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Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls Residential
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About this Guide, The Illustrated Guide to R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia is published by BC Housing This. guide consolidates information on above and below grade wall assemblies for low and mid rise buildings that are capable. of achieving R 22 or greater effective thermal performance The guide is intended to be an industry utility and government. resource with respect to meeting this thermal performance level while not compromising other aspects of building enclosure. performance including moisture management air leakage and durability. This edition of the guide has a shift in focus from the original guide and now includes information that applies to low rise. detached and semi detached homes row houses townhomes and multi unit residential buildings up to six storeys within British. Columbia While this guide provides general guidance on assembly selection and key considerations it does not provide extensive. information on detailing of the assemblies at transitions and penetrations The Additional Resources section on page 53. contains a list of various other guides that provide extensive information on the design and construction of high performance. building enclosure assemblies Although the guide generally focuses on wood frame concrete and steel frame walls that use. traditional construction methods some guidance is included for other less common wall types. It is important to note that each building and construction project is different and each present unique challenges This guide. provides an overview of assemblies that can meet higher thermal performance targets but it is likely that the various methods. shown will need to be modified to accommodate variations in each project Additionally alternative wall assemblies exist that are. beyond the scope of this guide,Disclaimer, This guide is provided for general information except where noted The greatest care has been taken to confirm the accuracy of. the information contained herein However the authors funders publisher and other contributors assume no liability for any. damage injury loss or expense that may be incurred or suffered as a result of the use of this publication including products. building techniques or practices The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent those of any individual contributor BC. Housing the City of Vancouver or the City of New Westminster. Building science products and construction practices change and improve over time and it is advisable to regularly consult up. to date technical publications on building envelope science products and practices rather than relying solely on this publication. Seek specific information on the use of products the requirements of good design and construction practices and requirements. of the applicable building codes before undertaking a construction project Consult the manufacturer s instructions for. construction products and also speak with and retain consultants with appropriate engineering or architectural qualifications. and appropriate municipal and other authorities regarding issues of design and construction practices including fire protection. Most provisions of the building codes British Columbia Building Code and the Vancouver Building By law have not been. specifically referenced and use of the guide does not guarantee compliance with code requirements nor does the use of systems. not covered by this guide preclude compliance Always review and comply with the specific requirements of the applicable. building codes for each construction project The materials and colours shown as examples in the guide are not intended to. represent any specific brands or products and it is acknowledged that many product options exist. 2 Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia. Acknowledgements, This guide was funded and commissioned by BC Housing the City of Vancouver and the City of New Westminster and was. prepared by RDH Building Science Inc Acknowledgement is extended to all those who participated in this project as part of the. project team or as external reviewers, Lorne Ricketts James Higgins Graham Finch RDH Building Science Inc. External Reviewers Contributors, Bob Deeks RDC Fine Homes Keith Calder Jensen Hughes Consulting Canada Inc.
Chris Higgins Sailen Black City of Vancouver Mark Lawton Morrison Hershfield Limited. Deborah van der Horst H H Small Space Solutions Inc Maura Gatensby Architectural Institute of British Columbia. Douglas Bennion Quad Lock Building Systems Murray Frank Constructive Home Solutions Inc. Hamid Heidarali HDB Norm Connolly City of New Westminster. Ineke Van Zeeland Robert Jonkman Canadian Wood Council Pierre Busque Busque Engineering Ltd. Jason Jung ASTTBC Richard Kadulski Richard Kadulski Architect. Jieying Wang FPInnovations Stan Jang Building Balance Consulting Inc. Jim Baker Zachary May Building and Safety Standards Branch Wei Chen Exp Global Inc. John Riley InterCoast Building Solutions Inc, Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia 3. 1 Introduction 5,Building Enclosures Overview 5,R value Calculations 6. Air Barrier Systems 8,Interior Air Barrier Systems 10. Exterior Air Barrier Systems 11,Mid Rise Design Considerations 12. Fire Risk Considerations 14,Assembly Performance Attributes 17.
Assembly Suitability Icons 18, 2 Cladding Support Fasteners Through Exterior Insulation 19. Cladding Support Options 19,Structural Considerations 20. Installation Methods 24,Fastener Tables 25,3 Wood Frame Walls 27. Split Insulation 27,Exterior Insulation 30,Double Stud 32. Deep Stud With Service Wall 34,5 Steel Stud Walls 36.
Exterior Insulation 36,Split Insulation 38,6 Mid Rise Concrete Construction 40. 7 Below Grade Walls 42,Exterior Insulation 42,Interior Insulation 44. Walls Less Than R 22 46,Summary of Walls 48,Other R 22 Walls 50. Additional Resources 53, 4 Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia. 1 Introduction,Building Enclosures Overview, The building enclosure is a system of materials components and assemblies that physically separate the exterior and interior.
environments It comprises various elements including roofs above grade walls windows doors skylights below grade walls. and floors which in combination must control water air heat water vapour fire smoke and sound Additionally the enclosure is. an aesthetic element of the building, To perform these functions building assemblies may use a series of. layers each intended to serve one or multiple functions within the. building enclosure As an example for an above grade wood frame. wall cladding is typically installed to provide the aesthetic exterior. finish as well as the primary water shedding surface A water resistive. barrier WRB is installed inboard of the cladding as a secondary barrier. to moisture to prevent water ingress and a drainage gap is installed. between the cladding and WRB to allow drainage of water which. penetrates past the cladding This approach is commonly referred to. as a rainscreen wall assembly Insulation is installed to control the flow. of heat i e energy transfer through the enclosure and an air barrier. is installed to control bulk air movement through the wall A vapour. barrier is also installed to control diffusion of water vapour through the. wall assembly and while typically a very impermeable material is used. for this function i e Type 1 vapour barriers less than 6 ng s m Pa. more permeable materials can also fulfill this function i e Type 2. vapour barriers less than 60 ng s m Pa and smart vapour retarders Plan View. In many cases these functions can be provided in combination by a. single layer within the assembly for example the WRB and air barrier Water Shedding Surface. may both be provided by the sheathing membrane In concrete wall Water Resistive Barrier. Air Barrier, assemblies any number of these barriers may be provided by the Vapour Retarder. concrete itself The position of these different elements of the enclosure. Thermal Insulation, assembly and appropriate detailing of the building enclosure systems at. transitions and penetrations is fundamental to their performance. This guide focuses on wall assemblies that can achieve an effective thermal performance of approximately R 22 R 21 86 RSI. 3 85 while still meeting the other performance requirements for enclosure assemblies These wall assemblies help to reduce. the transmission of heat energy through the building enclosure and consequently reduce the heating and cooling loads of the. building and the overall building energy consumption. BC Building Code BCBC and Vancouver Building By law VBBL Compliance In many cases this guide indicates best practices. with respect to air vapour and moisture management rather than minimum requirements as specified by relevant building. regulations This approach is intended to promote the construction of effective and durable assemblies Furthermore in some cases. the guide identifies materials assemblies or practices for which a registered professional B C architect or engineer may be required. by the Code and or the authority having jurisdiction to indicate compliance with relevant building regulations Relevant building. regulations should be reviewed and complied with for each project. Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia 5. 1 Introduction,R value Calculations, The thermal resistance of building assemblies is commonly indicated using R value provided in imperial units of. ft F hr Btu and can also be provided as RSI value in metric units of m K W All R values in this guide are provided in imperial. units The higher the R value the better the thermal performance U values are another way of describing heat flow through a. wall and are the inverse of R values The lower the U value the better the thermal performance. RSI 1 0 m K W R 5 678 ft F hr Btu R 1 U, For low rise residential construction R values can be calculated according to Section 9 36 of the British Columbia Building Code.
BCBC This section specifies that R values are to be calculated using the Isothermal Planes method The R value of layers of the. wall assemblies which include multiple components such as insulated stud walls should be calculated using the Parallel Paths. method i e area weighted U value calculation An example R value calculation for a split insulation wood frame wall assembly is. shown below,3 4 Ventilated Air Space neglects furring. Cladding 7 8 Stucco on Backerboard,2x6 Stud Wall w R 19 Fibreglass Batts. 1 5 Exterior Insulation R 4 inch,7 16 OSB Sheathing. Exterior Air Film,Interior Air Film,1 2 Drywall, Split Insulated Wall R 0 68 R 0 45 R 13 4 R 0 61 R 6 0 R 1 02 R 0 10 R 0 17. RSI 0 12 RSI 0 08 RSI 2 36 RSI 0 11 RSI 1 06 RSI 0 18 RSI 0 02 RSI 0 03. Material properties air film properties framing factors of the wall. Fibreglass Batt Insulation R 19, area that is framing and the treatment of thermal bridges for calculating.
R values RSI values are provided in the appendix Section A9 36 2 4 of. 2x6 Wood Framing, the BCBC For all calculations in this guide a 23 framing factor was used. corresponding with standard framing practices for 16 spaced studs Part. 9 of the BCBC does not require accounting of thermal bridging through. fasteners or brick ties or other penetrating elements such as pipes ducts. shelf angles anchors and ties and minor structural members that must. partially or completely penetrate the building enclosure to perform their. AF 23 Framing AI 77 Insulation intended function Major penetrations such as balconies beams and. RF R 6 8 RI R 19 columns do not need to be included as long as they form less than 2. 100 100 of the gross wall area and the surrounding insulation is installed tight. AF AI 23 77 against the penetrating element Continuous cladding supports such as. R 13 4 strapping which penetrates the insulation should be accounted for. 6 Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia. 1 Introduction, Wall Assemblies in Non Part 9 Residential Buildings. Requirements for Calculations, For non Part 9 residential buildings calculation of the thermal performance of the wall assembly may require more effort beyond. the minimum code requirements of Part 9 36 of the BCBC The heat loss of potentially significant thermal bridges like concrete. floor slabs mechanical service penetrations and large built up structural wood elements should be accounted for in the thermal. calculations Regular penetrations like clips or fasteners through exterior insulation should also be accounted for Both the. American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers ASHRAE standard 90 1 and the National Energy Code. of Canada for Buildings NECB provide guidance on accounting for thermal bridging in effective R value calculations and the. ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals provides specific guidance for various calculation methods Appropriate methods include. hand calculations thermal modelling and even laboratory testing See also the Building Envelope Thermal Bridging Guide see. Additional Resources on page 53 A registered professional should be consulted with and may be required by the authority. having jurisdiction for the design and calculation of the effective R value of the wall assemblies in a non Part 9 multi unit. residential building, Wood Multi Unit Residential Buildings up to Six Storeys. The increased height of these buildings creates a need for more structural framing particularly at the lower floor levels Stud. packs of built up 2x6 or larger 4x6 studs columns may be utilized to meet seismic and load bearing requirements In these larger. buildings framing factors can be 30 or higher in some areas The BCBC and VBBL do not give specific guidance on appropriate. framing factors that should be assumed for wood frame wall assemblies in taller multi unit residential buildings More accurate. framing factors can potentially be determined based on the minimum structural requirements for each specific building and. should include stud packs built up beams and framing for seismic components Assemblies with exterior insulation will reduce. the thermal bridging associated with these members. Thermal Modelling, While hand calculations are generally appropriate for simple wood frame and concrete assemblies with heat flow in one or two.
dimensions computer thermal modelling software such as THERM can be used where two dimensional heat flow is more complex. than can be accounted for with hand calculations Where discrete clips or complex three dimensional configurations are used. three dimensional computer modelling software such as HEAT3 should be used to provide accurate results. Further guidance on effective R value calculations for wall assemblies and thermal bridges can be found in the Building Envelope. Thermal Bridging Guide see Additional Resources on page 53. Thermal modelling of a proprietary clip and rail system. Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia 7. 1 Introduction,Material Thermal Properties, Material thermal performance properties are commonly denoted as R value inch or RSI mm or provided in the material. conductivity Btu in hr ft F or W m K While the material thermal properties can be found for various common building and. insulation materials in the appendix Section A9 36 2 4 of the BCBC and various tables in ASHRAE 90 1 the NECB and ASHRAE. Handbook Fundamentals newer materials or proprietary systems may use other sources In general the material manufacturer. should provide the specific thermal performance values for the product as determined by standardized material properties. testing The original source for the material thermal properties whether from a code or from proprietary sources should be. recorded and cited for all thermal calculations and thermal modelling. Air Barrier Systems, An air barrier system is used to control the flow of air into and out of a building Control of these airflows is important to limit. energy loss due to exfiltration to reduce the potential for air leakage and associated condensation for occupant comfort and. for indoor air quality Refer to the Illustrated Guide Achieving Airtight Buildings see Additional Resources on page 53 for more. guidance on designing building and testing airtight buildings. For an air barrier to be effective it must meet five design requirements. All the elements materials of the air barrier system must be adequately air impermeable. The air barrier system must be continuous throughout the building enclosure including at transition and penetration details. The air barrier system must be structurally adequate or be supported to resist air pressure forces due to peak wind loads. sustained stack effect and mechanical equipment such as fans. The air barrier system must be sufficiently rigid or be supported so that displacement under pressure does not compromise. its performance or that of other elements of the assembly. The air barrier system should have a service life as long as that of the assembly component covering it or alternately be. easily accessible for repair or replacement, A number of different systems exist which can fulfill these requirements and each has potentially positive and negative. attributes More guidance and details on all air barrier types can be found in the various resources listed in Additional Resources. on page 53,Interior Air Barrier Systems, Sealed Polyethylene or Other Membranes In the sealed polyethylene sheet air barrier system approach the polyethylene. sheet installed to the interior of the stud cavity is sealed at all transitions and penetrations with tapes and sealants to provide a. continuous air barrier system The polyethylene sheet is clamped between the framing and the gypsum wall board which provide. the necessary structural support A similar approach can also be used with alternative sheet products such as smart vapour. retarders or other appropriate plastic membranes, Airtight Drywall Approach ADA In the ADA the interior gypsum wall board i e drywall provides the air barrier system and.
continuity is maintained using sealants and gaskets Special attention must be paid to ensure continuity at intersections of the. exterior walls with partition walls ceilings and floors. 8 Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia. 1 Introduction, Sealed Sheathing with Service Cavity Sheathing placed at the interior side of the wall can be detailed as airtight by sealing. the joints between sheathing boards using membrane tape or sealant The air barrier transition at the floor line requires careful. attention to achieve continuity of the interior air barrier The service wall provides a space for interior services like electrical and. plumbing to be installed without having to penetrate through the interior air barrier. Spray Foam Both open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foams can be used as an air barrier and are often used at. penetrations and transitions to accommodate complex geometries However these products can also be used within the stud. cavities or in some cases at the exterior to provide the main component of the air barrier system Joints cracks and gaps that. are too small to be effectively sealed with spray foam such as between bottom plate and floor or between double top plates. should be sealed with other sealants or adhesives,Exterior Air Barrier Systems. Sealed Sheathing The sealed sheathing air barrier approach consists of sealing the joints between sheathing boards using. membrane tape or sealant so that the sheathing itself provides the air barrier As the sheathing itself is rigid and fastened to the. studs no additional support is typically required for this system. Sheathing Membrane The sheathing membrane which is usually installed as a water resistive barrier WRB can also function as. the air barrier Both mechanically fastened and self adhered sheet membranes can potentially be used The laps between sheets. are sealed and all penetrations and transitions should be sealed While adhesion and fastening of these systems provides some. support often the wood strapping or exterior insulation provides improved support for these systems. Liquid Applied Membrane The exterior liquid applied membrane system relies upon the exterior sheathing as the support and. continuous backing in order to achieve an airtight barrier at the air tight liquid membrane once cured The same principles for. continuity and adhesion of sheathing membrane approaches also apply to this system. Note that for wall assemblies with an exterior air barrier the relative physical continuity of the interior plane of the wall should. still be considered Interior layers like polyethylene sheet or gypsum wall board should be installed without gaps or large voids. in order to limit the potential for air flow from the interior into the wall assembly which can lead to durability issues This is. especially important for deeper wall assemblies with interior insulation. Mass Walls, Properly designed and installed concrete or masonry walls may be considered airtight at clear wall areas However care must be. taken to insure the continuity of the air barrier at all interfaces with windows doors and all other penetrations Information on. maintaining the continuity of the air barrier in mass walls is available in the Building Envelope Guide for Houses Part 9 Residential. Construction see Additional Resources on page 53, Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia 9. 1 Introduction,Interior Air Barrier Systems, Typically the most important consideration in designing an air barrier system is maintaining continuity at transition and.
penetration details A selection of these key details are provided below which graphically indicate potential methods for. maintaining air barrier continuity Note that various other important details exist and alternate methods for ensuring continuity. are possible These details are for a polyethylene sheet air barrier but other interior air barrier systems such as airtight drywall. should also address continuity at these key locations In general interior air barrier systems are considered a less airtight. approach compared to exterior air barrier systems see next page Refer to the guides listed in Additional Resources on page 53. for further guidance on air barrier detailing, Roof to Wall Transitions Above Grade to Below Grade Wall Transitions. Compared with exterior air barrier systems one advantage of Where the above grade walls meet the below grade walls it. interior air barriers is that typically the roof to wall transition is important to ensure that the air barrier system maintains. is more straightforward In the above detail continuity at the continuity In the above detail blocks of air impermeable. transition is provided simply by taping the polyethylene sheet insulation are cut and installed between the joists and spray. in the ceiling to the sheet in the wall foam is used to seal around their perimeter Spray foam alone. could also be used in this application, Electrical Receptacles Penetrations Rim Joist Transitions. Penetrations through the air barrier should be sealed to When using an interior air barrier system floors interrupt the. ensure continuity In the above detail an electrical receptacle air barrier and transition detailing is required In the above. is sealed using a pre made polyethylene boot which is then detail blocks of air impermeable insulation are cut and. sealed at the wire penetration and to the polyethylene sheet air installed between the joists and spray foam is used to seal. barrier When using interior air barrier systems penetrations around their perimeter These locations should be insulated to. that require sealing are often numerous They may include the same level as the adjacent wall The wall polyethylene is. pipes light fixtures and structural members and all joints and sealed to the floor above and the wall top plate below. interfaces must be structurally supported, 10 Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia. 1 Introduction,Exterior Air Barrier Systems, While placing the air barrier on the exterior will typically simplify and reduce the number of air barrier transitions and. penetrations that must be dealt with resulting in a generally more airtight system compared with an interior air barrier approach. a variety of key details still exist which should be carefully considered A selection of these key details are provided below which. graphically indicate potential methods for maintaining air barrier continuity at these locations Various other important details. exist and alternate methods for ensuring continuity are possible These details are for a mechanically fastened sheet sheathing. membrane but can be adapted for other systems such as adhered sheathing membranes. Roof to Wall Transitions, When an exterior air barrier system is used often one.
of the most challenging transition details is at the. roof to wall interface The adjacent detail indicates. transition of the air barrier via tape over the top plate. before installation of the roof framing and tape from. the interior ceiling polyethylene and exterior barrier. to the top plate An alternative method could be pre. stripping a sheet air barrier material over or between. the top plates,Mechanical Ducts or Other Penetrations. Penetrations through the air barrier should be sealed. to ensure continuity In the adjacent detail a duct. penetration is sealed using a foil faced transition. membrane and sealant The hood is also sealed to the. duct to prevent the exhausting of humid air into the. wall cavity Other penetrations which should be sealed. include pipes wires conduits structural members,and decorative accessories. Above Grade to Below Grade Wall Transitions,Where the above grade walls meet the below grade. walls it is important to ensure that the air barrier. system maintains continuity In the adjacent detail. a combination of sheathing tape and an adhered, membrane are used to transition from the sheathing. membrane to the below grade waterproofing,membrane Note it is important to consider the.
material compatibility of the various components used. in multi step air barrier transitions, Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia 11. 1 Introduction,Mid Rise Design Considerations, Since multi unit residential buildings are generally taller up to six storeys the height difference between low rise and mid. rise buildings exposes the walls and other above grade elements to more wind and rain For wood frame walls it also means. the walls will contain more wood to accommodate the structural requirements especially for five storey buildings and higher. Additionally the increased height means that frame shrinkage will be greater and that access for maintenance and renewals will. be more difficult As a result design and construction of the building enclosure for multi unit residential wood frame buildings. should be more durable than low rise and single family buildings In some cases mass walls like concrete or masonry may be. more appropriate for mid rise construction The higher wind and rain loads and cumulative rain runoff need to be assessed for the. impact on the structure attachment of cladding elements and the water shedding characteristics of the cladding. Multi unit residential buildings up to six storeys are exposed to higher wind and rain loads compared to low rise buildings. Building Shape and Interfaces, While climate and local topography impact exposure conditions the designer has limited control over these factors Therefore. the most direct way to control exposure to wetting especially on taller buildings is through building features Overhang. protection utilizing projecting elements such as roofs canopies and drip edges to limit runoff on the wall assemblies should. be used wherever possible In addition drainage should be provided to allow water that reaches walls at upper floors to drain. out from the wall assembly Refer to the guides listed in the Additional Resources section on page 53 for further guidance on. designing wall assemblies for taller buildings,Air Barrier Material and Installation. While single family and smaller Part 9 buildings can use loose layed and stapled air barrier membranes at the interior or exterior. and mass walls may be considered the airtight element more robust air barrier product and installation method are more. appropriate on taller buildings because the higher wind loads and pressures may exert higher forces on the air barrier in these. assemblies, The main concern with installing a sheet applied exterior sheathing membranes on larger buildings is the potential for damage.
during construction before the cladding is installed especially during windy weather Care must be taken to keep the air barrier. system intact or to correctly repair damaged areas as the cladding system is installed In most cases the sheathing membrane. should be installed in conjunction with the strapping or other cladding support system that can secure the membrane tightly in. place However small clip systems like brick ties may not be adequate and could lead to tearing of the membrane Therefore a. robust air barrier membrane should always be used for example a thicker commercial grade sheet applied membrane Where. higher exposure is expected or where strapping will not be in place to secure the membrane a self adhered membrane or a liquid. applied membrane should be used, 12 Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia. 1 Introduction,Cladding Attachment Through Exterior Insulation. Chapter 2 of this guide outlines the various options for attaching cladding to the wall when exterior insulation is used The. specific guidance provided in the Fastener Tables on page 25 pertains only to wall assemblies on low rise buildings less than 3. storeys The higher wind loads expected on larger buildings requires specific structural analysis for each individual building See. Additional Resources on page 53 for further guidance on structural calculations for screws through rigid exterior insulation. Many proprietary clip and girt systems are available on the market for attaching cladding to the sheathing through exterior. insulation without necessarily relying on the rigid exterior insulation for support This approach may be more appropriate for. mid rise buildings Each manufacturer will have different structural requirements and attachment guidelines depending on. cladding type exterior insulation thickness lateral loads expected and various other factors Systems often include a steel. aluminium or fibreglass clip with an integrated girt or rail system on the exterior face of the exterior insulation Brick ties can. also be considered a discrete cladding attachment though these are used to secure the masonry cladding laterally and do not. generally transfer the vertical load to the primary structure see Chapter 2 on page 19. Each proprietary system will have different thermal performance characteristics and may require thermal modelling to determine. the overall thermal performance of the wall assembly Most high performance clip systems will result in less than 30 thermal. degradation of the exterior insulation i e 70 effectiveness of the exterior insulation See the manufacturer s literature for each. clip system to find more information on the structural uses and limitations as well as the thermal performance. The thermal performance tables presented in the sections on steel stud wall assemblies page 36 and page 38 show effective. R values for walls with 70 to 100 effective exterior insulation accounting for thermal degradation due to a range of cladding. systems This value is then combined with the effective R value of the overall backup wall assembly as determined by thermal. modelling using Heat3 www buildingphysics com This modelling includes the effect of a concrete floor slab see page 40 to. determine the effective R value of the full height wall assembly. Screws through rigid Generic intermittent Proprietary fibreglass clip. exterior insulation z girt clip, Proprietary metal clip Proprietary aluminium clip Brick ties. Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia 13. 1 Introduction,Fire Risk Considerations, Fire risk is managed by identifying and addressing hazards and implementing controls and mitigating measures through design. construction and operations The foundation for these is contained within the local building and fire codes The Building Code. generally applies to the design and construction of buildings and the Fire Code generally applies to operation and maintenance. of buildings including construction operations although there is overlap between the two Codes in some instances The specific. Code applicable should be reviewed, The Building and Fire Codes currently applicable in the Province of British Columbia are the 2012 British Columbia Building Code.
BCBC and the 2012 British Columbia Fire Code BCFC The exceptions to this are on federal lands and in the City of Vancouver. which are regulated by the National Codes and the Vancouver Building and Fire By laws VBBL Fire Bylaws 11312. This section summarizes the fire risks associated with building construction in general as well as specific recommendations for. the design and construction of R 22 walls for low and mid rise buildings. Fire Risk During Construction, Construction of low and mid rise buildings with wall assemblies that achieve R 22 thermal performance can involve activities. and materials that increase the risk of fire For example construction activities that involve heat sources or hot work increase the. probability of fire occurring which combined with increasing quantities of combustible materials like foam insualtion on site can. lead to severe consequences to life safety and property These risks are not specific to the design and construction of walls alone. but are addressed through the application of provisions that apply generally to the whole structure including. Control of sources of ignition including smoking electrical components heating equipment combustion engines hot surface. applications etc, Protection of combustible materials from hot work through requirements for separation or noncombustible barriers. Active monitoring and follow up inspections of potential ignition activities. Limits on combustible waste and protection of combustible and flammable liquids. In addition to limiting activities and materials that may increase fire risk Section 5 6 of the BCFC also requires planning. equipment and facilities to support firefighting and life safety including fire safety planning firefighting access fire extinguishers. standpipes exiting and fire warning systems, These provisions are intended to provide a minimum level of safety for all construction sites However this does not preclude. the application of additional safety measures to construction activities The following additional measures can assist in further. limiting the potential for fire initiation growth and spread. Fire Initiation, Protection from fire initiation often includes enhanced security to limit site access and the potential for intentional fire initiation A. site specific enhanced hot work permitting program should also be used to facilitate detailed planning and provide direct control. over work that inherently has an increased hazard This program may also include monitoring auditing and specific consequences. for non compliance with the site specific permit process For example a practical approach to reducing this risk is to use a weather. barrier that does not require the direct application of heat or flame for installation. Fire Growth, Limiting the risk of fire growth can include limits on combustible content on site through either temporary storage strategies.
that provide adequate spatial separation of combustible materials or an on demand delivery strategy to limit duration of on. site storage Daily housekeeping to limit the accumulation of combustible waste is also an important aspect of this approach. Furthermore where the building is intended to have an automatic sprinkler system it is advisable to stage installation and. operation of the system in step with building construction. 14 Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia. 1 Introduction,Fire Spread, Reducing the risk of fire spread to other areas means limiting the exposed potentially flammable construction materials through. provision of protective barriers as soon as reasonably practicable including those barriers required by the BCBC e g exterior. cladding and interior finish materials This could be achieved on a storey by storey basis Accelerated completion of fire. compartmentalization to limit fire from involving the entire structure is also important This can be achieved by provision of fire. doors and completion of fire separations as early as possible. These recommendations are particularly applicable to the construction of walls that may contain combustible insulation or may. require weather barriers applied through the application of flame or heat. Fire Risk of Completed Assemblies,Combustible Construction and Material Limits. The BCBC limits the type of construction primarily as a function of the building size and the ability of a responding fire service. to control a fire The larger and taller a building the greater the hazard of a fire to be beyond the ability of the responding fire. service to control The Code addresses this hazard through the limitation of the use combustible components In this respect. there are two types of materials relative to construction types noncombustible and combustible Sprinklers are also an important. consideration in limiting the potential growth and spread of fire and their use can permit several relaxations related to building. construction in general, Buildings that are required to be constructed of noncombustible construction are limited in the type configuration and. quantity of combustible material that can be used With respect to exterior walls in buildings required to be of noncombustible. construction the BCBC permits the following significant combustible exceptions. Minor Combustible Components Article 3 1 5 2, Combustible Cladding Systems for Exterior Walls Article 3 1 5 5. Gypsum Board Article 3 1 5 11,Combustible Insulation Article 3 1 5 12.
Decorative Wood Cladding Article 3 1 5 21, One of the most significant of the exceptions is for cladding of exterior walls which are permitted to be of combustible cladding. systems in non load bearing wall assemblies where a building is not more than three storeys in building height or is sprinklered. throughout the interior surfaces of the wall assembly are protected by a thermal barrier conforming to Sentence 3 1 5 12 3 and. the wall assembly satisfies certain performance criteria when subjected to testing in conformance with CAN ULC S134 Fire Test. of Exterior Wall Assemblies, Another significant exception is the use of foamed plastic insulation in exterior wall assemblies based on flame spread rating of. the insulation certain building characteristics and provision of protective barriers These are covered in more detail in Article. Buildings that are permitted to be constructed of combustible construction have few limits on the type of combustible material. used in their design and construction Article 3 1 4 2 of the BCBC requires the protection of foamed plastic insulation from. adjacent spaces within the building through provision of a protective barrier The protective barrier is intended to delay the. burning of the foamed plastic insulation when exposed to fire from the interior of the building and can include depending upon. occupancy masonry concrete plaster gypsum board plywood hardboard fibreboard OSB waferboard or sheet metal In. addition the cladding for mid rise buildings five and six storeys in building height is limited to noncombustible material fire. retardant treated wood or an exterior wall assembly that meets certain performance conditions when tested in conformance. with CAN ULC S134 and has a thermal barrier These requirements do not apply where the exterior cladding is required to be of. noncombustible material as outlined on the following page. Illustrated Guide R22 Effective Walls in Residential Construction in British Columbia 15.

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MODULAR VARIABLE SPEED AIR HANDLERS FOR USE WITH SPLIT SYSTEM COOLING & HEAT PUMP 1200 - 2000 CFM BLOWERS 3 - 5 TON COILS OPTIONAL 1 & 3 ELECTRIC HEATERS Due to continuous product improvement, specifications are subject to change without notice. Visit us on the web at Additional rating information can be found at ISO 9001 Certified Quality Management Syst



In order to ascertain the difference in treatment between White and Non-White customers at car dealerships, NFHA sent eight pairs of testers, one White and one Non-White, to car dealerships in Virginia to inquire about purchasing the same vehicle. Testers are like secret shoppers, and they are instructed to inquire about the same product and then document what they are told and observe. The ...

Facing History and Ourselves is an international ...

Facing History and Ourselves is an international

We owe special thanks to Eric Foner, Chad Williams, Steven Cohen, Chandra Manning, and Heather Cox Richardson. ... In Facing History and Ourselves classrooms, students learn that democracy, among the most fragile of human enterprises, is always a work in progress and can only remain vital through the active, thoughtful, and responsible participation of its citizens. Its ideals of freedom ...

Hist 1302.12E: United States History from 1865

Hist 1302 12E United States History from 1865

1 Hist 1302.12E: United States History from 1865 Spring 2015, TR 12:30pm-1:45pm Instructor:Dr. Nick Nelson Office Location: SS 147 Office Hours: TR 11am- 11:45am Office Phone: (please use email rather than phone) University Email Address: COURSE INFORMATION

Annotated Bibliography -

Annotated Bibliography climatechange gov bd

It is hoped that this annotated bibliography of existing knowledge on climate change and Bangladesh could serve as a starting point, enabling researchers and professionals to draw on existing knowledge as well as identify knowledge gaps to pursue research. The annotated bibliography accommodates climate related scientific papers and publications, research results, working papers, books and ...