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How to use behavioural science to build new habits
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Our habits make up a huge proportion of our daily lives one study examining diaries of students and. community members concluded that up to 45 of the activities and tasks we undertake in our day are habitual 2. Once formed they become such second nature that breaking or changing them can be near impossible The. 19th century Scottish writer Samuel Smiles observed that To uproot an old habit is sometimes a more painful. thing and vastly more difficult than to wrench out a tooth 3. And it is because of this that habits are in effect the marketing holy grail Around half of new products fail4. and it is habits that can explain why and crucially how and why the few that become embedded in our lives. When new behaviours new products or services are not adopted the real problem often lies not in a lack of. awareness or knowledge in the consumer or even a lack of intention to use but in the failure to change existing. habits or adopt new ones And this is where insights from behavioural science the rapidly growing scientific. study of our behaviour and decision making which acknowledges and embraces the inherent biases and. distortions that characterise human judgement and decision making comes in Behavioural scientists call this. phenomenon the Intention Action gap For example there is a proven gulf between intending to exercise daily. and actually doing it Most adults know exercise is good for them and would like to do more yet global studies. have shown that between 36 to 55 of people never manage to convert intention into action 5 Similarly other. research has identified intention action gaps for handwashing before eating one study found that whilst the. majority of people know it s important to do this barely 20 actually did 6. A study looking at why consumers failed to adopt new products found that a quarter of the instances in which. consumers failed to use a new product in this case a new fabric refresher for clothing were due to the. interference of an existing habit 7 Failure to use the new product was rarely due to disliking a product or finding. it did not work properly they simply forgot to use the products and automatically continued or reverted. to existing habits Take a look through your kitchen cupboard or your bathroom cabinet and you re sure to find. some relics that you bought enthusiastically but forgot to ever use. Experienced marketers will quickly note that to change behaviour once is not too difficult but changing it for. good is much harder Behavioural scientists Katy Milkman Angela Duckworth agree the biggest problem. that needed solving was figuring out how to make behavior change stick. Therefore it s crucial for any marketer to be able to have a reliable and effective strategy for building new habits. and making them stick First we need to develop a complete understanding of the habitual behaviour in focus. and then analyse how might it be built maintained and broken or changed. Fortunately over the past few decades valuable new insights from the rapidly growing field of behavioural. science including from psychology neuroscience and behaviour change techniques have given us the. concepts frameworks and tools for us to not only better understand habitual behaviours but also to inform and. inspire the development of a best practice approach to building or breaking habits. So if a habit is a learned sequence of acts that have become automatic unconscious responses to specific cues. or triggers around us 8 there are some key features of habits which warrant discussion. Firstly let s look more closely at how habits are an automatic unconscious response The 18th century. writer Samuel Johnson intuitively observed that The chains of habit are too weak to be felt until they are. too strong to be broken realising that habits are very much automatic behaviours. Figure 1 Different brain systems control goal directed actions and habits These two systems influence. behavior independently of each other Source Neal D J Vujcic O Hernandez and W Wood 2015 9. Move forward 250 years and neuroscientific research now supports that observation Any new behaviour begins. with conscious deliberation and intention drawing on what is known as our executive function or System 2. the prefrontal cortex area of our brain This is the brain area that does all our hard thinking helping us do. complex calculations learn a foreign language or navigate our way to a new place But as we learn and repeat. the behaviour over time our brain shortcuts our executive function and instead relies on the basal ganglia a. more primitive area of the brain which means that we are no longer conscious of the behaviour but perform it. without needing to thinking about starting it or continuing it. Habits need a cue A second key feature is that habits are always triggered by a cue typically in a. context that is stable and consistent in our lives The cue triggers our memory of doing the same action or. routine previously and helps to initiate it again Take making a cup of coffee a familiar habit for many We. might be cued by a particular time of day waking up an object in our surrounding environment a. cafetiere or being in the environment as a whole the kitchen a preceding behaviour turning on the. kettle or even a person or sound an alarm clock When such an environment is stable and consistent. when we are in the same place at the same time of day we are more likely to carry out a particular. behaviour deeply embedding a habit, Repetition In addition for a behaviour to become a true habit it needs to be performed frequently and. repeated many times over Exact figures for how long it takes to build a habit vary depending on the. complexity of the behaviour but a study conducted by Phillippa Lally and colleagues at the Health. Behaviour Research Centre at UCL in 2009 found that it took anywhere between 18 days 2 5 weeks and. 254 days over 8 months to embed a new habit The average time was 66 days 10 And this assumes it is. performed regularly daily or at least a few times per week For example a 2015 study looking at the time. taken to embed exercise habits found that it took 6 weeks of going to the gym 4 times per week before the. new habit was embedded 11 So when starting a new habit what can we do to drive and ensure repetition. Rewards We can be motivated to repeat a behaviour if we believe we will reap some sort of reward It is. this element which can fix a behaviour in place so it becomes a habit to the extent that we might not even. need the reward once the behaviour has become automatic We are motivated by many different types of. rewards from intrinsic to extrinsic conscious and subconscious physical to physiological short term or. long term one off or a reward that is cumulative and builds up over time We may build a habit with just a. single reward or with a mix of different types of rewards. With these three key features a behaviour that is automatic initiated by a cue or trigger oft repeated and. embedded via a reward in mind we can now construct a simple model of habits The Habit Loop model. illustrated below helps to keep in mind the essential elements which are needed to set about building a new. Figure 2 The habit loop illustrating how the trigger initiates the routine which is followed by the reward. Source The Behavioural Architects Charles Duhigg, With this definition key features and model outlined we will go on to outline some evidence based strategies. and techniques which can be used to build and embed a habit into people s routines. Essentials, How can we steer people to build a new habit that is sustained over time. We ve looked at several different models and frameworks from practitioners such as Nir Eyal B J Fogg and. Charles Duhigg and academics such as Bas Verplanken Wendy Wood and Ben Gardner all of which aim to aid. understanding and or build habitual behaviours For us though the best practice approach comes from David. Neal a psychologist at Duke University s Center for Advanced Hindsight who outlines six essential strategies. or techniques each grounded in evidence from the behavioural sciences which are effective for forming a new. Six strategies for building habits, Each of the six strategies are tiered in terms of their importance. One is an essential precondition a must have right from the start without it a consumer will ultimately. fail to embed the behaviour in their lives,three are important and.
two are good to have, Figure 3 Six Strategies for Building Habits Source The Behavioural Architects 2017 based on Neal D The. Science of Habit 2015,Strategy 1 Ensure a stable supportive environment. As we discussed above a supportive environment enables the creation of consistent cues which will begin to. automatically initiate a new habit This element is an absolutely essential precondition if the context or. surrounding environment is not set up for the desired habit even the most determined obstinate characters are. going to struggle to even start a new habit let alone embed it. Take the example of an avid music fan who listens to music via his long accumulated CDs and records An. online streaming service would love him to develop a new listening habit via streaming but unless he has the. supportive technology a good quality tablet or laptop with a fast unlimited reliable Wifi connection he is. unlikely to make the switch, Or there might be the health conscious person who would like to cut down on wine or beer on a weekday. evening Success might come from making sure there is little if any of either in the home and perhaps finding a. different drink maybe sparkling mineral water to substitute instead Making these small but effective changes. to the context can help promote a new habit, Another example is often the would be gym goer whose life is quite unpredictable involving lots of business. travel meaning a frequent change of context and irregular leisure time if any Studies of exercise and healthy. lifestyle habits have shown that having a regular and stable place to exercise a local gym at home or near. work a regular class or a tried and tested running route will bed down any new sporting or physical activity the. Another illustration might be of the child encouraged by their schoolteacher to read more Here having suitable. books available at school and in the home as well as having an allotted time to read perhaps after bathtime. before bedtime would be essential for building a habit. Strategy 2 Leverage the context,Good to leverage if possible.
This strategy is all about making the best use of natural opportunities already existing or soon to exist in a. consumer s environment or general life meaning we marketers don t need to do so much of the heavy lifting. This means analysing the specific context are there opportunities to develop new habits if a old ones are. temporarily disrupted by a change or b by piggybacking to existing habits. 1 Leverage a disruption of the status quo One of the best opportunities to promote new habits is to. intervene during a major permanent life change such as a new job or career moving house or the start of. a new life stage such as going to university having a baby or retiring These occasions often involve a. change in the surrounding environment and or changes in daily routines which mean existing habits are not. as automatic as they might have been previously David Halpern of the Behavioural Insights Team in the. UK notes that successful behaviour change is often about intervening at the right time If you contact. people within three months of them moving into a new house it s highly effective because behavioural. patterns haven t re established themselves yet 12 A study published in 2016 which analysed commuting. habits of over 18 000 people in the UK found that people were more likely to switch to more. environmentally friendly means of transport after moving house and if they already had environmental. concerns but that the effect decayed over time so after a year they were more likely to commute by car. People have about three months and then the opportunity for new habits diminishes says Gregory. Thomas lead researcher in the study 13 Another study found that people who had attempted a life change. were more likely to have succeeded if they had recently moved to a new location or consciously altered. their existing environment in some way Notably failures tended to be characterised by efforts to engage. willpower only or keep the status quo making no changes to the context 14 Both these studies highlight the. window of opportunity to change behaviour after a change of context. 2 Piggyback to an existing habit Whilst life changes are invaluable for promoting habit change they don t. occur that often So other strategies which bolt a new behaviour on to an existing behaviour or routine can. be easier and more effective than trying to replace a habit with a new one For example people were more. successful at flossing their teeth when they did it after brushing their teeth 15 Another study looking at. factors associated with the adoption of innovative new consumer products such as a roasting bag for the. oven found that variables such as compatibility with existing habits and previous experiences predicted. adoption far better than consumers personal characteristics 16 Cast your mind back a few decades and. you might remember the craze for Kellogg s Pop tarts the ready made breakfast snack which just needed. heating in the toaster By piggybacking onto British people s existing toast making habit or obsession. Kellogg s were able to build a new breakfast habit Making a mental connection between the existing and. new habit can aid our memory and help us to remember to perform the new behaviour It follows that any. new habit which conflicts with an existing habit or routine is unlikely to be successful without careful. consideration or change to the context,Strategy 3 Make it easy to do. Behaviour change experts emphasise the importance of making any desired behaviour easy to do this is no less. important for habitual behaviours especially when they are very new. When learning a new behaviour we have to think a lot more which takes more effort and so it can already seem. harder to do So minimising barriers or making it feel less daunting or simplifying choice can steer someone. closer to starting and continuing a new habit, This is especially important when the desired new habit needs to take place in an already demanding situation. where the cognitive capacities of the consumer are already stretched perhaps with other distractions or limited. mental bandwidth For example trying to change habits in the workplace can be difficult when people are. already overloaded and often stressed, Specifically it s useful to think about three elements to make a new habit easier to get into place. 1 Eliminate friction by reducing the number of decisions a consumer needs to make the easier the. set up is the more likely we will at least start the new behaviour How many decisions are you asking. someone to make before they can begin Are they likely to know or easily find the answers or will the. decisions just confuse and put them off, 2 Chunk or reduce the steps to carry out the behaviour New behaviours and actions can seem. daunting due to their unfamiliarity If we can make the steps required for the routine simple and minimal. say no more than three it s more likely a consumer will try and adopt. 3 Reduce the perceived effort or any other potential barriers Changing the status quo and starting a. new behaviour is always going to feel more effort but if we can reduce any known barriers to the routine. we have more chance of success For example if you wanted to get citizens cycle commuting rather than. taking the car it would be a good idea to ensure that cycle lanes are in place and bike racks near. workplaces are sufficient,Strategy 4 Develop cues and rewards.
We ve already talked about the importance of cues in a stable context These can often be strengthened further. by encouraging people to consciously identify a trigger which will help them to recall and initiate the new routine. Equally rewards are also critical in building new habits. a Establish unique or personalised cues, This draws on a highly effective area of behavioural science called implementation intentions simple if. then plans which can signal when to take action Setting out a rule of thumb If X then do Y can aid memory. and make us feel more committed to carrying out a new behaviour This strategy has been successfully applied. in many different contexts, Take dental flossing again People who first outlined when and where they would floss each day flossed more. frequently over the four week study than those who did not 17 In another experiment office staff were. encouraged to recycle their plastic cups and old paper by considering when where and how to recycle Two. months after making this simple plan recycling levels were still higher than before and compared to the control. It is similar to the piggybacking strategy outlined above but more explicit conscious and personalised and may. help someone develop a feeling of commitment to embedding the new habit Conversely piggybacking may. occur naturally without the individual being consciously aware of it or may be created by the marketer or. behaviour change practitioner,b Ensure there is a varied mix of rewards. Research suggests that getting some sort of reward during or after a new routine is essential for embedding a. new habit as it helps to incentivise and motivate us to do it and keep on repeating it The best practice is to. ensure there is a varied mix of rewards some immediate short term rewards others more long term which. accumulate over time as we repeat the behaviour Some will be simple rewards perhaps the glass of wine at. the end of a long week others less tangible and more subconscious such as social interaction with friends or. physiological for instance the runners high after exercise. For example take the important habit of handwashing An immediate reward could be the pleasant smell of our. skin after washing with soap But over time we may notice we are ill less often due to our improved hygiene and. be aware of social approval from others, Once the habit has been firmly established though there is less need for a reward to continue to exist since the. cue and context will ensure we start doing it automatically without even thinking For example a study looking at. what determined whether and how much people exercised found that for those new to exercise intrinsic rewards. were important but those for whom exercise had become habitual rewards were less necessary if at all 19. Strategy 5 Practice and repeat, As we mentioned above we form habits as we repeatedly perform a specific behaviour Therefore creating.
opportunities and occasions to practice the new behaviour so it can be repeated often is highly important. This is particularly true if we are actually learning something entirely new to us a new skill such as a martial. art how to use a new smartphone or app or even make up a new drink or meal They can seem daunting and a. big effort as they feel so unfamiliar so even if the intention to start is there we may not ever begin Therefore. opportunities to practice and try it out in a supportive environment can help to get us on our way. Neuroscience and reinforcement literature shows that for new skills we learn better through doing and through. trial and error than by merely watching Studies have shown that those who get to practice a new skill or. behaviour actually engage the habit system part of their brain and master the behaviour better Those who only. watch and observe don t engage the habit part of their brain. This has all sorts of implications for the successful adoption of new products and services which may require the. development of new skills for example using a smart meter making a new type of breakfast or learning a new. language Creating easy opportunities for consumers to practice a new skill may help to start embedding a new. habit Apple stores which let consumers use and play around with their products are great examples of how a. learning space can be created Samsung recently opened a new flagship store in New York designed as a. living lab and digital playground enabling consumers to see and try out the latest technology 20 For food and. drink products we often see sample stands in retail stores inviting us to try a new product but retailers are now. moving to more experiential stores such as those where people can cook in a do it yourself restaurant. New technology is even developing wearable neuro stimulators which will guide and correct people s. movements and actions improving their performance by using electrodes to stimulate the motor cortex in the. brain to produce temporary mental states primed for learning think of a neurosurgeon in training artists. wanting to perfect their brush strokes an elite athlete honing their technique musicians wanting to improve their. technical ability or a patient recovering from injury needing to complete intense physio exercises 21 These. technologies could be invaluable to the formation of new habits and skills. Halo Neuroscience enhances learning of physical movement skills in elite athletes to hone good habits. Strategy 6 Build meaning and motivation,Good to have. The final strategy is aimed at the individual who is now starting to form a weak habit Their new behaviour is. being prompted by a cue is performed in a stable context and where there is some kind of reward in completing. the routine But to really embed the habit it can help to build greater personalised meaning around the habit so. that an individual identifies with it, This is because we like to rationalise any behaviour we do linking it to our identity and giving it meaning in our. life As David Neal says People do not embrace the idea that we are creatures of habit Instead they prefer to. view their actions as products of choices conscious motives preferences and goals So if people can be. encouraged to view their new habit as something with a deeper purpose to try to post rationalise and come up. with explanations for why they do a new behaviour it can act as a buffer against relapse Practitioners can. harness this tendency and encourage people who are on their way to building a new habit to give it a sense of. clear purpose, Take someone who has taken up running purely to help them lose weight but now they have lost the desired. weight their motivation is waning Before they started their running regime they may not have identified with. being a runner or realised the other benefits of running such as clarity of thinking improved productivity at work. better physical health enhanced mood and happiness as well as potential social rewards if they run with a. friend or group So looking for opportunities to engage the new runner and provide them with further. explanations for why they run can help to embed the habit further. This strategy can help to keep motivation levels high since often motivation to build a new habit flags after a. while frustratingly before the habit is fully embedded So if we can just eke out motivation a little more we are. likely to have more success in creating sustained behaviour change and preventing relapse A new behaviour. needs to be repeated until it is fully subconscious until those cobwebs become chains. These six strategies apply the latest insight and understanding to how to effectively build a new habit or routine. Grounded in findings from the behavioural sciences they provide a complete toolbox for the marketer or. behavioural change practitioner to go out and help build a new habit in virtually any area And if you are still not. quite convinced test them on yourself You could change your life. Reminder checklist, Have you ensured or created a stable supportive environment or context for your new habit. Are there any opportunities to leverage life changes or teachable moments. Are there any opportunities to piggyback the new habit to existing habits and routines. Have you made the new behaviour as easy as possible to do. Have you enabled people to create any unique cues plans or reminders. Have you ensured a mix of short term and longer term rewards. Have you created opportunities for people to try out or practice the new behaviour. Have you given people new meaning s they can attach to their desired habit. Case studies, Below we have outlined five case studies which leverage one or more of the six strategies outlined above.
Applying Strategy 1 Ensure a stable supportive environment. Building an exercise habit for children by ensuring a consistent context. Both the WHO and the UK government recommend that children get a minimum of 60 minutes physical activity. per day Not only does it increase fitness but also physical and mental health and cognitive development Yet a. third of children aged 2 to 15 in the UK are overweight or obese And the UK is one of the lowest ranked out of. 38 countries for children s physical activity levels with only 15 of girls and 22 of boys achieving the. recommended 60 minutes per day, In 2013 St Ninian s School in Scotland initiated a rapidly growing scheme to improve these levels realising that. their schoolchildren were very unfit They have built a new exercise habit called The Daily Mile 22 getting. children to run a mile in the school grounds each day an activity that takes no more than 15 minutes during the. school day Teachers marked out a track a series of laps around or near the school which the children can. follow Children are encouraged to run jog or walk No kit is needed children run in their school clothes in. almost all weathers Not only does the children s physical fitness improve but teachers report that their. concentration levels are higher immediately after the 15 minute session and throughout the day. The initiative owes part of its success to the fact that the run is always in the same place in the. school on the pre marked track providing the stable supportive environment required to build a. Children running the Daily Mile, Sometimes teachers draw on additional cues too Although teachers can take their class for it at any time. during the school day some choose a specific time adding more stability to the habit whilst others draw on a. more subjective and flexible cue if they feel the class is losing focus. The rewards for the children are self evident in their enthusiasm and the reward is undoubtedly mostly intrinsic. enjoyed for the sake of moving fast and freely outside with their friends Teachers report that the Daily Mile is. now something that the children look forward to each day. Over 2500 schools now take part across the UK and Belgium and the Netherlands Rigorous evaluations. assessing outcomes in schools are currently taking place but early studies show that the level of obesity. at St Ninian s School is around 45 less than the national average. Applying Strategy 3 Make it easy, Building a payment habit by making an online payment mechanism easier to use. The Behavioural Architects worked with an online payment platform to strengthen usage of their payment. mechanism and help build a stronger payment choice habit Even though consumers often intended to use the. platform their behaviour showed that they often used other payment mechanisms By analysing and observing. the user experience and asking consumers to describe their varied online payment experiences we were able to. identify recommendations to convert intention into action and promote greater use of the payment platform by. making it easier to select and use and in the process strengthening the cues to use the platform and making. the rewards of use more self evident, For instance one recommendation was to create a more salient online cue to use the platform when. choosing how to pay Webpages can be very cluttered and overwhelming and often important features and. choices are not noticed by the customer But making choices stand out better on the page and catch people s. attention can increase use and reduce confusion A good example of another salient payment process would be. Amazon s one click buy button, A second recommendation was to make the payment mechanism easier to use chunking up the process.
into clear simple stages to ensure customers understood what they needed to do next and feel less daunted by. the process This increased ease served as a reward too consumers were motivated to use the platform. because it allowed them to make quicker and easier payments with little effort Both these recommendations. helped reduce perceived barriers for consumers,Applying Strategy 3 Make it easy. Increasing habitual purchase of fruit and vegetables by reducing perceived barriers. The Behavioural Architects worked with a UK retailer to help consumers live healthier lifestyles by eating more. fruit and vegetables Although consumers often intend to buy and eat healthier foods their intention often does. not translate into regular action and purchase can be sporadic if at all So we looked at how we might develop. stronger in store cues to purchase fruit and veg and develop immediate rewards beyond the longer term health. Our research using both in store observation techniques intercepts with customers interviews with staff on the. shop floor and self ethnographic research via an online platform with consumers revealed a two major barriers. to buying fruit and veg Lack of cooking know how and inspiration for how to use or when to eat left customers. inhibited and unconfident about buying Secondly consumers were unaware of the specific health benefits of. different fruit and veg, We worked with the retailer to look at how they could reduce the first barrier by developing salient in store. messaging and merchandising and empower consumers by giving authoritative advice in cooking and. preparation To reduce the second barrier we suggested simple shortcuts and primes to communicate. health benefits to consumers in ways that they could quickly understand and absorb All these measures. ultimately made it easier for consumers to convert their good intentions into action and buy fruit and veg more. Applying Strategy 2 3 Leverage the context Make it easy. Improving sanitation habits by piggybacking a chlorine dispenser to a water collection point. The Poverty Action Lab based at MIT wanted to improve water sanitation in Kenya by encouraging households. to use chlorine tablets to purify their drinking water and reduce contamination and disease Households had. access to the chlorine tablets in fact they were given out for free but usage was poor and people forgot to use. them or weren t sure how to use them, They needed to build a new habit to get households using the chlorine tablets in any water used for cooking or. drinking by identifying a consistent cue and finding more immediate rewards than the longer term health. Through in context exploration research and initial trials they discovered one of the most effective ways to. promote use of chlorine purification was to install the dispenser at the local water source piggybacking the. new behaviour to a well embedded routine All households visited the water tap on a daily basis By positioning. the dispenser at the local tap they created an immediate social reward for using chlorine Desire for approval. among peers motivated households to use the chlorine. Further by designing the dispenser so it gave out the exact amount of chlorine needed to purify the water. contained in a household s typical water container they made the chlorine easy to use removing any need. for calculating and measuring 23,Applying Strategy 4 Develop cues and rewards. How one brand created a unique social reward for a cleaning product. The Behavioural Architects China worked with a consumer goods company to better understand how consumers. might form an improved kitchen cleaning habit Housewives in China mostly clean up after cooking the meal by. wiping down surfaces using the soapy dishwater Whilst adequate it often does not fully remove grease and. cooking smells Housewives did not enjoy the task and found it a chore. We asked housewife respondents to try using the product and tell us about their experience Ethnographic. research in the home revealed a new reward from using the kitchen surface cleaner after cleaning with the. product the housewife s family were drawn into the clean and fresh smelling kitchen creating an immediate. social reward for her Not only was her kitchen now much cleaner but she was less lonely doing her. housework and felt more appreciated The brand went on to use this insight in their marketing. Further Reading,WARC Topic Behavioural Insight,WARC Topic Behavioural Economics.
Neal David The Science of Habit October 2015, Dean Jeremy Making habits breaking habits 2013 Oneworld Publications. Hollingworth C Barker L Habits The Holy Grail of Marketing How to make break and measure them The. Marketing Society April 2013, Neal D T Wood W Quinn J M 2006 Habits A repeat performance Current Directions in. Psychological Science 15 198 202, Verplanken B Wood W 2006 Interventions to break and create consumer habits Journal of Public Policy. and Marketing 25 90 103,About the authors,Crawford Hollingworth. Co Founder The Behavioural Architects, Crawford Hollingworth is co Founder of The Behavioural Architects which he launched in 2011 He was also.
founder of HeadlightVision in London and New York a behavioural trends research consultancy. HeadlightVision was acquired by WPP in 2003 Following the merger between HeadlightVision and The. Henley Centre to form The Futures Company he took on the role of Global Executive Chairman. He has written and spoken widely on the subject of behavioural economics for various institutions and. publications including the Market Research Society Marketing Society Market Leader Aura AQR London. Business School and Impact magazine Crawford is a Fellow of The Marketing Society and Royal Society of. Liz Barker, Global Head of BE Intelligence Networks The Behavioural Architects. Liz Barker is the Global Head of BE Intelligence Networks at The Behavioural Architects She and co Founder.

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