2 Seobi Wood, to sustain any improvement it was imperative that organisation s capacity to change by encouraging. they own the process and take responsibility for the crafting of a collective vision towards the. ongoing development of their practice We there improvement of practice Hallinger 2003 Lee. fore engaged them in a participatory process to Walker Chui 2012 From this perspective. enable them to work as a team to develop an HODs as instructional leaders should engage with. instructional support framework that suited their teachers to foster shared ideas and practices for. particular school ethos and context As Bush quality teaching and learning Bush 2008. Glover Bischoff Moloi Heystek and Joubert Hallinger Murphy 2013 Nordengren 2013. 2006 point out South African education needs Even though instructional leadership models. theories of leadership that are relevant to the in recent years have shifted towards distributed and. context of the country Any such theory needs to transformational leadership styles Blase Blase. take into consideration the challenging contexts in 2000 Spillane Diamond 2007 this change has. which teachers work and needs to be able to build not been translated into practice in many schools in. human capacity despite the sociohistorical South Africa Hoadley Christie Ward 2009 As. disadvantages that still impact so negatively on Neumerski 2013 explains despite substantial. teaching and learning developments in instructional leadership theory. The question that guided the process in the e g Biancarosa Bryk Dexter 2010 Hallinger. cycle that we now report on was how can heads of 2005 Robinson Lloyd Rowe 2008 knowledge. department in under resourced schools improve of how such theory is enacted to improve teaching. their instructional leadership practices We first remains limited Mangin Stoelinga 2008. explain the theory that helped us to facilitate and Spillane Diamond 2007 We wanted to address. make sense of the emerging process before this concern We assumed that facilitating an action. outlining the methodology used to explore the learning and action research approach with HODs. research question Since the process of instructional would enable them to develop their capacity to. leadership development is the focus of the study become lifelong learners who can practise. we then offer a step by step explanation of how facilitative leadership based on collaborative. participating HODs came to learn how they could enquiry within a specific school context Zuber. collaborate so as to improve the quality of teaching Skerritt 2011 Our aim was not only to help. and learning at their school We conclude with HODs understand their roles better but also to. some suggestions on how the learning gained from translate such an understanding into action so as to. this study help develop a more context specific allow them to support teachers to improve the. theory of how to develop instructional leadership quality of teaching and learning. Although based on a South African case study the, findings of this research could be applicable for Methodology. education globally whether in emergent or We chose a participatory action research PAR. developed economies since they provide general design since the critical reflection central to the. knowledge about how to improve instructional process enables personal and professional develop. leadership practice ment Dilworth Boshyk 2010 We worked with. HODs from an under resourced primary school in a, Conceptualising Instructional Leadership peri urban area in the Eastern Cape Province in. In our conceptualisation of instructional leadership response to a specific request by the principal who. we were influenced by Zuber Skerritt s notion of had been using action research and action learning. action leadership 2011 Zuber Skerritt 2011 de to improve his own leadership practice This school. scribes action leadership as an inventive pio had enjoyed considerable success in setting up a. neering collaborative and self developed way to community volunteer programme see Kearney. lead people This leadership style is based on the Wood Zuber Skerrit 2013 but it was still. democratic values of autonomy equal opportunity struggling to improve the academic performance of. belonging and self realisation Zuber Skerritt its learners Volunteer parents were deployed in. 2011 It is developed through critical self reflec classrooms as teaching assistants but not all. tion and from being open to learning from others teachers used them Furthermore the volunteer. in action learning sets that meet regularly parents were generally allocated menial tasks. Members of such groups set goals plan to put them rather than their helping with teaching and learning. into action and critically evaluate the outcomes to The four HODs in the school three females and. determine what further change is needed Par one male volunteered to participate in this project. ticipation in such groups not only leads to enhanced We facilitated six action learning set sessions with. goal attainment and skills development but also them Table 1 below shows how data was. builds trusting relationships among colleagues generated documented and thematically analysed. which is necessary for ongoing individual and Bryant Charmaz 2007 Neuman 2011 during. collective transformation Dilworth Boshyk the research process It also demonstrates the. 2010 Action leadership focuses on developing an measures taken to ensure trustworthiness of the. South African Journal of Education Volume 36 Number 4 November 2016 3. study The HODs signed informed consent forms board of the institution concerned which confirms. and the study obtained clearance from the ethics the ethical integrity of the research process. Table 1 Data generation and documentation techniques. Data documentation,Data generation techniques techniques. Qualitative questionnaires given to teachers and volunteers by HODs to get their opinions Verbatim transcripts. Transcripts of recorded action learning set meetings done by researchers and given to HODs for of audio recordings. verification Audio visual, Analysis of group exercises done by HODs with the facilitation of researchers recordings of. Observations HODs observed teachers and they documented teachers reactions and their actions participants working. during the process of research for them HODs to discuss those changes during their action learning together as action. set meetings If there were no changes observed HODs would think of planning and implementing learning sets. other strategies, Researchers observed how HODs progressed and changed during the process. Photovoice We advised HODs to request teachers and volunteers to do photovoice to share their Reflection journals. views with HODs because unlike a qualitative questionnaires a photovoice exercise can encourage. the participants to think more deeply about the context when deciding on the kind of quality they. want Baker Wang 2006, Prompts given stakeholders were asked to take photographs of things that depict quality teaching. and learning at their school,Reflective journals kept and used by. Participants for recoding discussions during meetings that included planning reflections on. strategies applied developed strategies for further improvement and documentation of actions taken. and or agreed upon, Researchers keep track of the participants progress. Data analysis and interpretation, Thematic analysis and interpretation Bryant Charmaz 2007 Neuman 2011 done by participants and facilitators. Quality criteria of the study Arthur Waring Coe Hedges 2012 Conrad Serlin 2011 Herr Anderson 2005. Neuman 2011 Stringer 2007, Credibility Transferability Dependability Confirm Catalytic Rhetorical validity. Triangulation of data process validity Inquiry audit trail ability validity Critical feedback. generation methods Rich description Audit trail Evidence of from the validation. independent of research how the study group on the. recoding member process stimulated research report. checking enthusiasm,for change in,participants,and others. Ethical considerations, Informed consent forms were given to participants then discussion of contents of the forms participants roles and the. meeting timeframes took place among the participants and the researchers before they volunteered their participation by. signing Values like transparency safety confidentiality trust and privacy were guaranteed Stringer 2007. Process of the Research and Discussion of the possible to discuss the whole process in depth in. Learning Gained one article for now we will concentrate on. We facilitated initiation of an action research discussing what the HODs learnt which enabled. enquiry by the HODs The process is detailed in them to answer the questions that they had. Figure 1 Of course in reality the process was not developed and how they came to find new ways to. as linear as it appears to be with the steps from implement the learning gained so as to improve. Action 4 onwards overlapping and occurring their instructional leadership. concurrently at times Since it would not be,4 Seobi Wood. Figure 1 Iterative cycles of action taken by HODs to improve their instructional leadership in order to improve. the quality of teaching and learning Seobi 2016 102. The regular action learning set meetings the participating HODs T teacher TA teaching. HODs met weekly in addition to the times that assistant. they met at the six action learning set meetings that. we facilitated gave the participants the opportunity Action 1 Identification of issues at the school in. to meet to develop plans agree on strategies to be terms of the quality of teaching and learning. implemented and reflect on the situation after The first step was to enable discussion of the. implementation of the strategies Such collabora culture of the school in terms of teaching and. tive learning is similar to the process recommended learning However first we had to build relation. in McCombs and Miller s 2009 six steps to ship among the participating HODs Collaboration. continuous improvement of quality teaching and commitment towards attaining any goal has to. 1 Identifying and clarifying core beliefs about the be based on a relationship of trust and respect. school culture Although the four participating HODs in this study. 2 Creating a shared vision of what these beliefs look had a decent collegial relationship it was important. like in practice to enable them to deepen their understanding of. 3 Collecting accurate and detailed information about each other as people rather than just as colleagues. the gaps between the vision and the current reality Relational wellbeing which is characterised by. 4 Identifying what innovations will help to close,existing gaps. care compassion and mutual support is at the, 5 Developing and implementing an action plan that heart of any successful collaborative effort Evans. supports teachers through the change process Prilleltensky 2007 Relationship is also one of. 6 Embracing collective autonomy and collective the core principles of action learning and action. accountability for closing existing gaps research Zuber Skerritt 2011 and so we fa. To facilitate a clear understanding of how the cilitated the creation of a humanising space. research process contributed to the HODs under through engaging the participants in experiential. standing of how they could improve their exercises designed to allow them to express care. instructional leadership of the process we will refer for one another and to learn about the person. to the following steps in our discussion In the behind the colleague Participants were able to. discussion of the steps these codes are used P appreciate how such exercises could also be used to. South African Journal of Education Volume 36 Number 4 November 2016 5. facilitate relationship building among the teachers Q3 How can we get all the teachers on board. and teaching assistants they were supposed to Some of the teachers were resistant to allowing the. support The first shift in thinking was evidenced teaching assistants in their classroom others were. by the realisation of the HODs that they could more open to using them but utilised them only to. achieve so much more if they worked as a cohesive clean do other menial tasks or watch the class. and self reflective team rather than working when they were called out The HODs expressed. independently as either Foundation Phase or the opinion that the teaching assistants could be. Intermediate Phase staff as they had been doing up developed to offer more instructional support but. until then they realised that they would need to convince the. Having one voice was something that was lacking teachers of this. before at our school P4, Within the safe space of the action learning set we Q4 How can we mobilise the teaching assistants. facilitated dialogue to help the participants explore to help the teachers more in the classroom. how they conceptualised their roles as instructional The participating HODs realised that the teaching. leaders and how they experienced their practice assistants would need help in developing the skills. within their specific school context The four necessary to make them effective in supporting. questions listed in Figure 1 Action 1 were crafted classroom instruction since none of them had. by the participants to explore their concerns and received any training in this regard. we now explain how they came to develop these, questions Action 2 The HODs gathered data from the. teachers and the teaching assistants, Q1 How do people perceive quality in our school In order to create a shared vision of what quality. The participants thought that it was important for education at their school might look like the HODs. them to have a common understanding of the type constructed a questionnaire with open ended. of quality education teachers and teaching questions to obtain the views of the other teachers. assistants want before they can have any influence and the teaching assistants on what is quality. on that quality They realised that quality is a education its appearance and also their theories. multifaceted concept Runciman Merry Walton on management P2 The purpose was to. 2007 and that it may be understood differently by encourage everyone involved in teaching both the. each stakeholder teachers and the teaching assistants to be involved. I was wondering whether if we want to know what in deciding what they wanted and to take. quality education is shouldn t we know what collective responsibility for any actions towards. teachers think about it P1 change in teaching practices in the school Leach. They decided to involve the teachers and the Pelkey Sabatier 2002 We suggested that the. teaching assistants to ensure that the vision they HODs also use photovoice see Table 1 as we. crafted would be based on the voices of all the thought that this might provide an alternative. stakeholders means of expression for those who were not. comfortable with completing a questionnaire, Q2 How can we give effective support to the Baker Wang 2006 Through discussion in the. teachers action learning set the participants identified. The participants did not have time to meet with themes from the visual and the written data to help. individual teachers face to face therefore they them to craft a collective vision see Figure 2. merely monitored the portfolios of the teachers and. made brief written comments They were thus Theme 1 Quality education must be holistic. worried that actual classroom practice could differ The data analysis conducted by the participants. from what teachers claimed to be doing in the indicated that the teachers and the teaching. classroom Their concern was that if teachers are assistants valued education highly and saw it as a. not maintaining quality teaching and learning passport to improved life opportunities. moderation of their portfolios will not help to Quality education to me means a better future for. improve teaching and learning Moderation has all T6. little impact on the quality of teaching and learning The kind of quality education that the stakeholders. as it cannot address the complexity of a whole wanted for their school was to enable learners to. teaching programme Horsburgh 1999 unless it is develop their talents to the full to enable them to. conducted with the teacher where improvements realise their creative potential and to guide them to. can be discussed and assistance to implement take responsibility for their own lives and the. improvements can be negotiated The participants realisation of their personal goals Participants. were concerned that they did not have a system in concluded that results are necessary to compile an. place that they could use as a guide to support academic report P3 for learners but that these. teachers in their everyday practice they merely are not the only variables that should be focused on. moderated the quality of the work without any when looking at improving education. developmental input,6 Seobi Wood, The responses of the teachers and teaching teachers who are committed productive present. assistants echo much of what is known about all the time clued up on all aspects of education. quality education namely that it offers the curricular and co curricular TA12 To reach. possibility of inclusion in the larger fabric of that level teachers need continuous development. society and that it is often associated with training to develop learners knowledge skills T10 Fur. for jobs and capacity building in order to break the thermore teachers were required to use teaching. cycle of poverty Ngomedje 2006 the curriculum and learning strategies that cater for a variety of. and pedagogical practices should prepare learners learners T6 and with those strategies learners. to thrive in their social contexts rather than just must be interactive at all times T5 in their. empowering them to achieve academically Penney learning processes. Chandler 2000 Van der Berg Taylor Gus The stakeholders also recognised the need to. tafsson Spaull Armstrong 2011 and pressure have adequate resources in the school but they felt. to achieve high marks at all costs ignores the fact that they could still do much to encourage learners. that education must have some direct bearing on through recognition of their efforts. the wellbeing of the social and ecological The second photograph in Figure 3 shows. environments people actually inhabit Gruenewald print rich walls filled with learners work so as to. 2003 enhance the quality of teaching and learning at the. Failure to consider how education will impact school The participants thought it was important. on the future of learners seems to be one of the for teachers to display learners work on the walls. issues that has been overlooked and or of the classroom to show recognition of learners. marginalised in many contemporary discussions efforts and that this constantly encourages. Penney Chandler 2000 This raises concerns learners to perform better T7 The affective. about the adequacy and appropriateness of the outcomes of education are at least as important as. ways in which education is currently developed the cognitive results and the acknowledgement of. structured and taught in schools The stakeholders learner efforts is reflected in learners increasing. in this school wanted education that will make the motivation to learn Kim Fisher Fraser 2000. learners to be sic free from the bondage of mental. inferiority see Figure 2 They were adamant that Theme 3 Quality education must demonstrate a. learners should not see themselves as inferior link between the school and the community. because of social circumstances They felt that Another narrative that emerged from the data was. learners should be educated to believe in them that education should be contextually relevant. selves to feel proud of their background They enabling children to be productive citizens who can. were of the opinion that education should provide contribute meaningfully to their community see. learners with equal opportunities devoid of major Figure 4 quality education has to be responsive. disparities TA 2 to the ethnic group it serves TA3. It was felt that one way of creating a link, Theme 2 Quality education must be supported by a between the school and the community was to. favourable school and classroom environment involve parents in the education of their children. The teachers and the teaching assistants felt that The school in this study prides itself on being a. quality education could be realised only in a community school Kearney et al 2013 Comm. favourable school and classroom environment unity schools collaborate with many partners to. meaning that learners should enjoy themselves at offer a range of support and opportunities to. school and teachers must give their best to educate children youth families and communities Ep. learners T10 They wanted teachers to be more stein Sanders Simon Salinas Jansorn Van. involved in the children they teach at school T4 Voorhis 2002 In this school the use of parents as. and to be able to motivate learners and ensure teaching assistants is one way that the school. excellence in the classroom by requiring learners involves parents in the education of their children. to work hard T7 These responses highlight the This school strives to be an enabling space that. important role of the teacher in producing quality promotes health on all levels physical social and. education emotional The data generated by the teachers and. Definite ideas of required teacher conduct the teaching assistants seems to echo the findings in. were voiced teachers should be on time for their the literature as the stakeholders see education as a. classes T8 they must ensure that the syllabus is social rather than an isolated process Osterman. completed within specified time frame T2 They 2000 324 They also emphasised that quality. expressed a desire to have teachers that are education at their school can only be achieved with. passionate and have a love for learners and the community support. community that they are serving They wanted, South African Journal of Education Volume 36 Number 4 November 2016 7. Figure 2 Quality education should liberate learners from mental inferiority and broaden their horizons. 8 Seobi Wood, Figure 3 In a resource scarce environment recognition of learners efforts is very important. South African Journal of Education Volume 36 Number 4 November 2016 9. School as a favourable teaching and learning environment with parents involved in school activities. They are helping other community members to think positive It is helping community to be an exemplary they will get. about their teachers because people think that toilets should crops to plant in their gardens They can get vegetables so. be a dirty place But these learners are cleaning and they that they can be healthy Even those who are sick they can. are enjoying their work There after we can sit and relax in get vegetables so that they can get balanced diet per meal. our toilets And the learners also are taught to respect their per day sic. toilet not to mess but to keep them clean sic, Figure 4 Parents and members of the community should be involved in school activities. 10 Seobi Wood, Theme 4 The development of quality education is qualifications such as the Professional Standards. an ongoing process which requires continuous for Higher Level Teaching Assistants Groom. development of all stakeholders Rose 2005 Training puts TAs in a position to. The fourth theme indicated that the teachers were work specifically with learners with social. aware that quality education depends on continuous emotional or behavioural problems and they can. development and learning However they did not also play a major role in supporting the teacher in. mention their own developmental needs tending to the management of behaviour in the classroom. focus on the needs of the teaching assistants There Austin 2002 The HODs also pointed out that. was recognition that the teaching assistants could teachers would also need to be helped to identify. do so much more if they were trained and their own needs for improving teaching and. mentored The teachers indicated that TAs teach learning as there was little evidence of such needs. ing assistants can help with auxiliary duties of from the data generated. photocopying and data capturing which involves, capturing learners marks recording them and Action 3 The HODs crafted a vision for improving. compiling class lists T2 The suggestion was instructional support for quality teaching and. also made that the TAs should help support learning. teachers instructionally by identifying learners Based on data generated in Action 2 the HODs. needs T11 and through helping slow learners developed a vision to guide their actions when. Reflecting on this data the HODs realised that it working with other stakeholders to effect change. would be important to create opportunities for TAs so as to realise the desired quality of teaching and. to be empowered in understanding the curriculum learning at their school see Figure 5 The crafted. P1 so that they could help teachers more in the vision linked to the themes that emerged from the. classroom and assist learners with their homework stakeholders generated data and allowed the. This is in line with current international trends HODs to begin to identify gaps between the. where TAs are currently perceived to have a more collective vision for quality education and the. professional role recognised through the provision reality of what is actually happening As shown in. of several new accredited training initiatives and Figure 5 love was the central theme of the vision. Figure 5 The HODs vision of quality teaching and learning based on data generated with teachers and TAs. The HODs emphasised that love should be what challenges they come with love helps you to. central to all teaching and learning at the school overcome all those challenges P1 The HODs. when you have love for people whom you are believed that if the teachers teach the learners with. working with no matter where they are from or love in their hearts their teaching will be more. South African Journal of Education Volume 36 Number 4 November 2016 11. effective as they will put more effort into it The in groups like this is a relief P3 as it helped. participants wanted passionate teachers with an them to feel supported and they were able to. ability to confront the realities of schools in devote more time to mentoring the teachers rather. disadvantaged contexts The HODS also believed than just monitoring the work of the teachers. that when the teachers care their energy will begin. to flow towards satisfying the needs and desires of Action 5 The HODs worked with the TAs so that. the learners the TAs could better support instruction. Values such as respect love equity peace The HODs prioritised working with the TAs. commitment and trust were also highlighted as because they realised that several teachers were. essential to be able to provide an environment that resistant to involving the TAs in classroom matters. is conducive to teaching and learning Theme 2 One HOD volunteered to mentor the TAs until the. The text outside the heart in Figure 5 represents the subject heads could convince the teachers to. need to support teachers to work together with the include the TAs in the subject group meetings The. wider community Theme 3 One example of this TAs were trained to do the classroom admin. was the training of volunteers to support teachers in istrative tasks of photocopying documents such as. the classroom with instructional tasks such as question papers and work schedules recording. homework and to liaise with parents to do this learners marks and designing mark sheets. The vision also represents all stakeholders namely The HODs also encouraged individual TAs to. the teachers the principal the subject heads the visit the homes of learners that were not doing their. grade heads and volunteers as lifelong learners homework to try find out how the learners could. engaged in continuous development Theme 4 be supported to do their homework Besides giving. The ultimate aim of this vision is for learners to be homework support the HODs said that the TAs. successful and to reach their potential hence could also replace teachers in classes where there. education must be holistic Theme 1 were no teachers because of absenteeism P1 to. avoid having to put learners in other classes and so. Action 4 The HODs worked together as a team to prevent overcrowding The HODs also worked. develop strategies that they used to support the with the TAs to help them learn how to maintain. teachers to ensure quality teaching and learning at order in the classroom when the teacher or the. their school HOD was involved in other school tasks for. The next step for the HODs was to devise strategies myself as Deputy Principal when the principal is. to support the teachers through the change process not here I have to come to the office for. towards realising their idea of quality education administrative issues or attend to parents I leave. derived from the data generated by them The my class a lot and I use the TAs to attend to my. HODs realised that teamwork would be of benefit class whilst I am out P1. at all levels since it would enable a distributed, form of leadership freeing them to concentrate on Action 6 The HODs worked with the subject heads. supporting and mentoring rather than just to empower them to work with the teachers and the. controlling and monitoring They realised that as teaching assistants to improve teaching and. instructional leaders collaboration would need to learning. start with themselves it came up that we need to The HODs decided to work with the subject heads. sit together as a school from Foundation phase to empower them to work collaboratively with the. and Senior phase P3 Previously the HODs had teachers to improve teaching and learning Before. functioned independently as two teams of HODs in their engagement in this research the HODs had. two different phases It was more of the HODs in been doing the work of a subject head rather than. the Foundation phase that worked together and the delegating As one participant remarked i t was. HODs in the Senior phase that worked together only when I attended a DBE Department of Basic. P4 Education training last month that I realised I did. After experiencing the benefits of not even know what a subject head was supposed to. collaborative work for themselves the participants do P4 By delegating moderation of portfolios to. decided to convince the rest of the teachers and the the subject heads the HODs now had the. teaching assistants to also work in teams They opportunity to support the teachers on an individual. brainstormed some strategies that they could basis Once the subject heads had moderated the. develop to support the teachers instructionally work the HODs could just check it which enabled. identifying gaps between the vision and the them to see if a the subject head was in need of. existing situation They decided to create teams at support and b what the developmental needs. various levels to enable the development of were of the teacher in question The HODs and. focused working groups where all voices could be subject heads thus started to embody values. heard Each HOD would work with their subject characteristic of distributed leadership namely co. heads the subject heads would work with their performance interdependence and full. teachers and the teachers would work with the TAs commitment from both parties Gronn 2002. in subject groups The HODs found that working Spillane 2012 This experience also helped the. 12 Seobi Wood, subject heads to learn how to collaborate with their framework or model to encapsulate the co. respective teachers and to encourage them to take llaborative approach to instructional leadership that. responsibility for improving teaching and learning they had developed through this study They did. thus creating multiple layers of leadership for this by reflecting on their learning throughout the. instructional improvement something that is action research process and they decided that the. highlighted as important in the literature Spillane two factors that had led to an improvement in their. 2012 instructional leadership were, The importance of teamwork and participation of all. Action 7 The HODs worked with the teachers on a stakeholders to improve instructional support to. one to one basis in order to provide space for teachers and. individual development The importance of forming good relationships to. By delegating work to the subject heads the HODs enhance collaboration among all stakeholders. created some time to work with the teachers They constructed a diagrammatic representation to. individually We asked the HODs to document use as a framework for involving all teachers TAs. their actions when they worked with the teachers and parents in improving instruction at the school. and to reflect on their learning in the action However it is not within the scope of this article to. learning set discussions Their reflections present and explain the model. highlighted that they had learnt about the, importance of establishing good relationships with Conclusion. individual teachers A good relationship helped the In this article we described the process followed. teachers to be open to input from the HODs giving by the heads of department HODs in one school. both the teachers and the HODs space to to improve their instructional leadership Through. collaboratively discuss issues develop plans to be critical reflection on their actions within the safe. implemented and agree on ways to implement the space of a participatory group the HODs came to. plans so as to achieve quality education Mentoring learn that they could influence the teachers and the. was one of the ways in which the HODs engaged teaching assistants at the school to take re. with the teachers particularly those that were sponsibility for their own learning and de. newly appointed For example Participant 1 stated velopment by introducing them to the concept of. that they had worked with one teacher drawing a working in democratic focused collaborative. lesson plan together and discussing it together teams By creating such dialogical spaces collegial. The participating HOD sat with the teacher after relationships were improved and teachers at all. school and they worked together to develop five levels began to feel valued This can only help to. lesson plans The HOD said that the discussion improve teacher motivation and commitment. with the teacher lasted until after 5 o clock and Although the process was not without its. that they did not realise that it was so late P1 challenges participation in the action research. By talking to the teachers and finding out their project has changed the way the HODs at this. needs the HODs were better able to support the school provide instructional leadership and the. teachers rather than just berating them for poor model that was developed will continue to be used. performance For instance when a couple of to entrench the values and the vision that were. teachers failed to meet the deadline for submitting crafted to support improvement of teaching and. marks on a USB flash drive the HOD in question learning in the school The main challenge. chose to have a conversation with them to find out experienced by the participants was finding time to. why they had not met the deadline This work in a more relational way However by. conversation afforded the teachers the opportunity offering an explanation of the process followed we. to admit that they did not have the skills to enter have provided an answer to the research question. the marks and so the HOD was able to train them we posed earlier in this article namely how can. Through this conversation the teachers were also heads of department in under resourced schools. able to provide input which helped the HOD to improve their instructional leadership practices. improve the template for mark entry Thus mutual The findings of this study can be applied to. learning occurred and both parties felt respected improve instructional leadership in both dis. and valued The HODs gave several examples of advantaged and more advantaged school contexts. instances where such professional conversations since they provide a general framework for pro. had not only led to finding ways to improve fessional development in this regard It is hoped. teaching and learning but had also strengthened that other school leaders will be able to learn from. collegial relationships in the process the process and adapt it to improve their own. approach to instructional leadership,Action 8 Development of a framework to ensure. quality teaching and learning Acknowledgement, In order to encourage collective accountability for This work is based on a research project supported. improving teaching and learning at the school the by the National Research Foundation NRF of. HODs realised that they would have to develop a South Africa Grant Number 93316 The grant. South African Journal of Education Volume 36 Number 4 November 2016 13. holder acknowledges that opinions findings and DBE Republic of South Africa 2016 Curriculum. conclusions or recommendations expressed in any Assessment Policy Statements CAPS Available at. publication generated by NRF supported research www education gov za LinkClick aspx link 419 t. are those of the author s and that the NRF accepts abid 128 mid Accessed 17 January 2016. Department of Education Republic of South Africa, no liability whatsoever in this regard 2000 No 52 of 2000 Adult basic education and. We express appreciation to all the Heads of training Act 2000 Government Gazette Vol. Departments the teachers the Teaching Assistants 426 No 21881 13 December Cape Town. TAS who took part in this study We also extend Government Printing Works Available at. our sincerest gratitude to the Principal of the school www umalusi org za docs legislation 2000 act52 2. who gave us the permission to conduct this 000 pdf Accessed 15 January 2016. research at his school This paper would have never Department of Education 2002 Revised National. been a success without your valuable contribution Curriculum Statement Grades R 9 schools. Technology Pretoria South Africa Department of,Education Available at. i Published under a Creative Commons Attribution http www ibe unesco org curricula southafrica sa. Licence al tc 2002 eng pdf Accessed 15 January 2016. Dilworth RL Boshyk Y eds 2010 Action learning, References and its applications London UK Palgrave. Arthur J Waring M Coe R Hedges LV 2012 Macmillan, Research methods methodologies in education Epstein JL Sanders MG Simon BS Salinas KC Jansorn. London UK SAGE Publications Inc NR Van Voorhis FL 2002 School family and. 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proses bisnis operasional lebih sederhana dan praktis yang mana dapat dilakukan oleh manajer pada semua tingkatan. Situasi strategi bisnis sangat ditentukan oleh interaksi antara lingkungan, stakeholder, pesaing , pelanggan dan pemasok. Situasi operasional bisnis sangat ditentukan oleh interaksi antara orang yang ada dalam organisasi, pekerjaan- pekerjaan, infrastuktur yang ada serta sistem ...
Pengertian Proses Bisnis Manajemen Proses bisnis akan menghasilkan suatu produk serta kegiatan-kegiatan yang akan dilakukan berdasarkan tujuan perusahaan tersebut. Proses bisnis adalah instrumen kunci bagi orang yang mengorganisir aktivitas bisnis dan meningkatkan pemahaman dari hubungan timbal balik mereka (Pemilik bisnisKonsumen).
each probe/primer pair with the formula IL Cqs100/(2 Cqlim 1) for each nonspeci?c ampli?cation on pure DNA calibrated at 85 ng l1. IL values ranged from 0.0001 to 0.1448% (Table 2). With a mean value of 0.0201%, the overall IL of the ASPPAA for four-allele quanti?cation was low. This performance of the assay
U.S. Track & Field and Cross Country Coaches Association Event Gender Last Name First Name School 2002 All-Americans Division II Outdoor Track & Field 100m Men Alexander Nic Abilene Christian University VanWyk Christie Abilene Christian University Bartlett Kevin Lincoln University of Missouri Smoots Jason North Carolina Central University Coleman Olan Tarleton State University Norman Josh