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96 G Morin et al Case Study The Real Life Benefits of Geotechnical BIM. Figure 1 MacLeamy s Effort Curve, The AGS Guidelines for Good Practice in Site Investigation 3 states An early. investigation allows the identification of any ground related risks associated with a. development so that they can be effectively managed and associated costs controlled. It goes on to say Site Investigation should be seen as an investment which has the. capacity to optimise design and hence add considerable value to a project The. requirement for quality investigations is also made by Chapman Marcetteau 4. In a construction project the typical site investigation costs are no more than 0 1. of the overall building cost although this may be more in infrastructure work The. consequences of delays due to these unforeseen ground conditions are far too common. and primarily lead to over spends in the project, The National Economic Development Office NEDO conducted a review of 5000. industrial buildings and found 50 overran by at least a month 5 of which around. 37 of the overruns in the projects were due to ground problems In another report The. National Audit Office 6 quotes an Office of Government Commerce study which. found that 70 of a range of public projects were delivered late and 73 were over the. tender price, Reducing risk from the unforeseen ground conditions should be a major aspect of. the geotechnical design process Ground problems are one of the major causes of. project delay and when they occur they are normally difficult and expensive to rectify. This illustrates the need for a quality Desk Study and Site Investigation as part of the. BIM process,2 How to Apply BIM to Geotechnical Data. There are a number of approaches that can be taken with implementing BIM with the. geotechnical processes the first is the use of digital transfer to allow geotechnical data. to be shared within the BIM process, The idea of sharing data is nothing new to the geotechnical industry in the UK. The Association of Geotechnical and GeoEnvironmental Specialists AGS started to. develop a digital transfer format in 1989 The subsequent format known as AGS Data. G Morin et al Case Study The Real Life Benefits of Geotechnical BIM 97. has become a common means to transfer geotechnical data from one party process to. another within the geotechnical workflow as illustrated in the Figure 2 The format is. now an established part of the UK geotechnical industry Many software applications. use it and the AGS format is often specified as part of project deliverables. Figure 2 AGS format transfer, The collaboration and sharing of digital data is one of the cornerstones of BIM As. discussed later having a clear specification on the regular delivery of AGS data. contributes significantly to making geotechnical projects BIM compliant With the. AGS file the latest data is readily available and can be directly used in many systems. unlike a PDF report, An example of the philosophy of sharing digital data as part of a collaboration. information management system is the Highways Agency Geotechnical Data. Management System HAGDMS, 2 1 HAGDMS an example of sharing geotechnical data within a BIM. HAGDMS is a web based system for the complete management of Geotechnical Assets. on the trunk road network for the Highways Agency It uses many of the principles. involved in BIM It is designed for the whole life of a project bringing various. information and data together in one location to allow geotechnical professionals to. make informed decisions The system has been very successful over the 14 years it has. been in operation Since its implementation it has grown to incorporate many datasets. and is the heart of many workflow processes in the Highways Agency and its wider. network of consultants, HAGDMS covers all aspects of geotechnical and drainage information including. borehole data scanned report archives earthwork condition reports and maintenance. requirements and drainage network connections for the whole of their road network in. HA GDMS has been successfully rolled out to a community of over 1 000 users in. over 300 national offices by Mott Macdonald in association with Keynetix The entire. system can be accessed via a secure login page at www hagdms co uk HAGDMS has. now become one of the largest geo referenced geotechnical and drainage asset. management tools in the world with 220 000 observations on over 45 000 geotechnical. 98 G Morin et al Case Study The Real Life Benefits of Geotechnical BIM. assets and more than a million drainage assets The system provides access to nearly. 200 mapping layers 114 000 photographs and sketches 20 000 geo referenced files. and 15 000 downloadable reports, HAGDMS is a vital source of geotechnical data for BIM projects Although the. web viewer does not include 3D Visualisation the AGS data downloadable from the. system can be easily viewed in a 3D environment using desktop applications This. extensive data set allows geotechnical professionals fast access to a comprehensive. model of the information available at any particular site. 3 Geotechnical Building Information Modelling, Mott MacDonald has taken being BIM compliant further not only do they deliver. geotechnical data for inclusion in BIM but also apply BIM principles and practices. directly to the geotechnical process The following section of this paper outlines the. approach Mott Macdonald use in applying Building Information Modelling techniques. and workflows for the whole life of the geotechnical project from the tender to file. Mott MacDonald has been refining the Geotechnical Building Information. Modelling process for a number of years using expertise from a history of geotechnical. data management combined with CAD and 3D modelling skills The primary products. Mott MacDonald use for their Geotechnical BIM processes are HoleBASE SI and. AutoCAD Civil 3D,3 1 Continual refinement of the 3D model. Mott MacDonald s approach is to continuously refine the geotechnical model. throughout the lifetime of the project As more data is collected the model is refined. and constantly combined with the complete project model to check against updates and. changes to help minimise unknowns and risk Within a project the model will be. continuously refined through all the major stages as shown in Figure 3. x Desk Study,x Ground Investigation GI,x Ground Investigation Report GIR. x Ground Design Report GDR,3 2 Desk Study, At the desk study stage the historical and publically available data is collected and an. initial model is defined together with general project related information This may. include but is not limited to route maps mining maps geology maps ordnance survey. maps and environmental data These together with data from the other members of the. project are combined to generate the initial model. G Morin et al Case Study The Real Life Benefits of Geotechnical BIM 99. Operation and,Maintenance,Figure 3 Continual refinement of the model. There has been a major change in desk study data availability and more. importantly accessibility in recent years Mott MacDonald are making full use of this. and incorporating much of the available data within their initial model in a 3D. environment as shown in Figure 4 Data sources used at this stage include. x Ordnance Survey Open Data, x Digital Terrain Models 50 m grid of heights and 10 meter contours. x Road and Street Maps,x British Geological Survey Open Data. x DiGMapGB 50 bedrock geology superficial deposits linear features. x Borehole Index, The desk study is used to ascertain possible problems the site might yield and what. type and level of investigation is required to minimise risk of unforeseen ground. conditions Having the data readily available and in 3D gives a better insight to. potential problems of the site, Data can come from open source and more specialised sources too for example. on High Speed 2 railway between London and Birmingham Mott MacDonald. compiled a BIM ground model using data from the Coal Authority to confirm the depth. of coal seams and the presence of nearby surface mine workings This information all. helps to plan more appropriate site investigations. With an initial model in place BIM becomes an instrumental tool for designing. ground investigations Mott MacDonald engineers use the model to identify the best. locations for exploratory holes With these positioned in the model it is easy and quick. to take off quantities and calculate the ground investigation s cost Setting out data can. then be fed directly into surveying equipment or extracted as 2D drawings. 100 G Morin et al Case Study The Real Life Benefits of Geotechnical BIM. Figure 4 British Geological Survey and Ordnance Survey data. 3 3 Ground Investigation, Traditional methods of working in the UK are to instruct the contractor to conduct the. site investigation The work will be conducted and a report submitted to the consultant. This whole process can take weeks during which time many aspects of the job may. have changed Unfortunately due to time constraints in obtaining the report and data. from the contractor it is often not possible to refine the investigation resulting in a. report that may not be ideal for what was found or the changed specifications Best. case scenario is a delay in the project while an extra investigation is made otherwise. this could lead to unforeseen ground problems and the costs involved in rectifying. Modern day technology such as KeyLogbook and Pocket SI among others allows. for near real time data gathering on site AGS data is sent directly to the consultant s. office to be incorporated in the geotechnical BIM model within the same day This. allows Mott MacDonald to react in a timely way to any unforeseen conditions and. make modifications to the site investigation as the information becomes available. Seeing the retrieved data from the SI together with the model data leads to a better. understanding These techniques speed up the whole process which enables a more. appropriate investigation to be done for both the ground conditions and the current. project specifications, The GeoBIM process also enables the collaboration between different geotechnical. partners From within the geotechnical model it is possible to highlight and identify. sample locations and specify test scheduling AGS data is used to communicate with. the geotechnical laboratories maintaining a consistent and verified means of. transferring test requirements and results back to the Geotechnical Model. 3 4 Ground Investigation Report, The Ground Investigation Report includes the geotechnical engineer s expertise in. interpreting the facts from the ground investigation For the process of interpreting this. data Mott MacDonald uses a variety of methods including the use of AutoCAD Civil. 3D and HoleBASE SI These and other tools are used to visualise the information to. help understand the data and allow the engineer to interpret This together with the. G Morin et al Case Study The Real Life Benefits of Geotechnical BIM 101. results from lab tests help further refine the geotechnical model this approach allows. the model to be refined further than traditional methods. Traditionally the geotechnical profession has been concerned that the nature of. uncertainty with geotechnical investigations is different to other professions in the. construction industry with regard to BIM Only some of the information is factual and. the rest is an interpretation of the facts prepared for the design brief of the project To. some extent this is also applicable to other disciplines an engineer will design the. heating and ventilation system based on the requirements brief of the project put in. front of him However if there are changes to this then his design may well have to. change This is the same in the geotechnical industry and the BIM model can be used to. represent this and to check if the project changes As with all BIM it is best to foresee. these problems at the prototype stage before construction starts. 3 5 Ground Design Report, The ultimate goal of GeoBIM at Mott MacDonald is to automatically integrate the. model into analytical software It is intended as part of the interpretation process. Material properties can be added to physical zones within the model. Work is underway to use the geotechnical model as input into analytical software. with both the geometry and engineering characters being automatically passed to the. software As the engineer alters the foundation designs within the model the analytical. results could be automatically updated Although this is not currently possible the. geotechnical model is already aiding this process and data can be easily exported and. transferred to the analytical software minimising the need to retype. 4 Conclusion, This paper illustrates the importance of including geotechnical data within the BIM. process one of the primary benefits of BIM is cost savings by reducing unforeseen. problems This highlights the need for a quality site investigation to reduce future risk. and uncertainty as part of the BIM process, The UK geotechnical industry is well placed for the inclusion of geotechnical data. within BIM due to the history of the AGS transfer format and applying the principles of. data capture close to source and transferring digital data This approach should be. available to all as it is simple and easy to implement. The second approach as illustrated in Mott Macdonald GeoBIM of constantly. refining the model by using BIM workflows and techniques within the geotechnical. process will yield more benefits which ultimately should further reduce construction. problems due to ground conditions Inherently this approach will generate BIM. compliant data that is available for all parties involved in the project and will ultimately. lead to less project overruns from unforeseen ground conditions. 102 G Morin et al Case Study The Real Life Benefits of Geotechnical BIM. References, 1 Cabinet Office Government Construction Strategy Cabinet Office London. https www gov uk government uploads system uploads attachment data file 61152 Government. Construction Strategy 0 pdf 2011, 2 P MacLeamy Effort Curve HOK http www hok com thought leadership patrick macleamy on the. future of the building industry 2010, 3 Association of Geotechnical and GeoEnvironmental Specialists Guidelines for Good Practice in Site. Investigation AGS http www ags org uk publications GoodPracticeGuidelines pdf 2006. 4 T Chapman A Marcetteau Achieving economy and reliability in piled foundation design for a. building project Ove Arup Partners Ltd London, http www arup com assets download download202 pdf 2004. 5 National Economic Development Office Faster building for commerce NEDO London 1988. 6 National Audit Office Modernising construction HC87 11 January The Stationery Office 2001.
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