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Published by,INSTITUTE FOR EMPLOYMENT STUDIES,Sovereign House. Church Street,Brighton BN1 1UJ,ISBN 978 1 85184 427 2. Copyright 2009 Institute for Employment Studies, No part of this publication may be reproduced or used in any form by any means. graphic electronic or mechanical including photocopying recording taping or. information storage or retrieval systems without prior permission in writing from. the Institute for Employment Studies,The Institute for Employment Studies. The Institute for Employment Studies is an independent apolitical international. centre of research and consultancy in public employment policy and organisational. human resource issues It works closely with employers in the manufacturing service. and public sectors government departments agencies and professional and. employee bodies For 40 years the Institute has been a focus of knowledge and. practical experience in employment and training policy the operation of labour. markets and human resource planning and development IES is a not for profit. organisation which has over 70 multidisciplinary staff and international associates. IES expertise is available to all organisations through research consultancy. publications and the Internet,The IES HR Network, This report is the product of a study supported by the IES HR Network through.
which Members finance and often participate in applied research on employment. issues Full information on Membership is available from IES on request or at. www employment studies co uk network,Acknowledgement. We would like to acknowledge the valuable comments made by Professor Stephen. Perkins on the draft of this paper, This paper was presented at the 2nd European Reward Management Conference. European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management November 26 27 2009. Increasing the effectiveness of reward,management an evidence based approach. This paper argues that effective reward management has to be evidence based We. contend that the lack of evidence for and evaluation of pay and reward practices is a. critical blind spot for many of those involved in reward management It is holding. back advances in the field and creating a dangerous knowing doing policy practice. and rhetoric reality gap damaging the returns delivered by the major investments. organisations make in their employees pay and benefits We describe how. organisations pursue effectiveness in reward management and distil the lessons learnt. from them into a description of a model of evidence based reward management. EBRM which has the potential to enable line and HR managers to make better. reward decisions and inform confirmatory research, Little evidence demonstrates the efficacy of rewards although much evidence indicates. that rewards and their design loom large in management attention. Pfeffer 1998, Compensation is a complex and often confusing topic Although compensation costs.
comprise on average 65 per cent to 70 per cent of total costs in the US economy and are. likewise substantial elsewhere most managers are not sure of the likely consequences of. spending either more or less on employees or of paying employees in different ways. Gerhart and Rynes 2003, The study found that few if any employers built in a monitoring and evaluation. process as part of the introduction of an IPRP scheme This was because most. employers did not have clearly articulated objectives for introducing such schemes. against which they could measure subsequent success or failure Furthermore little. thought appeared to be given to the indicators that could used to measure the. effectiveness of the scheme and the type of information that should be collected. Thompson 1992,Introduction, High performing organisations manage their reward practices in ways that enable. them to predict accurately what innovations are likely to work best and to ensure that. what they are doing now delivers the expected results They try their best to avoid. what Kerr 1995 referred to as the folly of rewarding A while hoping for B Such. organisations adopt an evidence based management approach They appreciate that. reward management is not just a soft art and that scientific and evidence based. methodologies are now used increasingly in general management and can readily be. applied in the reward field But despite the very obvious costs of pay budgets. incentive and benefits plans the spread of sophisticated HR information systems and. Increasing the effectiveness of reward management 1. shared service centres the widespread adoption of balanced scorecards and near. universal pay benchmarking many organisations seem to have little concrete. evidence to evaluate or justify their reward practices. In response to this situation we used a grounded theory approach which involved. developing common themes and patterns from the data provided by our case studies. our own experience of evaluating reward practice and an assessment of evidence and. concepts relating to the practice of reward management This led to the development. of an evidence based reward model designed to aid practitioners in reviewing their. reward practices and evaluating their effectiveness. The basic evidence consisted of an analysis of our extensive experience as researchers. consultants and practitioners To identify relevant concepts we carried out a literature. review Research was also conducted by the Institute for Employment Studies and. e reward This consisted of a survey of 192 reward specialists 7 case studies involving. heads of HR or reward and interviews with three firms of management consultants. The aim of the research was to test our basic proposition on the need for evidence. based reward and to answer the following questions 1 What were organisations. doing about evaluating reward effectiveness 2 Why was it important to evaluate. reward 3 How should they go about the process of evaluation. This paper presents an analysis of the literature review and our research On the basis. of this consideration is given to what is happening or not happening now about. evaluating reward management mainly the latter why it is not happening and why it. should happen We then describe the concept of evidence based reward derived from. this research Finally we model the process and examine how the model can be used. Literature review, The literature on the impact of reward is extensive We identified 49 journal articles. concerned generally with establishing the impact of reward but could find only four. studies which dealt specifically with methodologies for measuring reward. effectiveness,General studies, Many of the general studies for example those referred to in the meta analyses. conducted by Guzzo et al 1985 and Jenkins et al 1998 were based on experiments. These often demonstrated a positive link between a reward practice and performance. but the methodology was not one that could easily be replicated by practitioners on a. regular basis Other studies such as those conducted by Hansen 1997 and Stajkovic. and Luthans 2001 consisted of an in depth examination of the relationship between. reward and performance but again the methodology was beyond the scope of a. typical practitioner Such studies can demonstrate that reward works but they do not. provide much help to reward specialists who want to find out for themselves Two. British studies illustrated methods of evaluation that can be used by practitioners In. 2 Institute for Employment Studies, their examination of the impact of performance related pay in the Inland Revenue.
Marsden and Richardson 1994 used an attitude survey and Kessler and Purcell. 1992 relied on interviews in their review of performance related pay But the latter. commented that, There are major difficulties in finding measures of PRP effectiveness The bottom line. measure of effectiveness for any payment system is arguably an improvement in overall. organisational performance assumed to flow from improved employee performance It is. however clear that the complex range of factors interacting to determine organisational. performance makes it difficult to isolate the impact of a payment system alone. Kessler and Purcell 1992,Studies of reward evaluation. In their research on the evaluation of changes in pay structures in seven large. employers Corby et al 2003 show that significant decisions are the outcomes of a. social and political process only partly shaped by the evidence and influenced by. factors such as the pursuit of self and group interests and limitations of information. and understanding Their advice is for practitioners to have a realistic view of what is. achievable focus on evaluation in only a few key areas rather than compiling a wish. list use existing mechanisms such as employee attitude surveys and human capital. reports as far as possible and consider perceptions and qualitative criteria not just. hard cost and business figures, Heneman 2002 comments that the evaluation of the effectiveness of a strategic. reward system is often overlooked but it is an indispensable final step in the process. of implementing a compensation program Indeed assessing the effectiveness of any. procedure is just as important if not more so than its design and execution And. because it is often complicated to evaluate the effectiveness of a reward programme in. terms of financial performance so called soft factors such as employee behavioural. reactions to the programme are sometimes an acceptable replacement. Kanungo and Mendonca 1988 advocate a final review stage in introducing new. reward systems This consists of reformulating the reward package objectives or. redesigning the reward system or both based upon the diagnosis of the present. reward system At this stage a great deal of learning takes place as management. reflects on the perceptions and expectations of its employees and their impact on. organisational goals It is also a time for important decisions not merely to respond. in a reactive mode but to take a proactive stance which considers how best the. reward system can be creatively employed to cope with the new challenges which. constantly confront a dynamic organisation Therefore although review is the final. step it is an ongoing process which enables management to keep on top of the. situation at all times, Increasing the effectiveness of reward management 3. Scott et al 2006a suggest a six step approach 1 set goals and objectives 2 identify. evaluation criteria 3 select an evaluation methodology 4 collect and analyse data 5. interpret findings and 6 develop and implement programme improvement strategies. Survey evidence on the extent to which evaluation takes place. The e reward 2009a survey of those registered with e reward the web site for those. involved or interested in reward management found that 45 per cent of the 192. respondents conducted a full and systematic evaluation of their reward practices. while a further 32 per cent claimed that they had carried out a part review this means. that they focused on one or two approaches such as market rate surveys or equal pay. reviews Of those who had conduced a full or part review 54 per cent were satisfied. with the results not a very encouraging outcome The methods used by respondents. who evaluated reward effectiveness are given in Table 1. Table 1 Methods used by e reward survey respondents who evaluated reward effectiveness. Five most popular methods used to Five most popular criteria used to. evaluate reward effectiveness measure reward effectiveness. Method Number of Criteria Number of,respondents respondents.
external market survey 113 financial impact 103,staff attitude survey 99 external benchmarking 92. benchmarking 71 HR outcomes eg labour 91,internal data analysis 66 stakeholder views 70. equal pay reviews 41 business outcomes eg 58,customer service. The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development CIPD 2009 reward. management survey of 520 organisations found that private sector service firms were. most likely to evaluate 40 per cent followed by manufacturing and production. companies 30 per cent public service organisations 25 per cent and voluntary. sector employers 19 per cent Larger firms were more likely to carry out an. assessment of their reward practices than smaller employers 50 per cent of employers. with more than 5 000 staff carried out such a study compared with only 29 per cent of. organisations with fewer than 50 staff Yet what is worrying about the survey data. from this survey and previous CIPD surveys is that there has been little growth. overall over the past four years in the application of these assessment mechanisms. and only a minority of organisations were using financial and business data to assess. their reward policies Less than a quarter used business data fewer than a fifth. 4 Institute for Employment Studies, conducted financial cost benefit analyses of their reward changes and attempted to. calculate the economic value added and only one tenth could put a financial cost on. their labour turnover Surprisingly only 54 per cent of the CIPD respondents stated. that they calculated the size of their total remuneration spend that is pay benefits. and other financial rewards plus national insurance contributions Most of them. around four fifths were unable to break it down into its constituent parts. Further evidence on the lack of evaluation was provided by the e reward survey of. contingent pay e reward 2009b which discovered that just 12 per cent of. respondents evaluated the effectiveness of their individual performance related pay. schemes In view of the time trouble and expense such schemes generate it is. remarkable how few organisations bother to find out how well they work and. whether in fact they do improve performance In spite of the view expressed by Scott. et al 2006b that companies were more likely to cost and at least discuss the bottom. line impact on variable pay programs rather than for base pay programs it seems. that in this important area of reward management as in others organisations. frequently do things on an unfounded belief in the existence of best practice and on. the basis of follow my leader approaches rather than reason. A study for the UK Department of Health Corby et al 2003 looked at seven. organisations which had introduced new pay structures The researchers found that. only one organisation made any real attempt to systematically evaluate the. effectiveness of the changes and in the others there was a complete lack of evidence. on whether the stated objectives for the changes had been achieved. Why organisations don t evaluate, It could be said that measuring the effectiveness of their reward strategies initiatives.
and practices is the Achilles heel of most reward professionals This is confirmed by. our experience in reward management Given the current focus on quantitative. measurement and analytics and the large amounts of data now being generated by. increasingly sophisticated HR information systems it is interesting to ask why there. has been so little improvement in the overall state of the evidence and rationale for. reward practices and changes, It is possible that this problem is a feature of HR management caused by its subject. matter and the orientation of HR practitioners But a look at the literature on training. and development is instructive eg Kearns 2005 Here there is an established. framework for evaluating the effectiveness of training interventions the well known. Kirkpatrick model and debate is not about whether it should be used but how it can. be improved Yet in reward despite the greater financial spend in organisations and. despite it might be thought the more quantitative background and orientation of its. practitioners there is no equivalent model and an absence of this quality and depth of. literature and practice in evaluation Why is this, Increasing the effectiveness of reward management 5. As Pfeffer and Sutton 2006 comment there are no less than six substitutes that. managers often use for the best evidence obsolete knowledge personal experience. specialist skills hype dogma and mindless mimicry of top performers We have. probably all seen examples of at least one of these when trying to justify or make. changes to reward practices particularly the last one Possible reasons for this lack of. interest and substitution include, 1 Perceived lack of time and resources to evaluate even though stronger evidence of. effectiveness might lead to larger resources being allocated to the reward. management function, 2 A bewildering array of sources are used to generate management advice Pfeffer. and Sutton mention Shakespeare Billy Graham Jack Welch Tony Soprano fighter. pilots Santa Claus and Attila the Hun, 3 Lack of training and skills in statistics finance quantitative methods research and.
other relevant disciplines amongst the HR community although it might be. thought that this would be less true about reward than other HR professionals. given the finance background of some of them and general requirements of most. 4 Sheer laziness when practitioners are not being pushed by others to do it though. HR functions are coming under more pressure to justify their existence. 5 The difficulty real or imagined of demonstrating cause and effect when evaluating. 6 The impact of constant change in organisations which creates a culture of constant. action rather than reflection and where the churn of people through posts and. projects means that there is little continuity For example the Department of Health. in the UK did not engage with the Hay IES evaluation of a 2m team pay pilot. scheme because the project team had been disbanded to work on contracts for. medical staff, Respondents to the e reward survey 2009a gave specific reasons for not evaluating. as shown in Table 2, Table 2 Reasons for not conducting reward evaluations. Reason of respondents,Lack of resources or time 48. Lack of information or data 19,Senior management indifference 15. Organisation changes 10,Lack of analytical skills 8.
Source e reward survey 2009,6 Institute for Employment Studies. Many reward practitioners engage in external market benchmarking This practice has. spread from levels of pay and benefits to far more extensive human capital. benchmarking which looks at the prevalence and efficiency of HR practices and the. HR functions responsible for them An industry of firms has grown up to supply this. market producing a bewildering array of apparently sophisticated models and. statistics to underpin their notions of best practice and world class HR. Benchmarking statistics often seem to focus on the most measurable rather than the. most meaningful information and can encourage a follow the herd mentality So. what if it takes longer for me to recruit someone on average than competitors when. what really matters is the quality of staff I recruit So what if all my competitors use. performance related pay does that necessarily mean it is going to work in my setting. In defence of reward practitioners it can be argued that it is difficult to assess pay and. reward practices in many settings A wide range of variables and factors many of. them intangible are generally involved As the Corby et al 2003 study showed pay. management and change is often a highly political process and an attempt to evaluate. that ignores this is sure to fail, There are a number of success and effectiveness criteria available and it may be a. question of which to choose and what to do if they come into conflict For example a. decision may be made to close a defined benefit pension scheme and reduce pension. contributions by the company into a new defined contribution plan The financial. savings resulting from this move can be easily calculated But how can these be. balanced against the demotivation of existing staff and loss of potential recruits that. such a change might cause, Moreover it is difficult to carry out controlled research studies and experiment with. different approaches to pay and rewards and compare their effectiveness when. people s livelihood and standards of living may be at stake There are also a whole. range of factors that impact on the success of performance related pay initiatives for. example performance management and communications which make it hard to. isolate pay and rewards to assess their effects Changes in pay are also typically. accompanied by changes in associated HR processes for example job evaluation. exercises are often linked to changes in job content and organisation design. These were some of the major difficulties that the head of rewards for a large UK bank. referred to when we discussed possible improvements in measurement processes and. techniques with him He said that he was interested in the improvements but the. difficulties are formidable Also he felt that the board of the bank was mainly. concerned with rewards for their top executives and despite the millions of dollars of. pay costs for other staff he was not being pressured to show a return on how that pay. and employment spend was invested so long as there were no obvious problems or. huge inefficiencies, Increasing the effectiveness of reward management 7. The rationale for evaluation based on evidence, A key influence on our thinking about EBRM was the concept of evidence based.
management This was explained by Rousseau 2006 as follows. An evidence orientation shows that decision quality is a direct function of available. facts creating a demand for reliable and valid information when making managerial. and organisational decisions the poor information commonly available to managers. regarding the organisational consequences of their decisions means that experiences are. likely to be misinterpreted subject to perceptual gaps and misunderstandings. Evidence based management leads to valid learning and continuous Improvement. Rousseau 2006, Pfeffer and Sutton 2006 believe that managers like doctors can practice their craft more. effectively if they are routinely guided by the best logic and evidence and if they relentlessly. seek new knowledge and insight from both inside and outside their companies to keep. updating their assumptions knowledge and skills, The tendency is for organisations to ignore research evidence and base their HR and. reward policies on generalized truths which have little foundation in that evidence. Because systematic evaluation does not take place there is a danger of important. questions such as these remaining unanswered, How effective are the pay and reward arrangements in our organisation. Do they add value, How do rewards affect the levels of engagement and performance of our employees. Are our reward policies and other HR policies in areas such as resourcing. sufficiently well integrated, What s the return on the cost of our management and employee incentive plans and.
what would happen if we switched them from an individual to a team emphasis. What would happen to performance if we halved or doubled the incentive. opportunities, Are we getting any measurable return on the cost of our flex and benefits plans. Is our pay market positioning right, What would happen if we moved up to an upper quartile pay line. Do we have the right number of pay grades,What would happen if we had fewer or more grades. In fact do we have any evidence whatsoever that our pay and reward. arrangements make any difference,8 Institute for Employment Studies. The case for EBRM, EBRM as described in this paper is the management of reward systems based on fact.
rather than opinion on understanding rather than assumptions on grounded theory. rather than dogma It recognises that reward systems exist to add value but often. don t and that it is essential to assemble and analyse the evidence on how well they. are functioning so that improvements can be made where necessary It refers to the. extensive research conducted over the last 50 years into how reward systems work in. organisations and what can be done to increase their effectiveness It subjects the. theories derived from this research to critical evaluation based on their relevance and. application in the context of particular organisations It makes use of the model. emerging from our own research as described below which identifies its. components ie setting objectives and success criteria conducting reward reviews. measuring the impact of reward evaluating that impact and developing. implementing and applying reward policies and practices on the basis of the evidence. assembled by the processes of review measurement and evaluation And as the. seven case studies we carried out have demonstrated the measurement difficulties we. have found can be overcome and the benefits of more EBRM can be realised. Case study evidence and examples of EBRM, The case studies summarized below illustrate in different settings how organisations. are wrestling with issues concerning the development implementation and. evaluation of reward policy and practice each adopting its own approach and in. accordance with the organisation s context They underline a basic principle that was. confirmed by the research that there is no such thing as one best way only the. method that suits the needs and circumstances of the organisation The organisations. were selected as known examples of good practice in this field. DSG International, This case described how in a difficult economic environment a complex mix of reward. arrangements was simplified to establish a close alignment between rewards and the. five components of a new business turnaround plan primarily through the re design of. executive incentive plans The change was designed to enhance the perception of line. of sight between individual performance group performance and reward It illustrates. the vital role of communications to explain the why of reward change what it means. for the business and how each component of reward links to the five point plan. Kent County Council, This case revealed interestingly that the Council does not over emphasize metrics. and measuring They attribute success to a strong and united political direction from. the top a long term consistency of purpose but with the appropriate phasing of. changes and with adaptation to local circumstances and a high involvement. approach However they do look at some statistics particularly in terms of equal pay. Increasing the effectiveness of reward management 9. staff retention in each directorate and the findings from their biannual staff survey. The latter has shown a growing appreciation of the total reward package across the. organisation Costs are also an issue at the forefront of their minds with the current. pressure on local authority funding, This case described a clear reward strategy that has underpinned KPMG s growth in. recent years focused on the twin objectives of strongly rewarding performance and. meeting the needs of a large diverse workforce with a comparatively young average. age profile through a sophisticated total rewards approach The firm monitors a set of. 13 key performance indicators based on each of their reward strategy principles using. a traffic light system of assessment for each indicator For each of the 13 measures. targets are set and results compared with past year s performance. This case showed how a company with a strong culture of measurement has built its. own people profit chain methodology and produced impressive evidence to. demonstrate how rewards can enhance employee engagement and thereby business. performance The operational and cost focus in the business means that reward. arrangements are reviewed regularly and changed if they are not found to be. delivering But the subtler processes of consultation and change management are. equally vital in maintaining and strengthening reward effectiveness. Standard Chartered Bank, This case showed how the bank s reward policies like all of its people management.
policies are coordinated and assessed within a sophisticated framework of human. capital management and measurement Since 2005 the bank has maintained a human. capital scorecard to gather organize and report on key trends linked to the. achievement of business goals This information is used as an important input into. reward plans and processes But the alignment of reward policies with the bank s. values is especially important and this has been particularly evident in its most recent. review of executive remuneration arrangements and incentives in the context of. widespread criticism of practices in the sector, This case demonstrated that while measures of organisational and reward effectiveness. may differ the delivery of them is every bit as critical if not more so in voluntary. organisations It also shows that limited resources need not be a barrier to assessing and. demonstrating effectiveness Establishing links to the core purpose of the organisation. was the major driver behind the extensive research undertaken into effectiveness The. culture of the organisation and its values were important considerations as was. ensuring that the values of the people in the organisation were aligned to them. 10 Institute for Employment Studies,A technology company. This case looked at a smaller entrepreneurial technology company and how it is. evolving a more logical structured approach to its pay and rewards in order to better. align them with its growth plans rather than largely reflecting the history of its. development As in our other case studies the head of reward and development. emphasised that reward system development is an evolutionary process that can t just. be determined on the basis of abstract reward principles nor solely using hard. quantitative measures of effectiveness A subtler understanding of culture and change. processes is at least as important as the technical design of reward plans if. improvements are to be put into practice,The criteria for EBRM. Our research identified the most important criteria for assessing the effectiveness of. reward arrangements as illustrated in Figure 1 While there may be a potential. conflict between criteria of more concern is how few of the criteria most organisations. use beyond the ubiquitous one of market competitiveness. Figure 1 A framework for EBRM the ten Cs,Competitive. externally to,recruit and retain,Compliant Convergent.
legally internally with business,equitable fair strategy and required. values skills and,behaviours,Controlled,efficient to Contribution. manage and and performance,administer rewarded,effectiveness. Customised,Changes to needs of,in response to different. different needs employees,Cost effective,Communicated engages and.
and affordable,well and motivates employees,understood and. Source IES 2009, Increasing the effectiveness of reward management 11. The components of EBRM, It is tempting to believe that the process of EBRM is one of linear progression a. succession of logical steps beginning at A and continuing through B C D etc to the. inevitable conclusion of a well constructed reward system But life is not like that As. Watson 1995 remarked social scientists are prone to see far more rationality in. organisational activities than is justified, The reality is that EBRM is a much more varied and fluid affair The evidence from. our case studies is that while the organisations concerned all shared a belief in the. importance of reviewing and assessing the effectiveness of their reward practices and. all have gone through and now operate some kind of process to effect it they use. different criteria and measures of reward success as well as different reward. approaches, However based on the case study evidence and our own experience we have.
concluded that there are a number of common components to the process of EBRM. and the assessment of reward effectiveness But these are applied in all sorts of ways. sometimes sequentially sometimes not depending on the needs of the situation That. is why we call them components rather than stages The components we have. identified are defined in Table 3 with descriptions of the typical work involved and. Table 3 The components of EBRM,Component Typical work Outcomes. 1 Set reward Executive interviews Rationale for review process. objectives and, Senior management seminars Agreed goals for reward. arrangements,Organisation and HR strategy analysis. Criteria to assess reward,Reward pathway definition goal. effectiveness,setting and gap analysis,Prioritisation of goals and criteria.
Defined linkages to business,requirements employee needs and. other HR practices,Agreed review process, 2 Review Project group formation Full understanding of current reward. current reward position,Internal research into employee. policies and, attitudes and current reward policies Highlighting of key reward issues and. and practices problems to address,External research market rate.
analysis benchmarking good,practices review of relevant research. 12 Institute for Employment Studies,Component Typical work Outcomes. 3 Measure Decide what to measure what data Information required to evaluate. reward where from how gathered reward effectiveness. effectiveness, Specify measures by reference to A set of measures for ongoing. reward goals and success criteria evaluation,Collect and analyse data. 4 Evaluate Refer to reward objectives and Information required to develop and. reward success criteria implement new or revised reward. outcomes practices,Use measures to evaluate extent to.
which the goals and criteria have A defined process for ongoing. been met evaluation, 5 Develop Refer to survey results measures A clear understanding of what has to. future reward and evaluation to highlight key be achieved and why which provides. directions and reward issues and problems to the basis for future review and. practices address evaluation, Agree direction of change and Fully tested designs and changes. reward architecture for the future based on the thorough analysis of. evidence supporting the change,Analyse possible alternatives and. changes Development of organisational,capability to implement and operate. Define objectives of new reward,changes successfully.
Design develop new reward,Model and cost changes,Involve employees. Brief and train line managers, 6 Implement Communicate proposed reward Changes to rewards which have. new or developments demonstrably improved their, improved Introduce new reward practices effectiveness. reward An established process for measuring,Conduct regular effectiveness. practices and evaluating reward effectiveness,Develop and implement further.
changes as required,Source IES 2009, Figure 2 shows how the components function in practice It appears to describe a. sequential progress in the form of a continuous cycle from goal setting through. review measurement evaluation and development activities to implementation and. further review This can happen in some circumstances for example a review by. outside consultants as described by the firms we contacted But as we established. from the case studies and our own experience as practitioners when EBRM is practiced. within organisations the components are not necessarily specified or defined and. Increasing the effectiveness of reward management 13.

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