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IARU Emergency Telecommunications Guide
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IARU EMERGENCY TELECOMMUNICATIONS GUIDE Rev 1 September 2016. Table of Contents, Use of this Training Guide Page 3. Chapter 1 Introduction to Emergency Telecommunications Page 4. Chapter 2 Relationship with Served Agencies Page 8. Chapter 3 Served Agency Comm Systems and Procedures Page 10. Chapter 4 Working Directly with the Public Page 13. Chapter 5 Emergency Telecommunication Skills Page 17. Chapter 6 Network Theory Emergency Comms Systems Page 22. Chapter 7 Basic Net Operations Page 29, Chapter 8 Emergency Net Operations Page 32. Chapter 9 Net Operating Guidelines Page 37, Chapter 10 Emergency Net Control Station NCS Page 42. Chapter 11 NCS Operator Practices Page 46, Chapter 12 Net Manager NM Page 52. Chapter 13 Basic Message Handling Page 55, Chapter 14 Emergency Command Systems Page 59.
Chapter 15 Preparing for Deployment Page 62, Chapter 16 Radio Equipment Choices Page 67. Chapter 17 Emergency Activation Page 75, Chapter 18 Setting Up Operations Shutting Down Page 78. Chapter 19 Operations Logistics Page 82, Chapter 20 Safety Survival Page 88. Chapter 21 Learning Opportunities Page 94, IARU EMERGENCY TELECOMMUNICATIONS GUIDE Rev 1 September 2016. Use of this Training Guide, This emergency telecommunications guide was developed to provide the IARU member.
societies with materials suitable for training their members to participate in emergency. events It is also designed to provide guidance to the individual amateur radio operator who. has little or no experience in handling emergency communications but desires to enhance. their ability to participate in such events or to simply have a better understanding of the. IARU member societies are encouraged to distribute this guide among its membership and if. necessary to provide a translation into a language used within their own country. This guide can also be used in conjunction with other training materials by leaders within the. emergency communication community to train radio operators in the basic theory and. practice of handling emergency telecommunications traffic. IARU EMERGENCY TELECOMMUNICATIONS GUIDE Rev 1 September 2016. Introduction to Emergency Telecommunications, What is a Communication Emergency. A communication emergency exists when a critical communication system failure puts the. public at risk As used in this guide emergency telecommunications may also be referred to. emergency communications or emcomm, A variety of circumstances can overload or damage critical day to day communication. systems It could be a storm that knocks down telephone lines or radio towers a massive. increase in the use of a communication system that causes it to become overloaded or the. failure of a key component in a system that has widespread consequences Examples are. easily found Violent storms and earthquakes can knock out communication facilities Critical. facilities can also be damaged in normal circumstances underground cables are dug up. fires occur in telephone equipment buildings or a car crash knocks down a key telephone. pole Hospital telephone systems can fail Even when no equipment fails a large scale. emergency such as a chemical or nuclear accident can result in more message traffic than the. system was designed to handle Some emergency operations occur in areas without any. existing communication systems such as with forest fires. Most cellular phone systems are designed to handle only about 6 10 of their subscribers at. any one time This works well in normal situations and is economical for the company But. when a crisis happens they quickly become overloaded as everyone the other 90 tries to. talk at once, What Makes A Good Volunteer, Emergency telecommunication volunteers come from a wide variety of backgrounds and with. a range of skills and experience The common attributes that all effective volunteers share are. a desire to help others without personal gain of any kind the ability to work as a member of a. team and to take direction from others Emergency telecommunication volunteers need to be. able to think and act quickly under the stress and pressure of an emergency. You cannot help others when you are worried about those you love Your own family should. always be your first priority Adequate personal and family preparation will enable you to get. your own situation under control more quickly so that you are in a position to be of service to. Where Do You Fit In, Amateur Radio operators have been a communication resource in emergency situations ever. since there has been radio To the agencies they serve amateurs are their immediately. available communication experts Amateurs have the equipment the skills and the. frequencies necessary to create expedient and efficient emergency communication networks. under poor conditions They are licensed and pre authorized for national and international. communication And all of this comes at no cost to the served agency whether that is an arm. of government or a disaster relief and mitigation organization such as the International Red. IARU EMERGENCY TELECOMMUNICATIONS GUIDE Rev 1 September 2016. Hams have the ability to rapidly enlarge their communication capacity to meet growing needs. in an emergency something commercial and public safety systems cannot normally do Many. of the skills are the same ones that are used in everyday ham activities However just having. radios frequencies and basic radio skills is not enough Certain emergency communication. skills are very different from those you use in your daily ham radio life Outlines like this one. help fill that need as do local training programs and regular emergency exercises Without. specific emergency communication skills you can easily become part of the problem rather. than part of the solution, As you might expect technical and operating skills are critical Just as important though is.
your ability to function as a team player within your own organization and the organization. you are serving Those critical skills will also be covered in this course. What You Are Not, As important as what you are is what you are not There are limits to your responsibilities. as an emergency communicator and it is important to know where to draw the line. You are not a first responder Except in rare cases of chance you will seldom be first on. the scene You do not need flashing lights and sirens gold badges or fancy uniforms. You have no authority In most cases you cannot make decisions for others or make. demands on the agency you serve or any other agency The only decisions you can make are. whether to participate or not and those affecting your own health and safety. You cannot do it all When the agency you are helping runs short of doctors cooks or. traffic cops it is not your job to fill the void In most cases you are not trained for it That. does not mean you cannot lend a hand to fill an urgent need when you are qualified to do so. or perform other jobs for the served agency of which communication is an integral part and. for which you are trained and capable, You are not in charge You are there to temporarily fulfill the needs of an agency whose. communication system is unable to completely do its job They tell you what they need and. you do your best to comply, Day to Day Versus Emergency Communication. In your daily ham radio life there is no pressure to get any particular message through You. do things at your leisure and no one s life depends upon you In an emergency all that. changes The list of differences is lengthy but here are some examples. 1 Instead of one leisurely net a day emergency communicators are often dealing with several. continuous nets simultaneously to pass critical messages within a limited time frame. 2 Unlike public service events where the communicators serve primarily under the direction. of one lead organization emergency communicators may need to interact with several key. organizations within a limited period of time, 3 Unlike typical home installations emergency stations must be portable and able to be set. up and operate anywhere in a very short time, IARU EMERGENCY TELECOMMUNICATIONS GUIDE Rev 1 September 2016.
4 Unlike contesting which involves contacting many random station for points emergency. communicators need to contact specific stations quickly to pass important messages. Teamwork is important not competition between stations. The Missions, The job you are asked to do will vary with the specific agency you serve If that agency is a. branch of the International Red Cross you will likely be providing the communications. needed to maintain a system of shelters and other relief efforts If it is a national or local. government emergency management agency you could be handling interagency. communications or serving as the eyes and ears of the emergency managers When a. hospital s telephone system fails you might be handling the mechanics of communicating. so that doctors and nurses can concentrate on patients In a large forest fire or a search and. rescue operation you might be handling personal for firefighters or rescuers to their families. or assisting with logistical communications to insure that food supplies personnel and. materials arrive when and where needed In any widespread disaster hams could be assisting. all the agencies listed above and more at the same time. Communicating Job 1, While you are proud of your skill as a radio operator and the impressive equipment and. systems you have in place it is important to remember that your job is communicating If a. served agency asks you to deliver a long shelter supply list to headquarters you should be. prepared to use any means required including the fax machine if it is still working Our job. is to get the message through even if it means using smoke signals Do not think about how. to use ham radio to send the message just think about the best and fastest way to send it If. that means using ham radio so much the better If an agency asks you to use their radio. system do it Your operating and technical skills are just as important as your ham radio. Anatomy of a Communication Emergency, In the earliest stages of many disasters there may be a limited need for emergency. communication services An obvious exception would be a coming storm or tornado or. earthquake This phase might occur during a severe storm watch or warning period You. should use this time to monitor developments and prepare to deploy when and if a request for. assistance comes Some amateur radio nets may be activated early in the storm watch or. warning phases to provide the served agencies with up to the minute information. Once a potential or actual need for more communication resources is identified a served. agency puts out the call for its volunteer communicators Depending on the situation. operators and equipment might be needed at an emergency operations center or to set up in. field locations or both In some areas a Rapid Response Team or similar small sub group. might deploy a minimal response in a very short time to be backed up by a second more. robust response in an hour or two, A resource or logistics net might be set up to handle incoming communication volunteers. and direct resources where they are needed most Any volunteer not presently assigned to a. specific net or task should check into and monitor this net. Once operations begin all kinds of things can happen The volume of messages can grow. IARU EMERGENCY TELECOMMUNICATIONS GUIDE Rev 1 September 2016. quickly and confusion is common In addition to handling messages your team of. communicators will need to think about relief or replacement operators food and water. sleeping accommodations batteries fuel and other logistical needs Radios and antennas will. fail and need to be replaced Some operators will need to leave early for personal reasons. Communication assignments might include staffing a shelter to handle calls for information. supplies and personnel shadowing or staying close to an official to be their. communication link gathering weather information or collecting and transmitting damage. reports Some nets might pass health and welfare inquiries to refugee evacuee centers or pass. messages from refugees to family members outside the disaster area Other nets might handle. logistical needs for the served agency such as those regarding supplies equipment and. Nets will be set up rearranged and dismantled as needs change Volunteers will need to. remain flexible in order to meet the changing needs of the served agency or the government. agency Over time the need for emergency communication networks will diminish as the. message load decreases and some nets will be closed or reduced in size Operators will be. demobilized released to go home one by one in small groups or all at once as the needs. Not long after the operation has ended the emergency communication group should review. the effectiveness of its response either alone or with the served agency This might be done. on the air in a formal net by email or in a face to face meeting However it is done it should. occur as soon as possible after operations have ended to be sure that events are fresh in. everyone s mind Critiques when done properly can greatly improve your emergency. telecommunication organization s and your own effectiveness. IARU EMERGENCY TELECOMMUNICATIONS GUIDE Rev 1 September 2016. Relationship With Served Agencies, What does my attitude ha.
Chapter 20 Safety amp Survival Page 88 Chapter 21 Learning Opportunities Page 94 IARU EMERGENCY TELECOMMUNICATIONS GUIDE Rev 1 September 2016 3 Use of this Training Guide This emergency telecommunications guide was developed to provide the IARU member societies with materials suitable for training their members to participate in emergency events It is also designed to provide guidance to the

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