Integrated Pollution Prevention And Control Ippc-Books Pdf

Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control IPPC
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This document is one of a series of foreseen documents as below at the time of writing not all. documents have been drafted, Full title BREF code, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Intensive Rearing of Poultry and Pigs ILF. Reference Document on the General Principles of Monitoring MON. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Tanning of Hides and Skins TAN. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Glass Manufacturing Industry GLS. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Pulp and Paper Industry PP. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques on the Production of Iron and Steel I S. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Cement and Lime Manufacturing Industries CL. Reference Document on the Application of Best Available Techniques to Industrial Cooling Systems CV. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Chlor Alkali Manufacturing Industry CAK. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Ferrous Metals Processing Industry FMP. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Non Ferrous Metals Industries NFM. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry TXT. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Mineral Oil and Gas Refineries REF. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Large Volume Organic Chemical Industry LVOC. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Waste Water and Waste Gas. Treatment Management Systems in the Chemical Sector. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Food Drink and Milk Industry FM. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Smitheries and Foundries Industry SF. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques on Emissions from Storage ESB. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques on Economics and Cross Media Effects ECM. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Large Combustion Plants LCP. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Slaughterhouses and Animals By products SA. Industries, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Management of Tailings and Waste Rock in. Mining Activities, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Surface Treatment of Metals STM. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Waste Treatments Industries WT. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Manufacture of Large Volume Inorganic. Chemicals Ammonia Acids and Fertilisers, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Waste Incineration WI. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Manufacture of Polymers POL. Reference Document on Energy Efficiency Techniques ENE. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Manufacture of Organic Fine Chemicals OFC. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Manufacture of Specialty Inorganic. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Surface Treatment Using Solvents STS. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Manufacture of Large Volume Inorganic. Chemicals Solids and Others, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in Ceramic Manufacturing Industry CER.
Executive Summary, EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, INTRODUCTION. This reference document on best available techniques in the textile industry reflects an. information exchange carried out according to Article 16 2 of Council Directive 96 61 EC The. document has to be seen in the light of the preface which describes the objective of the. document and its use, This document covers the industrial activities specified in section 6 2 of Annex I of the IPPC. Directive 96 61 EC namely Plants for pretreatment operations such as washing bleaching. mercerisation or dyeing of fibres or textiles where the treatment capacity exceeds 10 tonnes per. In addition the BREF contains a number of annexes which provide supplementary information. about textile auxiliaries dyes and pigments textile machinery typical recipes etc. The objective of this executive summary is to summarise the main findings of the document. However since it is impossible to reflect all its complexities in a short summary only the main. text in its entirety should be used as a reference in the determination of BAT for any particular. installation, THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY, The textile industry is one of the longest and most complicated industrial chains in. manufacturing industry It is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by SMEs with a. demand mainly driven by three main end uses clothing home furnishing and industrial use. Italy is by far the leading European producer for textiles followed by Germany the UK France. and Spain in that order together accounting for over 80 of the production in the EU. Belgium France Germany and the UK are the main European producers in the carpets sector. In 2000 the European textile and clothing industry represented 3 4 of the EU manufacturing. industry s turnover 3 8 of the added value and 6 9 of the industrial employement. The textile industry is composed of a wide number of sub sectors covering the entire. production cycle from the production of raw materials man made fibres to semi processed. yarn woven and knitted fabrics with their finishing processes and final products carpets. home textiles clothing and industrial use textiles As the scope of the document is confined to. those activities that involve wet processes three main sub sectors have been identified wool. scouring textile finishing excluding floor covering and the carpet sector. APPLIED PROCESSES AND TECHNIQUES, The textile chain begins with the production or harvest of raw fibre The so called finishing. processes i e pretreatment dyeing printing finishing and coating including washing and. drying represent the core of the applied processes and techniques in this BREF Upstream. processes such as for example synthetic fibre manufacturing spinning weaving knitting etc. are also briefly described in the document as they may have a significant influence on the. environmental impact of the subsequent wet processing activities The finishing processes can. take place at different stages of the production process i e on fabric yarn loose fibre etc the. sequence of treatments being very variable and dependent on the requirements of the final user. Firstly the finishing treatments are described as unit processes without considering the possible. sequences in which they can be applied Later in Chapter 2 some typical categories of. industries have been identified within the wool scouring the textile finishing and the carpet. sector and the process sequences briefly described. Textiles Industry i, Executive Summary, ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND CONSUMPTION EMISSION LEVELS.
The main environmental concern in the textile industry is about the amount of water discharged. and the chemical load it carries Other important issues are energy consumption air emissions. solid wastes and odours which can be a significant nuisance in certain treatments. Air emissions are usually collected at their point of origin Because they have long been. controlled in different countries there are good historical data on air emissions from specific. processes This is not the case with emissions to water The various streams coming from the. different processes are mixed together to produce a final effluent whose characteristics are the. result of a complex combination of factors such as the types of fibres and make ups processed. the techniques applied and the types of chemicals and auxiliaries used. Since data available about water effluents from specific processes is very poor it has proved. appropriate to identify narrow categories of textile mills and to compare the overall mass. streams between mills belonging to the same category This approach allows a preliminary. rough assessment in which by comparing the specific consumption and emission levels of mills. within the same category it is possible to verify given data and identify macroscopic differences. between the different activities Input output considerations are therefore addressed in the BREF. for a number of typical categories of mills starting from overviews of the overall mass streams. and ending in a more detailed analysis of single processes when data is available The key. findings about some processes of particular concern are reported in this summary. Wool scouring with water leads to the discharge of an effluent with a high organic content 2 to. 15 l kg of greasy wool at about 150 500g COD kg of wool and variable amounts of micro. pollutants resulting from the pesticides applied on the sheep The most common pesticides are. organophosphorous OP synthetic pyrethroids SP and insect growth regulators IGR. Organochlorine OC pesticides are still found on wool from certain grower countries. A large percentage of the total emission load from textile industry activities is attributable to. substances that are already on the raw material before it enters the finishing mill e g impurities. and associated materials for natural fibres preparation agents spinning lubricants sizing agents. etc All these substances are usually removed from the fibre during the pretreatment process. before colouring and finishing The removal of auxiliaries such as spinning lubricants knitting. oils and preparation agents by wet treatment may lead to the discharge not only of hard to. biodegrade organic substances such as mineral oils but also of hazardous compounds such as. polyaromatic hydrocarbons APEO and biocides Typical COD loads are in the order of. 40 80 g kg fibre When the substrate is submitted to a dry process heat setting before. washing the auxiliaries present on the substrate become airborne emission factors of. 10 16 g C kg are typical of mineral oil based compounds. The washing water from the desizing of cotton and cotton blend fabrics may contain 70 of. the total COD load in the final effluent The emission factor can well be in the order of 95 g. COD kg of fabric with COD concentrations often above 20000 mg COD l. Sodium hypochlorite bleaching gives rise to secondary reactions that form organic halogen. compounds commonly measured as AOX trichloromethane accounts for the bulk of the. compounds formed For the combined application of hypochlorite 1st step and hydrogen. peroxide 2nd step values of 90 100 mg Cl l of AOX have been observed from the exhausted. NaClO bleaching bath Concentrations up to 6 mg Cl l can still be found in the spent H2O2. bleaching bath due to the carry over of the substrate from the previous bath. Compared to sodium hypochlorite the amount of AOX formed during chlorite bleaching is. much lower Recent investigations have shown that the formation of AOX is not caused by the. sodium chlorite itself but rather by the chlorine or hypochlorite present as impurities or are. used as activating agents The handling and storage of sodium chlorite needs particular attention. because of toxicity corrosion and explosion risks, ii Textiles Industry. Executive Summary, In hydrogen peroxide bleaching the environmental concerns are associated with the use of. strong complexing agents stabilisers, A strong alkaline effluent 40 50 g NaOH l is produced if the rinsing water after mercerising. is not recovered or re used, Apart from a few exceptions e g the thermosol process pigment dyeing etc most of the. emissions originating from the dyeing process are emissions to water Water polluting. substances can originate from the dyes themselves e g aquatic toxicity metals colour. auxiliaries contained in the dye formulation e g dispersing agents anti foaming agents etc. basic chemicals and auxiliaries used in dyeing processes e g alkali salts reducing and. oxidising agents etc and residual contaminants present on the fibre e g residues of pesticides. on wool spin finishes on synthetic fibres Consumption and emission levels are strongly. related to the type of fibre the make up the dyeing technique and the machinery employed. In batch dyeing the concentration levels vary greatly in the dyeing sequence Generally spent. dye baths have the highest concentration levels values well above 5000 mg COD l are. common The contribution of dyeing auxiliaries e g dispersing and levelling agents to the. COD load is especially noticeable when dyeing with vat or disperse dyes Operations like. soaping reductive aftertreatment and softening are also associated with high values of COD. Rinsing baths show concentrations 10 100 times lower than the exhausted dyeing bath and. water consumption 2 to 5 times higher than for the dyeing process itself. In continuous and semi continuous dyeing the water consumption is lower than in batch dyeing. processes but the discharge of highly concentrated residual dyeing liquors can result in higher. pollution load when short runs of material are processed COD attributable to the dyestuffs may. be in the order of 2 200 g l The padding technique is still the most commonly applied The. quantity of liquor in the padder can range from 10 15 litres for modern designs to 100 litres for. conventional padders The residual amount in the preparation tank can range from a few litres. under optimised control conditions to up to 150 200 l The total quantity of residual liquor. increases with the number of batches per day, Typical emission sources in printing processes include printing paste residues waste water from.
wash off and cleaning operations and volatile organic compounds from drying and fixing. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control IPPC Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry July 2003 This document is one of a series of foreseen documents as below at the time of writing not all documents have been drafted Full title BREF code Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Intensive Rearing of Poultry and Pigs ILF Reference Document

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