Importance Of Heat Mit Opencourseware-Books Pdf

Importance of Heat MIT OpenCourseWare
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Vehicle Systems I T,Exhaust a n, Photo from Wikimedia Commons http commons wikimedia org. 9kJMechanical losses,G T i o n 10kJ,t l ar r s 6kJ. 10kJ Driving,Gasoline h,100kJri10kJ,y t S 30kJ n,o 35kJ Auxiliary. o p 10kJ ire,C DParasiticrgy,9 7 9 7 heat n e,losses Coolant Exhaust. 2 r 2 ca 9 heatl E,losses Coolant Exhaust,FIn US ctransportation uses 26 of total energy.
Co Generation in Residential Buildings,In US residential. commercial,consumeg 35 m aenergy,supply h e r,Photo by bunchofpants on Flickr. i g h S o v e,yr c t o n, y HeatingImage removed due to copyright restrictions. TE Recoveryn,e Please see any photo of the Honda freewatt. Micro CHP system such as http www hondanews,2 r 2 ca Electrical PowerRefrigeration.
com thumbnails 2007 4 3 13644 preview jpg,F ctPV r i Appliances. Appliances,Electricity,Industrial Waste,Photos by arbyreed and toennesen on Flickr. g tS no v e,9 7 9 7 ne,2 r 2 9 lE, Fig ES 1 in Hemrick James G et al Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency DOE EERE Industrial Technologies. Program January 2005,Renewable Heat Sources,i g h So v e. C D i rg y,9 7 9 7 n e,2 r 2 cal E, F ct ri Photos by Jon Sullivan at http pdphoto org and NASA.
Solar Thermal,Photos of solar hot water tubes removed due to h. copyright restrictions Please see for example,http image made in china com 2f0j00KeoavBGJycbN. Unpressurized Solar Water Heater VERIOUS jpg, http ns2 ugurpc com productsimages solarevacuatedtube 202160 jpg. o p re C http www treehugger com Solar Thermal Plant photo jpg. C D i rg y Images by Sandia National Laboratories and NREL. 9 7 9 7 n e,2 r 2 cal E,http media photobucket com. Direct Energy Conversion, g rm a Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Please see http web archive org web 20071011185223. www eneco com images science new jpg,HOT SIDE G T ionh. Thermoelectrics h,i g So v e,C D i rg y,9 7 9 7 ne. 2 r 2 cal E,Photovoltaics Thermophotovoltaics, http www solareis anl gov images photos Nrel flatPV15539 jpg http www keelynet com tpvcell jpg. Image by Nadine Y Barclay USAF Courtesy of John Kassakian Used with permission. Solar Spectrum,Terrestrial Solar Spectrum W m2 m,AM1 5 Solar Spectrumn. 1400 Energy Usable,Cfor Silicon,1000 r T s i o,ht o l a e r.
r i g S n v,C of Silicon,2 200 2 9 l E,o r 0 ric a. F 0ct 0 5 1 1 5 2 2 5 3,E le Wavelength m,Solar Thermophotovoltaics T. Power W m2 m,1500 Insolation,Optical ConcentratorC. Emissivity Absorptance,0 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 1 5. Wavelength m,Selective Absorber,Absorber r i 1 0,t Emitter l a r s.
Power W m2 m,Irradiance,From Emitterig S o n v b,p y c tTPV Cell o. C Selective,Wavelength m D,Thermal Management,0 2 4 6 8 10 12. 2Theoretical,r 2 a l Wavelength m, t ri c efficiency 85 4 comparable to that of infinite. number of multi junction,c cells but with only a single junction PV cell. lonly in a narrow spectrum near the bandgap of photovoltaic. Key Challenges, Selective surfaces absorbing solar radiation but re.
cells working at high temperatures,Solar Thermoelectrics. cold hot cold,EFFICIENCY,20 0 n er 500 C m 600 C,r T si o400 C. l ve 200 C r 250 C,r i g10 0 t S n,e yC o 150 C,9 7 9 7 n e. 2 r 2 cal 9 E 0 5 1 0 1 5,AVERAGE FIGURE OF MERIT ZT. Lowomaterialsricost and low capital cost potentially high efficiency. t Develop materials with high thermoelectric figure of. F Challenges, E selective surfaces that absorb solar radiation but do not.
re radiative heat,1st Law of Thermodynamics,Environment Closed E2 E1 Q 12M W12. dE C h Q W l t,G T hQ ioWn,t ladtr rs,i g h S o v e. Properties Process,Closed Systemop re C Dependent,Open System C Di rgy Independent Quantities. 9 7 9 7 n e,2 Er 2 KEc alPE U Internal Energy,F Specifict ri. lec Heat C,J K kg or J K m,2nd Law of Thermodynamics.
Change Entropy,State Transfer a,Generation,Properties. Heat Reservoir T,Duringt a cycle la,i g h S o n v e. yr ct o Q Q,No rentropy C,generation 0 h c,C D i rg y T T h c. Maximum e Efficiency W Q Q Tc,2 Qr 2 calW Carnot Efficiency. F ct TT 223i h C T 23 C 40,Heat Reservoir T,5800 K T 300 K 95.
Thermal power plant 40 IC engines 25,Microscopic Picture of Entropy. For Isolated Systems I T,Microstate a quantum,mechanically allowed state. A total of microstate,Principle of equal probability. each microstate is equally,possible to be observed. G T ion 1h,laProbability,Boltzmann Principle,S k B ln y k 1 38x10 S n v.
J K Boltzmann constant,Constant 7,Temperature,9 n e Constant Temperature. and Closed,2 r 2 ca E k T l But Open Systems,Po E triAe B. E potential driving force for mass diffusion, average energy needed to move a particle in out off a system. Maxwell distribution,E m v 2x v 2y v 2z M,P v v v A exp g x y z. a n er2k T,A box of gas G T h o n,All Probability,t ola er r.
normalizei to one,g m vt S v,v vo n2 2 2,1 dv dv dv A exp ec C A. 2 k T B 2 k T,9 7 9 7 n e m m v v v,2 r 2 ca 9 P v lvE v exp. Distribution x y z,2 k T 2 k T,Fo ctr i B B,One molecule. E dv dv dv m v v v A exp n,Equipartition Principle tevery quardratic r s. energy contributesig,k T 2 So v e,E in microscopic.
How much o,p kirTe 1 38y 10C J K 300K 5 14,Is k T at room D r g B. temperature,2 r 2 cal 1 6 10 J eV,Oxygen le c,Atom at 300 K v. Thermal Management 0 0 5 1 2 0 2 3 0 Optical Concentrator Emissivity Absorptance Wavelength m Wavelength m Pow e r W m 2 m Pow e r W m 2 m d b Solar Thermophotovoltaics Theoretical maximum efficiency 85 4 comparable to that of infinite number of multi junction cells but with only a single junction PV cell

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