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High Quality Factor Lamb Wave Resonators
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Copyright 2014 by the author s , All rights reserved . Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for. personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are. not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that. copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page To copy. otherwise to republish to post on servers or to redistribute to lists . requires prior specific permission , Acknowledgement. I would like to express my deepest appreciation to my advisor Prof . Albert P Pisano I give my sincerest gratitude to Professor Clark T C . Nguyen for agree being reader of this research report I would also like to. thank Professor Liwei Lin Prof Richard M White and Prof Tsu Jae King. Liu for their valuable technical suggestions on this work I own my. heartfelt appreciation to Dr Chih Ming Lin for his professional. guidance It was great joy to work in the Pisano Lab and I remain. indebted to my former and current colleagues All devices studied in this. report were fabricated at the Berkeley Marvell Nanofabrication. Laboratory I would like to thank all Nanolab staff for assisting me. through these years , High Quality Factor Lamb Wave Resonators. A report submitted in partial satisfaction of the. requirements for the degree of, Master of Science. Engineering Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences. Graduate Division, University of California Berkeley.
Committee in charge , Professor Albert P Pisano Chair. Professor Clark T C Nguyen, High Quality Factor Lamb Wave Resonators. Research Project, Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences . University of California at Berkeley in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the. degree of Master of Science Plan II , Approval for the Report and Comprehensive Examination . Committee , Professor Albert P Pisano, Research Advisor.
Professor Clark T C Nguyen, Second Reader, High Quality Factor Lamb Wave Resonators. Copyright 2014, i, High Quality Factor Lamb Wave Resonators. Master of Science in Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences. University of California Berkeley, Professor Albert P Pisano Chair. The small in size and CMOS compatible micro electromechanical system MEMS . resonators are likely to be the driving core of a new generation of devices such as radio. frequency RF filters and timing references Thanks to the CMOS compatibility ability. of high frequencies low motional impedances Rm small frequency induced drifts and. capability of multiple frequencies operation on a single chip the aluminum nitride AlN . Lamb wave resonators have attracted attention among various micromechanical resonator. technologies The lowest order symmetric S0 Lamb wave mode in an AlN thin plate is. particularly preferred because it exhibits high acoustic phase velocity a low dispersive. phase velocity characteristic and a moderate electromechanical coupling coefficient . In this report basic analysis of the Lamb waves propagating in AlN and the device. design techniques are presented in detail Then a novel technique to enhance the quality. factor Q of Lamb wave resonator by utilizing an AlN plate formed in a butterfly shape. is investigated in this paper In the conventional design the Q s of the micromachined. Lamb wave resonators are largely harmed by the energy dissipation through the support. tethers The finite element analysis FEA simulation results show that the butterfly . shaped topology can efficiently change the displacement field in the AlN plate and reduce. the vibration in the support tethers The unloaded Q of the resonator is raised from 3 360. to 4 758 by simply using of the butterfly shaped AlN plate with a tether to plate angle . 59 representing a 1 42 increase The experimental Q s are also in good agreement. with the anchor loss Q s computed using the PML based FEA method . , Professor Albert P Pisano Chair Date, i, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. First and foremost I would like to express my deepest appreciation to my advisor Prof . Albert P Pisano He gave me insightful suggestions in the research direction and large. freedom to follow my own interest He also gave me complete support and every. opportunity in keep trying experiments and attending conferences to discuss with other. researchers in the field He is so warm and humorous that everybody likes him His. insights and personality are an excellent example of a great scientist and a great leader . and will benefit my whole life , I give my sincerest gratitude to Professor Clark T C Nguyen for agree being reader of.
this research report I always admire his research on MEMS analog circuits and RF. communication This report is also motivated from the theory he put forward I would. also like to express my sincere gratitude to Professor Liwei Lin Prof Richard M White. and Prof Tsu Jae King Liu for their valuable technical suggestions on this work . I own my heartfelt appreciation to Dr Chih Ming Lin for his professional guidance on. the AlN Lamb wave resonators teaching me nanofabrication and all the invaluable. discussions It was great joy to work in the Pisano Research for Integrated. Micromechanical Electrical PRIME Systems Laboratory and I remain indebted to my. former and current colleagues Dr Debbie Senesky and Dr Jim C Cheng Dr Ayden. Maralani Dr Kristen Dorsey Dr Mitsutoshi Makihata Dr Nuo Zhang Dr Matilda. Yun Ju Lai Dr Fabian Goericke Dr Wei Cheng Lien Dr Earnest Ting Ta Yen Dr . Matthew Chan Dr Sarah Wodin Schwartz Dr Yeg n Erdem Kirti Mansukhani . Hongyun So Anju Toor Lilla Smith Shiqian Shao David Rolfe Gordon Hoople Maria. Pace Joy Xiaoyue Jiang Levent Beker Ben Eovino and John Herr for all the helpful. discussions and your support I also thank my friends Dr Tsung Chieh Lee and Le Zhang . for the discussions on the telecommunication technologies . All devices studied in this report were fabricated at the Berkeley Marvell Nanofabrication. Laboratory I would like to thank all Nanolab staff for assisting me through these years . At the same time I wish to thank Hanyu Zhu Zeying Ren Xianling Liu Chuang Qian . Bo Lv Yang Yang Yuping Zeng Zheng Cheng Taiki Hatakeyama and Ruonan Liu for. giving me invaluable help and suggestions on MEMS fabrication . Outside the academic environment I would like to thank Yifan Jiang Jun Xie Wenwen. Jiang Weixi Zhong Minghui Zheng Xiao Liang Meng Cai Xuance Zhou Siyuan Xin . Chang Liu Ming Tin Junkai Liu Bo Xu Fan Yang Qianyi Li Yuchen Pan Yuan Ma. and Qi Wang With their company in the United States I have a wonderful and enjoyable. life outside the work environment , Last but not the least I owe more than words can describe to my parents and my fianc . Guanbin Zou Fenglian Zeng and Pucong Han for their never ending love and. unequivocal dedication I reserve my sincere gratitude to your patience your. companionship and your steadfast encouragement , i. TABLE OF CONTENTS,Acknowledgments i,Chapter 1 Introduction 1. 1 1 MEMS Resonators for RF Front End Technology 1. 1 1 1 Current and Future RF Front End Transceivers 1. 1 1 2 Resonator Parameters 4, 1 1 2 MEMS Resonators for Bandpass Filters 5. 1 1 3 MEMS Resonators for Frequency References 6, 1 3 MEMS Resonators 7.
1 3 1 Surface Acoustic Wave SAW Resonator 7, 1 3 2 Bulk Acoustic Resonator BAW 8. 1 3 3 Lamb Wave Resonator LWR 11, 1 3 4 Electrostatic Resonators 12. 1 4 Report Outline 13,Chapter 2 Lamb Wave propagating in AlN film 14. 2 1 Aluminum Nitride AlN 14, 2 2 Piezoelectric Effect and its Constitutive Equations 16. 2 3 Solid Acoustic Wave Properties 18, 2 3 Characteristics of Lamb Wave Modes in an AlN Film 21.
2 3 1 Lamb Wave Modes 21, 2 3 2 The Phase Velocity vp of the Symmetric Fundamental S0 Mode 21. 2 3 3 The Electromechanical Coupling Coefficient k2 of the S0 Mode 24. 2 3 4 The Temperature Coefficient of Frequency TCF of the S0 Mode 25. Chapter 3 Design of AlN Lamb Wave Resonators Utilizing S0 Mode 28. 3 1 Equivalent Circuit and Typical Frequency Response 28. 3 2 The Effective Coupling Coefficient k2eff Optimization 31. 3 2 1 Electrode Configuration and AlN thicknesses 31. 3 2 2 Electrode Material Selection 32, 3 4 Temperature Compensation Technique 33. 3 5 Microfabrication Process 37, Chapter 4 Q Enhancement of AlN Lamb Wave Resonators Using Butterfly shaped Plates 40. 3 1 Loss Mechanisms 40, 3 2 Resonator Design and Finite Element Analysis 41. 3 3 Experimental Results and Discussions 44, 3 5 Conclusions 46.
Chapter 5 Conclusions 48,Bibliography 49, 1,Introduction. Microelectromechanical systems MEMS inspired by microelectronics and. benefited from the development of microfabrication technology have been recently. intensively researched and successfully commercialized in many fields of technology . The conventional MEMS technology which converts energy from mechanical to. electrical domain or vice versa sensors and actuators play an irreplaceable role in. people s modern life and are offered by many suppliers today In contrast to their unique. function radio frequency microelectromechanical systems RF MEMS process electrical. signal just like electronics using mechanically vibrating structure and have replaced on . chip electrical RF devices to provide frequency control functions due to their. extraordinary performance compared to on chip electrical counterparts With small size . high performance and Complementary metal oxide semiconductor CMOS . compatibility RF MEMS resonators offer promising building blocks for frequency. control and timing reference in contemporary RF front end in wireless communication. This chapter starts by introducing the potential application of MEMS resonators in. bandpass filters and oscillators in the current RF front end transceivers and novel. reconfigurable channel select RF front end architectures Technical requirements for. MEMS resonators will be summarized followed by short descriptions of existing MEMS. resonator technologies ,1 1 MEMS Resonators for RF Front End Technology. 1 1 1 Current and Future RF Front End Transceivers. Figure 1 1 shows the system block diagram of a state of art quad band super . heterodyne receiver Rx architecture in cellular phones The off chip SAW filters and. quartz crystal resonators are the main components for frequency selection and time. reference With the development of MEMS technology mechanical vibrating structures. used for frequency control and time keeping can be fabricated on Si wafers with excellent. performance tiny size low power consumption and CMOS compatibility In order to. reduce complexity of integration cost and power consumption in next generation. 2, Pre Select RF Filter Image Reject RF Filter, 850 MHz VCO Low Pass Filter. IF Filter IF Amp, GSM VGA 90 DSP, LNA ADC Q, 1800 MHz VCO. Resonator Resonator LO, Figure 1 1 System block diagram of a quad band super heterodyne receiver potential MEMS resonator.
replacements are shaded , communication systems CMOS compatible MEMS resonators are considered as direct. replacements of these discrete components As is indicated in the shaded area in Figure 1 . 1 the receiver front end architecture can adapt MEMS resonator technology to realize a. highly integrated system , In addition novel RF frond end channel select architecture is proposed by Nguyen to. use the high Q MEMS resonator technology to eliminate the use of the RF low noise. amplifiers LNAs and transistor mixers thereby significantly reduce the complexity of. integrated circuit IC and lower the power consumption 15 In the circuit of Fig 1 2. a the key feature of the RF channel select architecture is the closely spaced filter bank. paired with low loss switched to eliminate not only out of band interferers but also out of. channel interferers 16 For a narrowband filter the insertion loss heavily depends on the. resonator Q while a small percent bandwidth is needed 17 18 . One step further as the increasing desire for reconfigurable radios capable of. adapting to any communication standard has spurred great interest in the concept of a. software defined radio SDR Nguyen pointed out that MEMS devices can be used in. massive numbers as the way of transistors 2008 He put forward the software defined. radio front end utilizing a micromechanical RF channel select filter network to realize a. frequency gating function as is shown in Figure 1 2 b Large numbers 100 of. switchable MEMS filters are used to realize the programmable frequency gate instead of. restricting the implementation of a programmable frequency gate to a single tunable. All the above information reveals that CMOS compatible high Q low impedance . thermally stable and frequency tunable micromechanical resonators are essential to. 3, Tunable Pre ADC I, Select Filter IF Filter IF Amp. LNA VGA 90 DSP, PLL LO, Multi Band Programmable Switchable MEMS MEMS. a Channel Select MEMS RF, Filter Bank Image Reject .
Resonator Oscillator Resonator, Oscillator, Sub Sampling Digital Digital. ADC Demodulation Output, Resonator oscillator, Transistor. b Multi Band Programmable, Channel Select Filter Network. Figure 1 2 System block diagrams for a a channel select receiver architecture using integrated MEMS. filter bank and resonators and b a highly reconfigurable low power SDR front end receiver utilizing a. network of large numbers of MEMS RF filters to realize a frequency gating function RF MEMS devices. are shaded in green , construct single chip transceiver in the near future and the highly configurable SDR. front end in the long run , 4, Admittance dB , Figure 1 3 A typical frequency response of a resonator with definitions of important parameters .
1 1 2 Resonator Parameters, Before talking about specific applications a brief introduction to the general parameters of a. resonator is given here As shown in Figure 1 3 a typical frequency response of the admittance. has a resonance and an anti resonance peak and the definitions of important parameters are listed. The quality factor characterizes the sharpness of the resonance peak and is defined by the. ration of the 3dB bandwidth to the resonance frequency . 3 , , 1 1 , The effective coupling coefficient physically represents the energy conversion efficiency of. the device and is defined by the distance between the resonance and anti resonance peaks . 2 2 , 4 , 1 2 , The motional impedance represents the loss level when the device is in resonance . 1 3 , , The temperature coefficient of frequency represents the amount of frequency shift when. temperature changes , 1, 1 4 , 5, Ys series Ys Ys a .
Input Output, Yp Yp, shunt resonator, Insertion loss b . 0 dB 3dB BW, Admittance Y dB , Out of band, Yp rejection. f sp fs fss fpp fp s Frequency Hz , Figure 1 4 a Simple ladder filter with micromechanical resonators in the series and shunt branches and. b the typical frequency spectrum of the synthesized ladder filter and common parameters for evaluating. the filter ,performanceonator replacements are shaded . More introductions of these important parameters will be given in detail in the later chapters. when analyzing specific ones ,1 1 2 MEMS Resonators for Bandpass Filters.
In the front end of wireless communication systems bandpass filters are used to. block out the unwanted signals Figure 1 4 a shows a common electrically coupled. filter a ladder filter configuration employing resonators in both series and shunt. branches 1 2 20 All the resonators in the series branch have the same series and. parallel resonance frequencies fs and fp Similarly the resonators in the shunt branch. have the identical series resonance frequency differing from the series resonance. frequency of the resonators in the series branch , 6. compensation, resonator capacitor, Figure 1 5 Simple illustration of a Pierce oscillator using crystal or ceramic resonators . A typical frequency response of the ladder filter is shown in Fig 1 4 b Of special. interest are the in band insertion loss 3dB bandwidth BW out of band rejection the. skirts and the shape factor As is indicated in Figure 1 4 b the 3dB BW is usually set. by the effective coupling coefficient keff2 of the series and shunt resonators To. minimize the insertion loss of the ladder filter the shunt resonators should have high Q. and large impedance at their parallel resonance frequency fpp and the series resonators. have high Q and low impedance Rm at their series resonance frequency fs . 1 1 3 MEMS Resonators for Frequency References, Time references are employed in almost all electronic systems to keep track of real. time and set precise clock frequency for digital data transmission As shown in Fig 1 5 . a simple Pierce oscillator consists of a resonator nowadays mostly quartz crystal or. ceramic resonator a positive feedback transistor and an output buffer amplifier The. oscillator circuit locks oscillation by taking a voltage signal from the resonator . amplifying it and then feeding it back to the resonator So for the employed resonator the. low loss high Q and temperature stability low TCF are of special importance for this. application , To summarize high Q is a universally highly desirable property in the MEMS. resonators for RF front end applications to further enable low loss and stable filters and. low phase noise oscillators Besides that large keff2 low Rm ability of high frequency are. special important technical challenges for filters and low TCF impedance matching and. capability of high frequency are essential for oscillator applications . 7, input signal, output signal, displacement particle.
amplitude motion, Figure 1 6 Illustration of a one port and b two port SAW resonators . 1 3 MEMS Resonators, MEMS resonators can be sorted into piezoelectric and capacitive transduced ones . Generally the piezoelectric MEMS resonators tend to show a large coupling coefficient. and the capacitive resonators have a super high Q but a small coupling coefficient We. will introduce the piezoelectric resonators in detail here SAW BAW LWR and then a. brief introduction to the capacitive resonators ,1 3 1 Surface Acoustic Wave SAW Resonator. SAW resonators have been dominating the market for RF filters for several decades . A lot of research has been done in the 19th and 20th centuries after Rayleigh discovered.

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