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Journal of Childhood Obesity 2016,ISSN 2572 5394 Vol 1 No 1 4. Study sample conducted using the Stanford Binet test that was adapted to. the Sudanese culture by psychologists 14 For IQ, All mentally retarded children between 10 18 years old Classification the International Classification of Diseases 10. attending all special education institutes in Khartoum state ICD 10 was used 15. were included in the study Their total number was 290 child. 190 males and 100 females Mentally retarded children Scoring system. younger than 10 or older than 18 years couldn t be included in. the study since there is no national figure reported for the A socioeconomic status scoring system was done using the. prevalence of obesity among normal subjects for these age following cutoff levels Low level less than 8 Intermediate. groups 8 18 High 19 28 8 Women s nutritional knowledge was. evaluated on a scale of 0 to 13 points in response to the. Study tools thirteen questions included in the questionnaire one point. was given for the correct answer and zero for the wrong one. An interview questionnaire for personnel working at the with a total score of 13 points that was classified into low 0 5. institutes including data about different aspects of care and high 6 13 score respectively. provided for the attended children Data collection. questionnaire for the guardians or mothers including Data analysis. demographic data as age sex residence and socioeconomic. data as family size birth order of the child educational Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS Statistical. working and marital statuses for both parents 8 Package for Social Science IBM version 21 For quantitative. variables mean median and standard deviation were used. Data tools for children s nutritional assessment were in the. while frequencies and percentage were used for categorical. form of anthropometric measurements dietary assessment. variables Statistical differences were tested using Chi Square. and a questionnaire to assess mothers nutritional knowledge. test P value less than 0 05 was considered statistically. Height weight and Body Mass Index BMI were calculated. significant, Obesity was defined as BMI 95th percentile for age and sex. 9 BMI was calculated by taking child s weight in kilograms. divided by the square of his her height in meters kg m2 Ethical consideration. Percentile comparison is based on the sex specific BMI for age Permission was attained from Ministry of Health and. growth charts from the Center for Disease Control and Population MOHP in Khartoum state Sudan After explaining. Prevention 10 the aim of the study verbal consent was taken from parents. The amounts of macro protein fat and carbohydrate and before data collection Confidentiality and privacy were also. micro calcium nutrients received through the diet have been assured. assessed by calculating the data obtained from the twenty. four hour recall food consumption sheet 11 after asking the Results. mother or guardian most knowledgeable about the child s. dietary intake To assess portion sizes a sample of household Results of the present study revealed that more than half of. measures was used standard glass cup bowl cooking ladle the studied children were either overweight 26 2 or obese. serving spoon tablespoon and teaspoon Data were analyzed 28 3 Figure 1. using the Egyptian National Nutrition Institutes Food. Information System Food Consumption Analysis Program 12. to estimate the mean energy protein carbohydrate fat. calcium vegetables and fruits intake of subjects The RDA 13. was used to calculate the percent difference in consumption of. the above nutrients Patient s dietary intake was classified into. five classes using RDA cut off levels unsafe 50 needs. improvement 50 75 accepted 75 100 normal,100 120 unaccepted 120. Assessment of mothers nutritional knowledge was done. using a questionnaire included the following questions ideal. numbers of meals day components of the complete meal. importance and sources of macronutrients carbohydrate. protein and fat and micronutrients vitamins and minerals Figure 1 Percent distribution of Body Mass Index BMI. types of healthy fatty substance importance of milk and milk among mentally disabled children in Khartoum state Sudan. products for bone and teeth development and allowance of. caned or preserved food for children 11, Table 1 illustrated socio demographic characteristics and.
All children had an Intelligence Quotient IQ test done. medical history of the study group More than half of the. within the last six months prior to the start of this study It was. sample was males 65 5 Most of the study group 62 8. 2 This article is available from http childhood obesity imedpub com. Journal of Childhood Obesity 2016,ISSN 2572 5394 Vol 1 No 1 4. had five or more family members A small percent 16 9 of Almost three quarters of the disabled children 72 8. the children had other mentally retarded siblings Sixty one acquired their handicapping condition since birth Nearly one. percent are of the middle socioeconomic status About one fifth 17 9 were diagnosed as having cerebral palsy less than. fifth 22 4 had profound or severe mental retardation but half 44 8 as Down s syndrome and very small proportion of. nearly half 47 3 had mild or border line mental retardation them 3 1 had iodine deficiency Table 1. Most of the mentally disabled children 83 1 had no other. disability and 90 of them spent less than five years in the. studied institutes,Table 1 Characteristics of the study group. Variables Number 290 Percent,10 14 181 62 40,15 18 109 37 60. Male 190 65 50,Female 100 34 50,Family size,5 108 37 20. 5 182 62 80,Consanguinity,Yes 154 53 10,No 136 46 90.
Socioeconomic status,low 20 6 90,middle 177 61 00,high 93 32 10. 20 profound 16 5 50,20 34 severe 49 16 90,35 49 moderate 88 30 30. 50 69 mild 109 37 60,70 84 border line 28 9 70,Other disability. No 241 83 10,Auditory 28 9 70,Motor 9 3 10,Speech and language 8 2 80. Visual 4 1 40,Timing of disability,Since birth 211 72 80.
After birth 79 27 20,Copyright iMedPub 3,Journal of Childhood Obesity 2016. ISSN 2572 5394 Vol 1 No 1 4, Assessment of the institutes general condition revealed respectively Their mean calcium intake was 524 3 309 5. that less than half 42 5 were in a good condition All the mg Vegetables consumption was 104 1 69 7 gm whereas. institutes offered educational services 100 while only 7 5 129 1 52 2 gm was consumed from fruits as an average. and 2 5 offered sports and medical services respectively mean for the whole sample Also analysis indicated that out of. Un tabulated data the 282 children who eat vegetables 96 6 have 1 3 servings. per day while out of the 264 children who eat fruits 88 9. As shown in Table 2 the mean caloric protein fat and. have 1 3 servings per day, carbohydrate intake of the study group was 1696 9 506 6. Kcal 61 6 19 47 1 18 2 and 256 6 80 8 gm, Table 2 Macronutrient and micronutrient caloric intake of the study group. Food items Mean SD Median Minimum Maximum,Calorie gm 1696 9 506 6 1652 4 640 4 3588 8.
Total protein gm 61 6 19 0 58 7 15 8 128 6,Total fat gm 47 1 18 2 43 6 13 5 131 9. Total carbohydrate gm 256 7 80 8 245 3 104 3 564 9. Total calcium mg 524 3 309 5 490 6 136 5 4689 9,Total vegetable gm 104 1 69 7 93 5 1 406. Total fruit gm 129 1 52 2 120 2 270,Number 282 Number 86. Dietary assessment was carried out by a 24 hour recall food that most of the energy intake comes from carbohydrate 60 5. frequency list and the mean nutrient intake was calculated to 6 1 and 24 9 5 4 comes from fat Table 3. find out percent difference from the RDA Results estimated. Table 3 Macronutrient consumption as percentage of the total caloric intake of the study group. Number 290 Protein Carbohydrate Fat Energy,Energy ratio Energy ratio ratio. Mean SD 14 7 1 6 60 5 6 1 24 9 5 4,Median 14 5 61 1 24 5.
Minimum 7 2 35 12 4,Maximum 19 9 73 5 46 8, Table 4 shows that more than half 54 8 of the study caloric intake from carbohydrate and 71 7 of the children had. group had unacceptable high intake of protein 120 of 20 30 of their caloric intake from fat Most of them 81 7. RDA As regard their caloric intake 74 9 of the sample had had less than 50 of RDA as regard calcium. less than 75 of RDA Out of which 82 1 had 55 70 of their. Table 4 Distribution of the studied group according to their intake of protein calorie and calcium compared to RDA. Variables Number 290 Percent,50 75 23 7 90,75 100 45 15 50. 100 120 62 21 40,120 159 54 80, 4 This article is available from http childhood obesity imedpub com. Journal of Childhood Obesity 2016,ISSN 2572 5394 Vol 1 No 1 4. 50 82 28 30,50 75 135 46 60,75 100 61 21 00,100 120 10 3 40.
120 2 0 70,50 237 81 70,50 75 43 14 80,75 100 8 2 80. 100 120 1 0 30,120 1 0 30,Protein Energy ratio,10 15 176 60 70. 15 110 37 90,Carbohydrate Energy ratio,55 42 14 50. 55 70 238 82 10,70 10 3 40,Fat Energy ratio,20 43 14 80. 20 30 208 71 70,30 39 13 40,Vegetables,250 g 273 96 80.
250g 9 3 20,200g 73 84 90,200g 13 15 10,Number 282 Number 86. Table 5 illustrated a significant association between to or more than 5 P 0 05 also it was detected that mothers. nutritional status and family size a higher percent 67 7 of of those children had a lower nutritional knowledge score with. the overweight and obese children had family members equal a significant p value 0 01. Table 5 Association between BMI and risk factors of obesity among the study group. Variables Under wt normal wt Over wt obese P value. Number Percent Number Percent,Male 86 45 30 104 54 70 0 905. Copyright iMedPub 5,Journal of Childhood Obesity 2016. ISSN 2572 5394 Vol 1 No 1 4,female 46 46 00 54 54 00. Family size,5 57 43 20 51 32 30 0 05,5 75 56 80 107 67 70.
Years in Institution,5 118 45 20 143 54 80 0 753,5 14 48 30 15 51 70. Socioeconomic status,low 12 60 8 40 00 0 397,middle 78 44 10 99 55 90. high 42 45 20 51 54 80,Other Disability,Yes 24 49 00 25 51 00 0 593. No 108 44 80 133 55 20,10 14 79 43 60 102 56 40 0 41. 15 18 53 48 60 56 51 40,Severe 30 46 20 35 53 80 0 84.
Moderate 42 47 70 46 52 30,Mild 60 43 80 77 56 20,Mothers nutritional knowledge score. Low 0 5 89 67 40 127 80 40 0 01,High 6 13 43 32 60 31 19 60. Discussion specific developmental conditions to explicate what challenges. must be faced, Although obesity affects individuals of all ages genders and Children with ID are subject to the same risk factors for. racial ethnic groups people with disabilities appear to be at obesity as TD youth but they have additional risk factors. the highest end of the risk curve 16 Developmental Disabilities DD may be the consequence of an. Obesity has been reported to be more prevalent among inherited syndrome e g inborn errors of metabolism or. individuals with mental retardation compared to normal chromosomal aberrations 6 several of these conditions. children 17 Results of the present study showed that 26 2 have both ID and elevated weight as diagnostic characteristics. and 28 3 of the children were overweight and obese 22 In the present study consanguinity had been reported in. respectively In their study on nine schools for ambulatory 53 1 of the study sample which is less than the national. children and adolescent with mild and moderate intellectual figure reported in Sudan 23 this is because the study was. disability Stwart et al 18 alarmed that the prevalence of conducted in Khartoum state the capital of Sudan and. obesity was thirty six percent Similarly a study of school percentage is expected to be higher in peripheral areas of the. children with ID in France 19 found that both boys and girls country Similarly a study conducted in Iran reported that 77. had elevated levels 26 of overweight and obesity Also of the consanguineous marriage resulting in mentally retarded. Mikulovic et al 20 reported that adolescence with ID had children 24. higher rates of overweight and obesity than their non disabled Children with physical disabilities also face weight related. peers problems Most conditions that restrict movement make it. As people with disabilities are equally 21 or more subject difficult to expend calories usually result in weight gain A. to the global increase in overweight it is essential to appraise study by Salaun and Berthouze Aranda 19 confirmed that. adolescents with ID had lower levels of physical fitness when. 6 This article is available from http childhood obesity imedpub com. Journal of Childhood Obesity 2016,ISSN 2572 5394 Vol 1 No 1 4. compared with their typical peers and that they also had prevalence of obesity is significantly associated with poor. higher rates of obesity Children with disabilities can also have nutritional knowledge of the mothers. limited access to physical activities 25 Unfortunately a very. Parents are often unconscious of the serious health. small percent of the studied institutes offered sports services. consequences associated with elevated weight or may. and this might oppose nutritional effort delivered by the. consider that health concerns related to disability take. institutes to handle the problem of obesity among those. precedence 36 Preventing elevated weight status from. All mentally retarded children between 10 18 years old attending all special education institutes in Khartoum state were included in the study Their total number was 290 child 190 males and 100 females Mentally retarded children younger than 10 or older than 18 years couldn t be included in

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