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AMENDMENTS, The issue of amendments is announced regularly in the ICAO Journal and in the. monthly Supplement to the Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio visual. Training Aids which holders of this publication should consult The space below. is provided to keep a record of such amendments, RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDA. AMENDMENTS CORRIGENDA, Date Date Entered Date Date Entered. No applicable entered by No of issue entered by, 1 30 9 03 ICAO 1 28 11 03 ICAO. 2 31 5 05 ICAO, Safety of the civil aviation system is the major objective of the International Civil Aviation Organization.
Considerable progress has been made but additional improvements are needed and can be achieved It has long been. known that some three out of four accidents result from less than optimum human performance indicating that any. advance in this field can be expected to have a significant impact on the improvement of flight safety. This was recognized by the ICAO Assembly which in 1986 adopted Resolution A26 9 on Flight Safety and. Human Factors As a follow up to the Assembly Resolution the Air Navigation Commission formulated the following. objective for the task, To improve safety in aviation by making States more aware and responsive to the importance of human factors. in civil aviation operations through the provision of practical human factors material and measures developed on. the basis of experience in States and by developing and recommending appropriate amendments to existing. materials in Annexes and other documents with regard to the role of human factors in the present and future. operational environments Special emphasis will be directed to the human factors issues that may influence the. design transition and in service use of the future ICAO CNS ATM systems. One of the methods chosen to implement Assembly Resolution A26 9 was the publication of a series of digests. which addressed various aspects of Human Factors and its impact on flight safety These digests were intended. primarily for use by States to increase the awareness of their personnel of the influence of human performance on. The digests were aimed at the managers of both civil aviation administrations and the airline industry including. airline operational and training managers The target audience also included regulatory bodies safety and. investigation agencies and training establishments as well as senior and middle non operational airline management. This manual is essentially an edited compilation of the series of ICAO Human Factors digests Its target audience. includes senior training operational and safety personnel in industry and regulatory bodies It comprises two parts. Part 1 General introduces the concept of aviation Human Factors presents a systemic and contemporary view. of aviation safety outlines the basic principles of workstation design and reviews the fundamental Human Factors. issues in various aviation domains including air traffic control and maintenance. Part 2 Training Programmes for Operational Personnel outlines Human Factors training issues and proposes. the contents of sample training curricula for pilots air traffic controllers and accident investigators. This manual is intended to be kept up to date It will be amended periodically as new research becomes available. to reflect increased knowledge on Human Factors training for operational personnel. TABLE OF CONTENTS, PART 1 GENERAL Chapter 4 Ergonomics 1 4 1. Chapter 1 Fundamental Human Factors 4 1 Introduction 1 4 1. Concepts 1 1 1 4 2 Basic facts about ergonomics 1 4 1. 4 3 Human capabilities 1 4 4, 1 1 Introduction 1 1 1 4 4 Human information processing 1 4 8. 1 2 The meaning of Human Factors 1 1 1 4 5 Human dimensions 1 4 10. 1 3 The industry need for Human 4 6 Displays controls and flight. Factors 1 1 5 deck design 1 4 12, 1 4 Human Factors applications in 4 7 The environment 1 4 25. aviation operations 1 1 8, List of references 1 4 29.
List of references 1 1 16, Chapter 5 Human Factors issues in. Chapter 2 Human Factors Management air traffic control 1 5 1. and Organization 1 2 1, 5 1 Introduction 1 5 1, 2 1 Introduction 1 2 1 5 2 Human Factors within systems 1 5 1. 2 2 From individuals to organizations 1 2 2 5 3 Automation in air traffic control 1 5 5. 2 3 Safe and unsafe organizations 1 2 6 5 4 The selection and training of. 2 4 Allocation of resources 1 2 11 air traffic controllers 1 5 12. 2 5 Management s contribution 5 5 The human element specific. to safety 1 2 15 attributes 1 5 16, List of references 1 5 22. Chapter 3 Human Factors issues in the, development and implementation of Communications Appendix to Chapter 5 1 5 26. Navigation and Surveillance Air Traffic, Management CNS ATM systems 1 3 1.
Chapter 6 Human Factors in aircraft, 3 1 Introduction 1 3 1 maintenance and inspection 1 6 1. 3 2 The ICAO CNS ATM concept 1 3 3, 3 3 Automation in advanced aviation systems 1 3 6 6 1 Introduction 1 6 1. 3 4 Human centred technology 1 3 12 6 2 Human Factors aircraft. 3 5 Principles of human centred maintenance and inspection 1 6 2. automation 1 3 15 6 3 Human error in aircraft maintenance. 3 6 Qualities of human centred and inspection an organizational. automation 1 3 19 perspective 1 6 3, 6 4 Human Factors issues affecting. List of references 1 3 24 aircraft maintenance 1 6 9. vi Human Factors Training Manual, 6 5 Teams and organizational issues in Chapter 2 Crew resource management. aircraft maintenance 1 6 16 CRM training 2 2 1, 6 6 Automation and advanced technology.
systems 1 6 18 2 1 Introduction 2 2 1, 6 7 Error prevention considerations 2 2 Crew resource management. and strategies 1 6 20 CRM training 2 2 1, 2 3 Threat and error management. List of references 1 6 24 TEM training 2 2 8, 2 4 Guidance for integrating TEM into. CRM 2 2 12, 2 5 Line oriented flight training LOFT 2 2 20. PART 2 TRAINING PROGRAMMES, FOR OPERATIONAL PERSONNEL List of recommended reading 2 2 27.
Chapter 1 Basic human performance training, programmes for operational personnel 2 1 1 Chapter 3 Training issues in automation. and advanced technology flight decks 2 3 1, 1 1 Introduction 2 1 1. 1 2 Human Factors training for 3 1 Introduction 2 3 1. operational personnel an 3 2 An introduction to automation 2 3 1. introduction and overview 2 1 2 3 3 Issues and concerns in automation 2 3 6. 1 3 The prior situation 2 1 2 3 4 Training for automation 2 3 14. 1 4 Human Factors highlights 2 1 3 3 5 Management techniques and. 1 5 The SHEL Model 2 1 5 coping strategies 2 3 18, 1 6 The implications of the provisions from. Annexes 1 and 6 Part I 2 1 5 List of recommended reading 2 3 21. 1 7 Human performance training, curriculum an ICAO proposal 2 1 7 Appendix 1 to Chapter 3 2 3 24. 1 8 Human performance training Appendix 2 to Chapter 3 2 3 29. curriculum for pilots 2 1 7 Appendix 3 to Chapter 3 2 3 31. 1 9 The skill requirement 2 1 10, 1 10 Human performance training.
curriculum for air traffic controllers 2 1 11 Chapter 4 Human Factors training for. 1 11 Human performance training for safety investigators 2 4 1. maintenance technicians 2 1 14, 1 12 Considerations in training 4 1 Introduction 2 4 1. implementation and curriculum 4 2 Need for and purpose of. development 2 1 14 Human Factors investigation 2 4 2. 1 13 Training philosophy and objectives 2 1 15 4 3 Conduct of the investigation 2 4 9. 1 14 Skill development operational 4 4 Reporting and preventive action 2 4 21. personnel assessment and training, course evaluation 2 1 17 Appendix 1 to Chapter 4 2 4 28. 1 15 Human performance training curriculum Appendix 2 to Chapter 4 2 4 36. for aircraft maintenance engineers 2 1 17 Appendix 3 to Chapter 4 2 4 40. Appendix 4 to Chapter 4 2 4 42, Appendix 1 to Chapter 1 2 1 23 Appendix 5 to Chapter 4 2 4 44. Appendix 2 to Chapter 1 2 1 25, Appendix 3 to Chapter 1 2 1 29 Notes. FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN FACTORS CONCEPTS, 1 1 INTRODUCTION.
1 1 1 Human performance is cited as a causal factor in the majority of aircraft accidents If the accident rate is. to be decreased Human Factors issues in aviation must be better understood and Human Factors knowledge more. broadly and proactively applied By proaction it is meant that Human Factors knowledge should be applied and. integrated during the systems design and certification stages as well as during the operational personnel certification. process before the systems and the people become operational The expansion of Human Factors awareness presents. the international aviation community with the single most significant opportunity to make aviation both safer and. more efficient The purpose of this chapter is to present an overview of the various components which constitute. Human Factors and to clarify its meaning, 1 1 2 Ever since humans began to make tools thousands of years ago the application of elementary ergonomics. has improved work efficiency But it is only during the last hundred years that the modern evolution of ergonomics. towards Human Factors has begun, 1 1 3 The need during the First World War to optimize factory production and to assign thousands of recruits. more effectively to military duties and the fact that during the Second World War sophisticated equipment was. surpassing human capability to operate it with maximum effectiveness provided further stimulus to Human Factors. progress Selection and training of staff too began to be approached more scientifically However it might be argued. that the renewed interest in Human Factors contribution to aviation safety was a reactive response to technological. limitations prevailing at the time Therefore human capabilities were extended to their maximum through the. application of Human Factors knowledge sometimes at the cost of overlooking human limitations. 1 1 4 The institutionalization of Human Factors occurred with the founding of several organizations such as the. Ergonomics Research Society in 1949 the Human Factors Society now Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. in 1957 and the International Ergonomics Association IEA in 1959. 1 1 5 The recognition that basic Human Factors education was needed throughout the industry led to various. approaches to formal training in different countries This recognition tragically emphasized by the investigation of. a number of accidents resulting almost entirely from deficiencies in the application of Human Factors led ICAO to. implement Human Factors training requirements into the training and licensing requirements included in Annex 1. 1989 and Annex 6 1995 as well as into the process of accident investigations included in Annex 13 1994. 1 1 6 The 1976 agreement between the United States Federal Aviation Administration FAA and the National. Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA to establish a voluntary non punitive confidential Aviation Safety. Reporting System ASRS constituted official recognition that adequate information for analysis of human behaviour. and errors in human performance is best obtained by eliminating the threat of punitive action against the person. making the report Similar schemes were later set up in the United Kingdom CHIRP Canada CASRP and. Australia CAIR, 1 1 2 Human Factors Training Manual. 1 1 7 This chapter outlines, 1 the meaning and definition of Human Factors a conceptual model of it and clarification of common. misconceptions, 2 the industry need for Human Factors and.
3 a brief overview of the application of Human Factors in flight operations. 1 2 THE MEANING OF HUMAN FACTORS, 1 2 1 Human Factors as a term has to be clearly defined because when these words are used in the vernacular. they are often applied to any factor related to humans The human element is the most flexible adaptable and valuable. part of the aviation system but it is also the most vulnerable to influences which can adversely affect its performance. Throughout the years some three out of four accidents have resulted from less than optimum human performance. This has commonly been classified as human error, 1 2 2 The term human error is of no help in accident prevention because although it may indicate WHERE. in the system a breakdown occurs it provides no guidance as to WHY it occurs An error attributed to humans in the. system may have been design induced or stimulated by inadequate training badly designed procedures or the poor. concept or layout of checklists or manuals Further the term human error allows concealment of the underlying. factors which must be brought to the fore if accidents are to be prevented In fact contemporary safety thinking. argues that human error should be the starting point rather than the stop rule in accident investigation and prevention. 1 2 3 An understanding of the predictable human capabilities and limitations and the application of this. understanding are the primary concerns of Human Factors Human Factors has been progressively developed refined. and institutionalized since the end of the last century and is now backed by a vast store of knowledge which can be. used by those concerned with enhancing the safety of the complex system which is today s civil aviation Throughout. this manual capital initial letters are used for the term Human Factors The terms human aspects and human. elements in common usage are helpful alternatives to avoid ambiguity and aid comprehension. The disciplines of Human Factors, 1 2 4 Many of the early concerns in aviation were related to the effects on people of noise vibration. CHAPTER 1 FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN FACTORS CONCEPTS 1 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1 1 Human performance is cited as a causal factor in the majority of aircraft accidents If the accident rate is to be decreased Human Factors issues in aviation must be better understood and Human Factors knowledge more broadly and proactively applied By proaction it is meant

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