Independent Learning Skills Self Determination Theory And-Books Pdf

Independent Learning Skills Self Determination Theory and
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with independent learning Meyer et al 2008 The most common descriptor of independent. learning is self regulated learning Meyer et al 2008 p 2 According to Zimmerman. 1986 p 308 when students are able to self regulate their learning they. have an understanding of their own approach to learning and how best to. maximise their learning in the most efficient ways. are motivated to take responsibility for their learning and. are able to work with others to enhance the depth and breadth of their learning. The University of New South Wales Learning Centre describes independent learning in the. following way, Being independent at uni means that you are responsible for managing your studies. your time and yourself In high school you might be used to teachers reminding you. when work is due telling you what and when to study and checking your progress. University learning requires you to learn and complete assignments independently plan. your workload meet deadlines and organise your time This level of self management. can be a challenge Some students thrive others find it difficult to adjust at first. A significant review of the international literature on independent learning conducted by. Meyer et al in 2008 notes the definitional consensus in the literature that independent. learning is a process during which learners develop the values attitudes knowledge and. skills needed to make responsible decisions and take appropriate actions in regard to their. own learning p 15 The literature also consistently notes that independent learning is. fostered by creating opportunities and experiences that encourage learner motivation. curiosity self confidence and self reliance and is based on the understanding by learners of. their own interests and a valuing of learning for its own sake Meyer et al 2008 p 15. Meyer et al contrast the dependent learner with the independent learner as a way of. illustrating the benefits of independent learning 2008 p 15 They argue that independent. learning can be conceptualized as developing along a continuum stretching from the. dependent learner to the independent learner 2008 p 15 A dependent learner receives. knowledge passively accepting the teacher as the expert and sees their own role as secondary. Boekaerts 1997 Dependent learners react to the teacher s guidance and are not active in. directing or regulating their own learning Independent learners on the other hand take an. appropriate degree of ownership of their learning Independent learning is therefore reliant. upon factors which are both internal and external to a student The internal elements of. independent learning include the skills and attitudes that individual students have to acquire. The external elements include the development of a strong relationship between teachers and. students and the establishment of an enabling environment 2008 p 28. In our view the idea of independent learning and the expectation that students will be. independent learners is not sufficiently spelt out to first year students through the formal. curriculum Reflecting on our observations of students at different Australian law schools it. seems that formal curriculum design in law assumes that students already have independent. learning skills when they arrive at university or will develop them organically implicitly. during their time at university Instruction on how to be an independent learner is not. commonly found in law lectures and anecdotal evidence suggests that a similar lack of. explicit instruction is a feature of first year studies in other disciplines A scan of Australian. university websites indicates that at most institutions it is the academic skills and learning. Teaching Independent Learning Skills in the First Year Refereed Paper 2. centres that have the responsibility for providing support to students who need help in the. development of such skills Students must identify themselves as people in need of this. assistance and be proactive in seeking it out, In our view more explicit faculty based support should be provided If we want our students. to develop the internal skills and attitudes they need to become self regulated learners in their. first year then we should be teaching them the most effective ways to acquire these skills and. attitudes rather than leaving them to work it out for themselves Decentralising the. responsibility for core graduate learning outcomes like independent learning away from. learning centres towards faculty curriculum is entirely appropriate where graduate outcomes. are faculty specific Independent learning skills may also look very different depending on the. faculty a student is enrolled with Perhaps ironically at least semantically it is our argument. that students should not be left to independently learn how to become independent learners. Fine tuned skills in planning organisation self instruction self monitoring and self evaluation. that support positive learning outcomes Zimmerman 1986 2008 can be and should be. explicitly taught in the formal curriculum Students with the help of faculty staff can begin the. gradated shift from dependent to independent learning In providing this instruction academics. would be fulfilling their role in terms of Meyer et al s external element of independent learning. establishing an enabling environment for our first year students We would also be. appropriately supporting students to develop the internal elements of independent learning by. facilitating their own intentional creation of strategies and approaches that optimize their own. learning Zimmerman 1986 2008, It is also important for us to teach first year students what independent learning is not For. example being an independent learner does not mean learning on your own or in an. isolated way Meyer et al 2008 UNSW 2013 We can encourage engaged forms of. independent learning by facilitating peer study groups who may meet up for weekly revision. or for exam preparation Damon Phelps 1989 We can also teach students that it is an. appropriate part of independent learning to seek out the assistance of those facilitating their. learning Ashford Cummings 1983 their lecturers tutors and other support providers. such as academic skills and learning centres, Imperatives for university educators to include independent learning skills in the first. year curriculum, An examination of academic learning materials for Australian universities shows a.
comprehensive emphasis on independent learning as arguably the most critical skill at the. tertiary education level Most universities have well established academic learning centres. with websites promoting independent learning and giving tips on how to be an independent. learner The website for The Learning Centre at UNSW comments that A major difference. between school and uni is the higher degree of independence expected from uni students. Studying at university allows you far more control over your work than school However uni. also offers far less supervision UNSW 2013 Student comments are also provided to. reinforce this message With school we were pretty much spoon fed whereas when we. came to uni with all the independent research I found myself quite unprepared UNSW. Our first argument in support of explicitly teaching first year students independent learning. skills relates to the nature of tertiary level education At university there is a significant. expectation that students will take responsibility for their own learning Independent learning. Teaching Independent Learning Skills in the First Year Refereed Paper 3. is self directed learning where an individual can choose what they want to learn how deeply. they wish to learn about something and the methods processes they use to go about learning. This expectation does exist at other levels of education particularly as students progress to. the final year of high school However the expectation is far more pronounced at university. and having the skills and attitudes to take responsibility for one s own learning is a critical. key to student success in their tertiary education. Academic staff are responsible for the intentional design of the curriculum and its quality its. content the ways in which it is delivered effectively and the ways in which student. achievement of desired learning outcomes is assessed Kift Field 2009 However. academic staff cannot be responsible for the entire student experience We cannot control. how much individual effort a student is prepared to devote to their own study or how serious. engaged or motivated they are to learn and to make the most of the learning opportunities. that are made available to them These are aspects of the learning experience that students. must control for themselves As university level teachers we have a professional. responsibility to create optimal learning environments for our students but students. themselves must be committed to their own learning success For this reason independent. learning skills should be explicitly taught in the first year It should not be assumed that. students have these skills when they arrive at university and it should not be left to chance as. to whether they develop the skills or not, Second and relatedly independent learning skills should be taught at university because they. are critical to optimal achievement and maximizing learning outcomes for all students As. Zimmerman notes even high ability students often do not achieve optimally because of. their failure to take an independent learning approach and to self regulate their learning. Zimmerman 1986 307 If we are to provide appropriate support for the first year learning. experience the explicit teaching of independent learning skills needs to happen in the. classroom and online through the formal curriculum Students should be persuaded as to the. importance of independent learning skills and approaches and specifically taught a range of. effective strategies for developing these skills In the minds of our students independent. learning and academic success however measured should be linked. Third independent learning skills should be explicitly taught to students from their first year. because the capacity to learn independently is an acknowledged graduate attribute capability. or learning outcome of all Australian universities and these skills should be integrated into. the curriculum in a scaffolded way Kift 2009 At Deakin University independent learning. is part of a self management graduate learning outcome Self management is defined as. being able to work and learn independently and take responsibility for personal actions. Deakin 2014 The Queensland University of Technology has two graduate capabilities that. relate to independent learning The first is the capacity for life long learning including. searching and critically evaluating information from a variety of sources using effective. strategies and appropriate technologies and the second is the ability to work independently. and collaboratively including managing time and prioritising activities to achieve goals. demonstrating the capacity for self assessment of learning needs and achievements and. being a cooperative and productive team member or leader QUT 2014. Whilst acknowledging the above arguments in favour of explicit instruction in independent. learning the focus of this article is upon independent learning and the psychological well. being of university students There is now a growing body of evidence that the psychological. Teaching Independent Learning Skills in the First Year Refereed Paper 4. well being of our students should be a concern for university educators. As an example Helen Stallman s work 2010 2011 2012 has established that Australian. university students experience significantly higher rates of psychological distress than the. general population Stallman argues that university students are an at risk population for. whom universal early interventions are required if their mental health is to be protected In. 2010 Catherine Leahy and others published the results of a cross sectional study at the. University of Adelaide which tested the prevalence of psychological distress amongst. different faculties 955 students were surveyed and of that number 48 were classified as. being psychologically distressed Law and mechanical engineering students were the worst. affected with 58 of law students and 52 of mechanical engineering students experiencing. psychological distress Further 44 of medicine students were found to be experiencing. psychological distress as were 40 of psychology students In 2011 the University of. Melbourne s Centre for the Study of Higher Education acknowledged the developing concern. in the tertiary sector about the mental health of students when it hosted a National Summit to. assist the sector to develop improved policy and practice responses to the growing incidence. of mental health difficulties and mental illness on campus CSHE 2011 More recently. research findings from the University of Melbourne show high levels of psychological. distress across a range of disciplines Larcombe 2014 Larcombe led an institutional survey. of well being in 2013 with more than 5 000 students surveyed across six different faculties. and graduate schools This study found that students in diverse academic programs reported. high levels of psychological distress that would be likely to have an impact on the quality of. Teaching Independent Learning Skills inthe First Year Refereed Paper 1 Independent Learning Skills Self Determination Theory and Psychological Well being Strategies for Supporting the First Year University Experience Rachael Field and James Duffy Queensland University of Technology Brisbane Australia Anna Huggins University of New South Wales Sydney Australia The purpose of this article

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