relationship between the customer and the employee in the hotel setting Sokhatskaya. Turkoz and Akyol 2008 found a positive relationship between the level of internal marketing. in the hotel and the level of hotel performance The effective application of internal marketing. practices in the hotel industry has been shown to contribute to employee job satisfaction. resulting in an increase in positive employee behaviour including cooperation with. colleagues and commitment to the organisation Arnett Laverie Mclane 2002 In a study. of five star hotels in Egypt Tag Eldeen and El Said 2011 concluded that internal marketing. is an effective tool in promoting and enhancing employee commitment to the hotel In a. case study of two hotels Hedin and Lidstrom 2006 demonstrated that low employee. turnover rate was a consequence of internal marketing practices in these hotels. African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com, Sokhatskaya 2013 also argued that internal marketing enhanced the effectiveness and. focus of the hotel employee However several of these studies as cited above sparingly. focused on sub Saharan Africa and especially on the lower end of the market small hotel. as conceptualised in this study A search of the extant literature suggests that studies linking. internal marketing practices and employee commitment especially in the small hotel sector. and more so in a developing country context are rather limited This introduces a contextual. gap in the literature Management values and practices differ considerably between small. and luxury hotels Lee Ross Ingold 1994 Hankinson 1989 implying that findings from. one segment of the industry may not necessarily be applicable to other segments It is. therefore relevant to determine the impact of internal marketing on employee commitment on. small hotels in a sub Saharan environment using Ghana as a case in point. Critical research issues arise from the discussions above The study attempts to seek. answers to the question what are the dimensions of internal marketing and what is its. impact on employee commitment in small hotels Consequently the study is designed to. achieve the following objectives applicable to small hotels. Identify internal marketing dimensions, Determine the impact of internal marketing on employee commitment. Determine the relative significance of the dimensions of internal marketing on. employee commitment, It is hoped that the study would make a contribution towards conceptualising the dimensions. of internal marketing and throw more light on the relationship between internal marketing. practices and employee commitment especially in the small hotel sector It is also expected. that the output of the study would provide small hotels and their managers with relevant. insights that they could employ to gain the commitment of their employees. Internal marketing dimensions, A major challenge with current internal marketing literature is the lack of agreement on its. dimensions Ahmed et al 2003 Despite this challenge a number of studies suggest some. dimensions For instance Berry and Parasuraman 2004 identified attracting developing. motivating and retaining qualified employees as relevant internal marketing dimensions. Gummesson 1991 considered communication training education and information as. internal marketing dimensions while Varey 1995 identified motivating developing and. training employees Ahmed et al 2003 also suggested strategic rewards internal. communications training and development inter functional co ordination incentive systems. and empowerment while Chang and Chang 2007 proposed training administrative support. internal communication and human resource management as internal marketing dimensions. Service training programmes and performance initiatives were also identified as internal. marketing dimensions Tsai Tang 2008, Reading from the extant literature this study operationalised the constructs of internal. marketing as internal communication staff development ICT fairness empowerment. teamwork and employee motivation These constructs are discussed below. Internal communication, African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com, Communication within the organisation has become an essential prerequisite for the well. functioning of internal activities in the organisation and job satisfaction Goris Vaught. Pettit 2000 Ducharme Martin 2008 McCormick 2008 Tourani Rsat 2012. Communication has been defined by Dwyer 2005 as the process whereby people within an. organization give and receive message Ahmed and Rafiq 2003 posit that communication. should be featured at all levels of the organizational hierarchy so that the behaviour of all. employees can be influenced According to Roberts Lombard 2010 organisations as part. of their priorities should improve communication with employees through different means. such as internal newsletter and team work discussion sessions The power of an effective. internal communication should not be undermined because it serves as a vital tool as far as. internal marketing practices are concern Lovelock 1999 Dwairi Bhuian Jurkus 2007. Beyerlein McGee Klein Nemiro and Broedling 2003 suggested that management should. align support systems that employees can communicate their needs and frustrations as this. will lead to employee satisfaction and effective functioning of the organization Studies have. noted a positive association between internal communication and employee outcomes such. as job satisfaction Jo Shim 2005 Kim Rhee 2011 It is hypothesised therefore that. H1 Internally communication significantly impacts employee commitment. Staff development, Employees are the greatest resources of the organisation Beyerlein et al 2003 Managers. in the service sector need to train and develop their human capital to be abreast with. changes in the environment and equip them with new skills to deliver service quality in this. era of intense competition According to Abiodun 1999 training is a systematic. development of the knowledge skills and attitudes required by employees to perform. adequately on a given task or job A study conducted by Martensen and Gr nholdt 2006. revealed that employees who have undergone training and develop new skills and acquire. knowledge are competent secured and confident in service delivery far better than their. counterparts with inadequate training Papasolomou 2002 contends that employee. development serves as motivation for their dedication to work and delivering of high service. quality Watkins and Marsick 2003 found that employee development leads to increase in. employee job satisfaction In the small hotel settings managers should periodically organise. training sessions for employees about new developments or impending changes Byju. 2013 Byju 2013 argues that this will help the employee to reposition and absorb the. developments and adjust to the necessary requirements Waris 2005 argues that when. employees believe employers have invested in them through training and development they. become satisfied and subsequently cultivate a sense of belonging to the organisation It is. hypothesised therefore that, H2 Staff development significantly impacts employee commitment. Information and communication technology ICT, Time in service delivery is an important tool due to the perishable nature of services. specifically hotel business operations Several scholars agree that the immersion of ICT in. the development of marketing activities can be a true source of competitive advantage for. any company improving innovation processes and their outcomes Zeithaml Bitner 2000. Bond Houston 2003 Tatikonda Stock 2003 Neu Brown 2005 Antioco 2006. Penttinen Palmer 2007 In this study ICT is seen as the use of state of the art. technological logistics computers reliable internet intercom services and other. technological infrastructure that aid employees to deliver services on time According to. Zeithaml and Bitner 2000 building a service system and enhancing service quality. excellence requires the use of IT infrastructure Neu and Brown 2005 reiterated that for. African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com, organisations to compete in an increasingly complex market staff ability to use ICT for. services is a vital resource In similar developments Antioco 2006 argues that ICT. enables better service delivery and leads to improve cross functional communication and. service oriented business strategy internally within the organisation Sorensen and Lundh. Snis 2001 point out that ICT serves as catalyst and encourage the process of transmission. and diffusion of knowledge throughout the organisation In the light of the earlier. discussions it can be argued that employees equipped with the requisite ICT equipment and. skills will be more committed to work and deliver high service quality than their counterparts. with obsolete or no technological devices This informed the third hypothesis. H3 ICT significantly impacts employee commitment, Management must arrange regular meetings with their employees to listen to their needs. enquiries complains and recommendations in order to address the needs of employees on. an individual basis Roberts Lombard 2010 The author argues that such a practice will. enable management to institute equity and fair play towards employees in the organisation. Unfair treatment of employees by management hinders service quality delivery For. instance most employees in the same rank usually compare their salaries with each other to. ascertain whether they receive equal pay Noe et al 2006 Meanwhile Suleiman Awwad. and Mohammad Agti 2011 emphasised that a fair reward system coupled with a positive. interaction and vision sharing with employees creates more emotionally attached employees. and employee satisfaction leading to employee retention Consequently fairness as internal. marketing tool will help reduce suspicions among co workers which will enhance conducive. working environment and corporation among employees It is thus conceptualised that. H4 Fairness significantly impacts employee commitment. Empowerment, Employee empowerment is significant in service organisations Zeithaml and Bitner 1996. opine that a lot of organisations accept that in order to be responsive to customer needs. employees need to be empowered to accommodate customer requests and respond. appropriately to remedy situations when things go wrong According to Proctor and Doukakis. 2003 the effective part of employee development dwells on empowerment Empowerment. as an internal marketing dimension means authorizing and enabling employees to act. behave think and make decisions to get the job done Kaner 2014 This enables. employees to exercise their discretion in service delivery Czaplewski Ferguson Milliman. 2001 It is when employers create favourable environments and equip employees with. resources to boost their level of confidence that they are able to effectively take on new. responsibilities Lovelock 1999 Scholars have suggested that when empowerment is. incorporated in the job design of an organisation it could enhance employee satisfaction. Evan Lindsay 1996 Eskildsen Dahlgaard 2000 Empowered employees have the. opportunity to go beyond scope to satisfy the firm s customers Babakus Yavas Karatepe. Avci 2003 It is thus hypothesised as follows, H5 Empowerment significantly impacts employee commitment. It is important for internal employees to work as a team to satisfy the external customer. Moingeon and Edmondson 1996 p 166 defined internal team work as the extent to which. team members engage in behaviours to monitor performance against goals obtain new. information test assumptions and create new possibilities A study conducted by Drake. African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com, Gulman and Roberts 2005 revealed that an effective implementation of internal marketing. can lead to better team work In the hotel business it is equally important for employees to. work as a team and share ideas to harness delivery of service quality Employees effectively. working as one team with a common purpose can improve the quality of service delivery and. profitability Consequently it is hypothesised that. H6 Teamwork significantly impacts employee commitment. Employee motivation, Motivation is an essential element which enhances the performance of the employee. Papasolomou 2006 Ahmed and Rafiq 2006 ranked employee motivation and satisfaction. as the first phase in internal marketing The study of Tansey McHugh and McGrath 2004. as cited in Amjad and Muhammad 2012 found that management can use internal. marketing to motivate employees to provide the best possible service to customers In a. similar development Papasolomou 2006 argues that a lot of companies set a systematic. reward system to motivate its employees to improve their service quality and delivery The. challenge in the reward system is management s inability to ascertain the differences that. exist between good average and poor performers Noe Hollenbeck Gerhart Wright. 2006 Empirical evidence from the hospitality management literatures indicates that. intrinsically motivated employees exhibit desirable outcomes such as heightened job. satisfaction Karatepe Uludag 2007 A study by Locke and Latham 1990 found a. relationship between employee motivation and job satisfaction Zain Ishak and Ghani 2009. established a direct relationship between motivation as a reward system and employee. commitment Flowing from the above it is hypothesised as follows. H7 Employee motivation significantly impacts employee commitment. Employee commitment, Different scholars have defined employee commitment in diverse ways Mowday Steers. Porter 1979 Maxwell Steel 2003 He Murrman Perdue 2010 Nartey 2012 For. instance Mowday et al 1979 noted that commitment referred to the relative strength of an. individual s identification with and involvement in a particular organisation Maxwell and. Steele 2003 described employee commitment as the intensity of an employee s affinity to. and participation in an organisation He et al 2010 on the other hand saw employee. commitment as the psychological and emotional attachment of an employee to his or her. organisation accepting the goals and values of the organisation and delivering high quality. service in order to satisfy and retain customers, Narteh 2012 described employee commitment as a felt state of employees attachment to. their organisations including their willingness to internalise the values of the organisation. and abiding by the rules and regulations therein For the purposes of this study employee. commitment is described as the strength of an employee s attachment to an organisation. usually manifested in employee internalisation of organisational values going the extra. mile to achieve corporate objectives and staying long in the organisation Scholars have. frequently measured employee commitment from three perspectives thus affective. commitment normative commitment and continuance commitment see Allen Meyer. 1997 Yousef 2003 Dixit Bhati 2012 Narteh 2012 An employee s commitment to an. organisation could be based upon any one of these three types of commitments or all of. them as all the three sub components are not mutually exclusive Park Rainey 2007. African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com, Affective or attitudinal commitment refers to an employee s belief and acceptance of the. goals and values of an organisation Swailes 2002 Park and Rainey 2007 posit that high. levels of affective commitment in organisations has the most significant effect on job. satisfaction perceived performance and quality of work in their study of public sector. agencies in the United State of America Normative commitment on the other hand. describes the feelings of obligations and loyalty an employee feels towards organisation. Swailes 2002 Normative commitment stresses both the formal and informal responsibility. an employee feels towards the organisation The employee feels obliged to work in order for. the firm to effectively function and meet its goals and objectives Park Rainey 2007. Narteh 2012 The normative aspect develops as employees perceive they have a moral. obligation to remain with a specific organisation irrespective of how much status. improvement or fulfilment the organisation has given the individual over the years Marsh. Mannari 1977 Dixit Bhati 2012 The cost an individual perceives to be associated with. leaving the employment of an organisation is described as continuance commitment Allen. Meyer 1997 For Allen and Meyer 1997 continuance commitment develops on the basis. of two factors the number of investments individuals make in their current organisation and. the perceived lack of alternatives, Kanter 1968 describes continuance commitment as a cognitive activity that occurs when. there is a profit associated with continued participation and a cost associated with leaving. Continuance commitment is cost induced and refers to an employee s awareness of the. costs associated with leaving the organisation Narteh 2012 Dixit Bhati 2012 The items. that were used to measure employee commitment were drawn from the extant literature. Particularly the items were drawn from the works of Yousef 2003 Chang and Chang. 2009 and Narteh 2012 The plausible relationships between the internal marketing. dimensions identified above and employee commitment is demonstrated by figure 1 and. hypothesised as follows, H1 Internal communication significantly impacts employee commitment. H2 Staff development significantly impacts employee commitment. H3 ICT significantly impacts employee commitment, H4 Fairness significantly impacts employee commitment. H5 Empowerment significantly impacts employee commitment. H6 Teamwork significantly impacts employee commitment. H7 Employee motivation significantly impacts employee commitment. Communication,Staff Development H1,Fairness Employee. Commitment,Empowerment H5,Motivation, Figure 1 Internal marketing and employee commitment. African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com,Small hotels in Ghana. Small hotels are conceptualised in this study to include budget hotels and guest houses as. classified by the Ghana Tourism Authority GTA which regulates and supervises the tourism. and hospitality sector Hotels in Ghana are rated from 1 star to 5 stars Hotels with no star. rating are considered budget hotels and guest houses A guest house is a hotel that could. otherwise have achieved a star rating status but that has fewer than 10 guest rooms A. study in this sector is particularly significant as according to the Ghana Tourism Authority. GTA small hotels constitute about 70 of the total number of hotels in Ghana. Study methodology, The study was designed as a single cross sectional study The sampling units for the study. were made up of small hotels in the Greater Accra region of Ghana The sampling frame for. this population consisted of a register of small hotels in the Greater Accra region as. maintained by the GTA The hotels were chosen through a random sampling technique. The hotels were serially numbered and each number was written on a separate piece of. paper and crumbled into a dry container The researcher then picked 50 pieces of these. crumbled papers at random The hotels whose corresponding numbers were picked. constituted the sampling units for the study A total of 50 hotels were sampled The. sampling elements were made up of employees of the selected hotels The Greater Accra. Region is the economic and political capital of the country and according to the GTA has. about 40 of small hotels in Ghana It is the researcher s consideration that the study. sample drawn from the Greater Accra region provides deep insight into the research subject. The items used for measurement in the study were derived from the review of relevant. extant literature on both internal marketing and employee commitment These items were. used to design a structured questionnaire for the study The questionnaire was first given to. three senior colleagues who reviewed the instrument and made suggestions These. suggestions resulted in the restructuring and rewording of parts of the instrument The. questionnaire was then piloted tested among 30 employees randomly selected from 15 small. hotels in Accra the capital city These hotels and their employees were selected as per the. same procedure described for the selection of the sampling units and elements for the main. study Adjustments were made to the questionnaire after the pilot test before the instrument. was rolled out for the survey, The items on the questionnaire were measured on a five point Likert scale The scale. ranged from 1 which was described as highly unimportant to 5 which was described as. highly important The questionnaire contained 41 questions 29 questions measured seven. internal marketing dimensions seven questions measured employee commitment and five. questions related to the personal data of respondents such as age gender and nationality. For internal marketing six items measured fairness four items measured empowerment. five items each measured motivation and internal communication and three items each. measured staff development teamwork and ICT The internal marketing dimensions and. employee commitment and the various items that measure them are outline below. I am treated fairly in salary issues, I am treated fairly in training and development issues. I am treated fairly in promotion issues,I am treated fairly in workload issues. African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com, I am treated fairly in reward incentives and benefits issues. I am treated fairly in disciplinary issues,Empowerment. My hotel encourages me to take initiatives,My hotel enhances my feeling of self efficiency. My hotel trusts me to exercise good judgements, My hotel allows me to use my own judgement in solving problems. Motivation,Employees are paid competitive salaries. Employees are paid competitive fringe benefits and incentives. Employees are encouraged to give off their best, Employees are encouraged to remain with the company. Employees are given reasonably workload,Internal communication. This organisation has internal communication strategies. This organisation has interactive communication channels. This organisation encourages interpersonal communication. This organisation regularly communicates with us, This organisation communicates clearly and unambiguously with us. Staff development,The hotel constantly trains staff. The hotel fosters learning among staff, The hotel ensures training is linked to roles played by staff. My colleagues in the department effectively collaborate with me. My colleagues in other departments effectively collaborate with me. My superiors effectively collaborate with me,The ICT facility is always in working order. The ICT facility is the right one for me, The ICT facility enables me effectively perform my job. Employee commitment,I care about the future development of this hotel. I feel I have a promising future if I stay with this hotel. I will pass on my experience to new staff in this hotel. I am emotionally attached to this hotel,I will feel guilty if I leave this hotel. I am willing to serve this hotel,I am better off staying with this hotel. The items measuring the various internal marketing dimensions were derived from various. literature sources as indicated in table1 below, African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com,Table 1 Dimensions of internal marketing. Item Internal marketing Literature source,dimensions. 1 Internal Communication Gummesson 1991 Ahmed et al 2003 Chang and Chang 2007 Narteh. 2 Staff Development Berry and Parasuraman 1991 Gummesson 1991 Varey 1995 Ahmed et. al 2003 Tsai and Tang 2008 Narteh 2012, 3 ICT Zeithaml and Bitner 2000 Neu and Brown 2005 Antioco 2006. 4 Fairness Neo et al 2006 Roberts Lombard 2010 Suleiman Awwad and. Mohammad Agti 2011, 5 Empowerment Mishra 2009 Proctor and Doukakis 2003 Ahmed et al 2003 Kaner. 2014 Narteh 2012,6 Teamwork Ahmed et al 2003 Kaner 2014. 7 Employee Motivation Varey 1995 Berry and Parasuraman 1991 Ahmed et al 2003 Narteh. Source Constructed from literature, The questionnaires were administered to employees of 50 hotels selected by a random. sampling technique 250 respondents were targeted that is 5 respondents per hotel At. each selected hotel the purpose and nature of the research was made known to. management and permission sought from them to conduct the study Each employee was. represented identified by a letter of the alphabet which were all written on separate pieces. of paper and crumbled into a dry container The researcher randomly picked five pieces of. paper each from the containers and these represented the sample for the study. Quantitative data analyses techniques in SPSS version 20 which included exploratory factor. analysis scale reliability test and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the. collected data for the study Exploratory factor analysis and scale reliability test were used. as data reduction and reliability test tools to determine relevant internal marketing. dimensions and items Multiple linear regression analysis was also used to determine the. relationship between the internal marketing dimensions and employee commitment 180. questionnaires were found to be useful for the study. Findings from the study, The majority of the respondents were male constituting almost 68 Ages 18 to 40 years. constituted about 90 of respondents with the age group of 31 to 40 alone constituting 50. of the respondents There was no intention to skew the gender composition and age group. However the results suggest that more young males are employed in this sector of the hotel. industry Only 4 respondents had tertiary education Majority of respondents fell within the. primary JHS SHS category This situation is not surprising because this segment of the. industry is the lower end and so is unable to attract the services of highly educated. personnel This is further illustrated by the fact that over 83 of respondents had worked for. five years or less in these hotels suggesting that people moved on as they obtained higher. educational qualifications In terms of nationality only four respondents were not citizens of. The descriptive statistics revealed a high mean score From an answer range of 1 to 5 the. lowest mean score registered was 3 3111 and the highest mean score recorded was. 4 3111 This means that respondents were highly agreed on all the items that measured. internal marketing, African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com,Exploratory factor analyses. The Bartlett s test of sphericity must be significant p 05 for factor analysis to be. considered appropriate for a given set of data The Bartlett Test of Sphericity in this study. recorded an approximate Chi Square value of 4623 623 df 406 and was significant Sig. 0 000 The KMO measure of sampling adequacy recorded a value of 742 and this is. considered adequate for factor analysis as KMO index of 0 6 is suggested as the minimum. value for a good factor analysis Tabachnick Fidell 2007 Hair Bush Babin Anderson. Tatham 2006 A correlation matrix was generated from the dataset and it indicated a large. proportion of items with correlations of 3 and above thus establishing the suitability of the. data set for factor analyses Pallant 2010, The study contained 29 items which were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using. Principal Component Analysis in SPSS Version 20 for windows Only items with. eigenvalues exceeding 1 were extracted Malhotra Birks 2007 Pallant 2010 and this. resulted in 8 factors which explained 79 of the variance To aid in the interpretation of. these 8 components Varimax rotation was performed This resulted in 26 items loading. unto 7 factors The resulting factors were tested to determine their reliability and internal. consistency and they registered high alpha values as indicated in table 2. Table 2 Factor loadings reliability of scales independent variables. Variables No of Item Item Total Cronbach s Cronbach s. Items Loadings Correlation Alpha Alpha if,ITC Item Deleted. Internal Communication 5 889, Internal communication strategies exist 644 717 868. Interactive communication channels exist 723 710 870. Interpersonal communication encouraged 824 698 873. Regular communication with staff 762 776 855,Unambiguous communication with staff 746 753 860. Staff Development 5 871,Encouraged to give off their best 778 657 853. Reasonable workload 605 606 865,Constant training of staff 644 715 839. Learning among staff is fostered 779 810 816,Training linked to roles staff play 720 702 843. ICT facility always in working order 822 864 877,ICT facility is appropriate 909 880 861. ICT facility enables effective job execution 776 628 898. Fairness 4 839,Fair treatment in salary issues 843 726 774. Fair treatment in staff development 834 650 806,Fair treatment in promotion 823 753 763. Fair treatment in reward benefits 560 577 843,Empowerment 3 843. Fair treatment in reward benefits 697 715 776,Encouraged to take initiatives 828 764 727. Enhance feeling of self efficiency 736 650 837,Teamwork 3 903. Effective intra departmental cooperation 795 737 927. Effective inter departmental cooperation 812 874 813. Superiors effectively cooperate with staff 750 825 846. African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com,Motivation 3 782. Use own judgement in solving problems 655 584 743,Competitive salaries paid 774 616 710. Competitive benefits paid 873 670 651,Source Constructed from field data. Scale reliability, A scale reliability test was undertaken to determine the internal consistency of the items that. constituted each of the dimensions of internal marketing For an item to be retained in the. scale it should have a minimum factor loading threshold of 0 5 Hair et al 2006 register an. item total correlation greater than 0 3 Blankson Stokes 2002 while a factor must have a. Cronbach Alpha score of at least 0 7 Pallant 2010 All the 26 items were retained after the. reliability test See table 2 All seven factors were also retained for further analyses as they. all scored high Cronbach Alpha values with 782 being the lowest score registered by staff. motivation and 924 being the highest Cronbach Alpha score registered by ICT A scale. reliability test was also conducted to assess the internal consistency of the overall scale. The overall scale registered a high Cronbach s Alpha score of 924 meaning that the scale. as a whole had a very high degree of internal consistency and so was reliable. Dependent factor, The dependent factor employee commitment which was made up of seven items was. also subjected to scale reliability test to determine the internal consistency of the sub scale. Table 3 revealed that all items in the dependent component had factor loadings greater than. 0 5 ITC scores greater than 0 3 and a Cronbach Alpha score of 904 Consequently all. items were retained for further analysis, Table 3 Factor Loadings Reliability of Scales Dependent Variables. Variables No of Item Item total Cronbach s Cronbach s. Items Loadings correlation Alpha Alpha if item,ITC is deleted. Employee Commitment 7 904,Emotionally attached to the hotel 875 814 879. Will pass on my experience to new staff 841 767 885. Have promising future with the hotel 822 742 887,Will feel guilty if I leave the hotel 807 726 889. I am willing to serve the hotel 792 714 890,I care about the future of the hotel 724 626 900. I am better off staying with the hotel 720 627 900. Source Constructed from field data,Multiple regression analysis. In order to determine the effect of internal marketing on employee commitment in small. hotels and evaluate the relative significance of the dimensions of internal marketing with. respect to employee commitment in small hotels a multiple regression analysis was. performed Results from the multiple regressions were used to analyse the relationship. between dimensions of internal marketing and employee commitment in small hotels This. was done to extract the independent variables that better explained the dependent variable. Issues of multicollinearity were investigated and the data was found to be suitable for. applying multiple regression analysis as the lowest tolerance value 452 and highest VIF. African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com, value 2 214 registered were higher than the 10 and lower than the suggested 10 cut off. points respectively Hair Bush Ortinau 2003 Pallant 2010 A correlation matrix was. constructed which recorded several correlation values of 3 and above between the. independent and dependent variables and correlation values below 7 and this is. acceptable for multiple regression purposes Tabachnick Fidell 2007. As shown in table 4 the results from the regression statistics indicated that there is a strong. and significant relationship between the internal marketing and employee commitment. constructs F 40 556 Prob F stats Costello and Osborn 2009 have noted that a model. reaches statistical significance at Sig 05 In this study the model is statistically significant. Sig 000 The R Square value in the model summary depicts the degree of variance in the. dependent variable which is explained by the model The R square value of 623 indicates. that the internal marketing construct explains 62 3 of the variance in employee. commitment, Table 4 indicates that all the dimensions of internal marketing had a statistically significant. impact on employee commitment results are significant at 0 05 that is P 0 05 except. employee motivation which registered a P value of 463 As indicated in table 4 ICT was. found to be the highest contributor towards employee commitment 489 t 7 986. Sig 000 0 05 the second was employee empowerment 329 t 5 513 Sig 000. while the third was internal communication 287 t 3985 Sig 000 The fourth factor. was teamwork 159 t 2 473 Sig 014 the fifth factor was staff development 158. t 2 409 Sig 017 and the sixth dimension was fairness 0 157 t 2 399 Sig 0 016. Table 4 Multi regression analysis table,Beta t Sig. Constant 1 426 156,Fairness 134 2 444 016,Empowerment 329 5 513 000. Motivation 039 735 463,Staff Development 158 2 409 017. Internal Communication 278 3 985 000,Teamwork 159 2 473 014. ICT 489 7 986 000,R Square 623 F Statistics 40 556. Adj R Square 607 Prob F stats 000,Discussion of findings. The first objective of the study was to establish the dimensions of internal marketing The. results show that internal marketing is multi dimensional and is consistent with findings from. other studies Narteh 2012 Ahmed Rafiq 2003 In this study internal marketing is made. up seven dimensions which comprised 26 items The dimensions and items are as follows. ICT 3 items employee empowerment 3 items communication 5 items teamwork 3. items staff development 5 items fairness 4 items and staff motivation 3 items See. table 2 for the internal marketing items The extant literature has identified empowerment of. employees and teamwork cross functional participation as relevant elements of internal. marketing De Bruin Reynolds 2015 Kaner 2014 Narteh 2012 Ahmed et al 2003 The. effective dissemination of information among employees internal communication and the. implementation of a reward and recognition system motivation are necessary in the. African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com, establishment of an effective internal marketing practice Narteh 2012 Tag Eldeen El. Said 2011 The education of staff good communication system using good reward. systems were identified as key dimensions of internal marketing in the hotel industry by. Hedin and Lidstrom 2006 Staff management and training as well as communication have. also been identified as critical internal marketing activities that when instituted in the hotel. enhanced employee productivity Narteh 2012 Yankevich 2004 The dimensions. established in this study as internal marketing elements have largely been identified by. various researchers in different studies However these dimensions have not all been. identified in one single study as has happened in this study This work has therefore offered. a more comprehensive conceptualisation of internal marketing dimensions focused on small. hotels in the hospitality sector, The second objective of this study was to determine the impact of the internal marketing. construct on employee commitment in the small hotel sector From table 4 the internal. marketing construct explained 62 3 of the variance in employee commitment and this is. statistically significant This result is consistent with findings from other studies For instance. in a study of nurses in Taiwan a favourable perception of internal marketing was associated. with increased organisational commitment Chang Chang 2009 which appears to support. the findings in this study Sokhatskaya 2013 have emphasised that internal marketing. enhances the effectiveness and focus of the hotel employee Similarly in a study to. determine the impact of internal marketing on employee commitment in the banking sector in. Ghana Narteh 2012 also found internal marketing to have a positive impact on employee. commitment, In terms of the individual impact of the internal marketing dimensions on employee. commitment the study hypothesised that all the seven internal marketing dimensions under. study had significant impact on employee commitment in the small hotel sector From the. regression results six of the seven internal marketing dimensions all had statistically. significant impact on employee commitment to the hotel thus accepting hypotheses H1 H6. The impact of motivation on employee commitment to the hotel was however not statistically. significant thus failing to accept hypothesis H7, Empowerment was found to be a major driver of employee commitment among the hotels. studied Employee empowerment positively and significantly impacted employee. commitment The implication of this finding is that management should allow staff to use. their discretion and take initiatives This has the potential to make the employee feel relevant. and wanted by the hotel thereby developing his or her sense of commitment to the hotel In. fact it has been argued that when employees are permitted to use their discretion and take. initiatives to handle customers for example they employees develop a high sense of. personal worth and this makes them more committed to their organisations Narteh 2012. Yiing Ahmad 2009 This finding is consistent with results of other studies which found. empowerment as a tool that influence employee behaviour Ahmed Rafiq 2003 Foley. 2008 Narteh 2012, Internal communication was also found to have a significant relationship with employee. commitment in small hotels The finding is contrary to the finding from Narteh 2012 study of. banks in Ghana where communication was found not to have a statistically significant. relationship with employee commitment This result from the current study however agrees. with other studies that found that the availability of internal communication channels. influenced employee commitment Ahmed Rafiq 2003 Chang Chang 2009 Finney. 2011 The study suggests that small hotels should design strategies that would encourage. effective internal communication that would be regular and unambiguous. African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure Volume 5 2 2016 ISSN 2223 814X Copyright. 2016 AJHTL Open Access Online http www ajhtl com, Teamwork and fairness in management practices were also found to be positively and. significantly influencing employee commitment Scholars have argued that employees of the. same rank compare their salaries for example and unfair practices detected results in poor. service quality delivery whereas a fair reward system for instance creates emotionally. attached employees Noe et al 2006 Roberts Lombard 2010 Suleiman Awwad. Mohammad Agti 2011 Again when there is cooperation among employees they engage. in behaviours that create new possibilities Edmondson 1996 It is the contention of this. paper that when management is fair in their dealings such as promotion training and. benefits with employees as well as instituting a spirit of team work in the hotel it would. positively impact employees commitment to the hotel. Staff development was found to be positively related to employee commitment in this study. This finding collaborate other works that assert that well trained employees tend to develop. further skills and knowledge which helps them understand current and future needs of. customers and how to satisfy them generally enhance their job performance and impacts. positively on employee commitment to the organisation This study thus suggest that. employees should be adequately developed as a well trained staff enhances the overall. organisational performance and is also positively influenced in his or her behaviour. commitment to the hotel Motivation recorded negative beta and t values and was not. statistically significant This means that motivation did not have any real impact on employee. commitment to small hotels This is contrary to findings from other studies that suggest that. offering competitive salaries and fringe benefit to employees tend to increase their levels of. commitment towards the organization Lou et al 2007 Wei Atuahene Gima 2009 Cichy. et al 2009 It is conceivable that because these hotels are at the lower end of the industry. employees are not expectant of huge salaries and benefits Consequently the combined. impact of the other internal marketing dimensions appears to adequately act as motivational. factors It is therefore suggested in this study that though the need for good salary and. benefits are relevant to meet the food shelter and clothing needs of employees in. developing countries Narteh 2012 other internal marketing dimensions are more relevant. in influencing desired employee behaviour commitment in small hotels for example. The third objective of this study was to identify the internal marketing dimension that. significantly impacted employee commitment in the small hotel sector ICT was established. as the most significant internal marketing dimension that impacted employee commitment in. this study Interestingly ICT has received little attention in the extant literature as a. dimension of internal marketing In the era of computers and the Internet ICT has literally. been ignored as a factor of internal marketing The current study has however. demonstrated that ICT is very critical as a dimension of internal marketing mix For this. researcher the emergence of ICT as the most significant internal marketing dimension is no. coincidence since ICT is at the heart of business and management operations as well as. communication For the benefits of internal marketing to be fully leveraged there is the need. for an effective ICT system to be operational in the hotel. Conclusions and future research direction, Employees are at the centre of the service delivery efforts of service organisations such as. hotels The commitment of staff to the course of the hotel is therefore critical to the growth. and profitability of the hotel The management of small hotels should carefully consider the. internal marketing dimensions especially the six factors and the items they are comprised. of that had a positive and significant impact on employee commitment The effective.
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