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For an electronic version,of the complete Handbook . please scan the QR Code or go to , www unodc org pdf criminal justice Handbook on VEPs pdf. For an electronic version of the Handbook s,key principles and recommendations alone . please scan the QR Code or go to , www unodc org pdf criminal justice Summary of recommendations on VEPs pdf. Cover photo , Sven Klages Violence Prevention Network. UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, Vienna,Handbook on the Management of. Violent Extremist Prisoners and, the Prevention of Radicalization. to Violence in Prisons, CRIMINAL JUSTICE HANDBOOK SERIES. UNITED NATIONS, New York 2016, United Nations October 2016 All rights reserved worldwide . The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply. the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations. concerning the legal status of any country territory city or area or of its authorities or. concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries . This publication has not been formally edited , Publishing production English Publishing and Library Section United Nations Office at. Vienna , Acknowledgements, This Handbook was written for the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime UNODC . by Professor Dr Shane Bryans consultant on penal reform including approaches to address. violent extremism in prisons Contributing throughout the development of the Handbook. were Piera Barzan and Philipp Meissner UNODC who also conducted the review of the. final draft , The Handbook was reviewed and validated in the course of two Expert Group Meetings. held in Vienna from 16 to 18 December 2015 and from 1 to 3 June 2016 UNODC wishes. to acknowledge with appreciation the contributions received from the following national. experts who participated in those meetings Bachir Adda Algeria Mohamed Ajouaou The. Netherlands Abdullah Mohammed Al Mari Saudi Arabia Adel Juma Almaskari United. Arab Emirates Mohamed Jama Bashir Somalia Marc Francis Bauya The Philippines . Nathalie Boissou France Astrid Boleaert Belgium Jack Burger The Netherlands Imed. Dridi Tunisia Askat Egemberdiev Kyrgyz Republic Evgenii Gnedov Russian Federation . Anathurai Kalimuthu Malaysia Vehbi Kadri Kamer Turkey Dmitrii Kechkin Russian. Federation Mostafa Khiate Morocco Terry Kidwell United States Mustapha Lafrakhi. Morocco Koen R Lambrecht Belgium Rekha Grue Larsen Denmark ngel Vicente. Lopez Muriel Spain Andrea Moser Canada Raja Abi Nader Lebanon Elena Nanni. Italy Isaya Samuel Osugo Kenya Sergey Savelyev Kazakhstan Ruth Schr der Ger . many Hoe Kiat Rick See Singapore Ruslan Urazbayev Kazakhstan Jeffrey Woodworth. United States of America Aziza Yeshmagambetova Kazakhstan and Kasali Yusuf. Nigeria , UNODC wishes to equally acknowledge the valuable input provided by the following Expert. Group meeting participants from other United Nations entities international regional and. non governmental organizations and relevant research institutes Saka Azimazi Network of. African National Human Rights Institutions Lipi Chowdhury United Nations Department. for Peacekeeping Operations Christopher Dean Global Center on Cooperative Security . Elisabeth Edland European External Action Service Patrick Fox United Nations Inter . regional Crime and Justice Research Institute Brian Gowans International Commission of. Catholic Prison Pastoral Care Mark Hamm Indiana State University United States . Kirsten Hawlitschek European Organisation of Prison and Correctional Services Hadewych. Hazelzet European Union Taghreed Jaber Penal Reform International Eelco Kessels. Global Center on Cooperative Security Nicole El Khoury United Nations Counter . Terrorism Committee Christian Kuhn International Commission of Catholic Prison Pas . toral Care Elaine Pressman International Centre for Counter Terrorism Julia Reinelt. Violence Prevention Network Hamed El Said United Nations Counter Terrorism Centre . Andrew Silke University of East London United Kingdom Cecilia De Azevedo Sodre. United Nations Counter Terrorism Centre Ilina Taneva Council of Europe Issa Thioune. United Nations Department for Peacekeeping Operations Mali and Michael Wiener United. Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights . The following colleagues from UNODC equally contributed to the discussions during the. Expert Group meetings Chadia Afkir Bill Cullen Ousmane Diallo Philip Divett Leonardo. Hoy Carrasco Joanne Jousif Arianna Lepore Mauro Miedico and Batyr Saparbaev . Some of the material included in the Handbook is based on case studies and earlier work. produced by Saka Azimazi Atta Barkindo Peter Bennett Ahmad Bello Dogarawa Paul. English Sherbanu Sacoor Andrew Silke Tinka Veldhuis and Andrew Ezadueyan Zamani . iii, Valuable comments and feedback on earlier drafts of the Handbook were provided by Atta. Barkindo Rick McEachran and Yvonne Stys The Handbook was proofread by Loraine. Rossati , UNODC also wishes to express its gratitude for the support provided by the Government. of Germany toward the development of the Handbook including by funding the two Expert. Group Meetings and the Handbook s translation into Arabic French and Russian . iv, Contents,1 Introduction and context 1, 1 1 Who the Handbook is for and what it covers 1. 1 2 The overall context of violent extremism 3, 1 3 Prisons and violent extremist prisoners 5. 1 4 Existing guidance 7, 2 Managing violent extremist prisoners fundamental issues 9. 2 1 Introduction 9, 2 2 Upholding human rights 10. 2 3 Ensuring secure custody 17, 2 4 Importance of prison intelligence 19. 2 5 Safe and orderly institutions 22, 3 Managing prison staff and other people who work with violent extremist prisoners 27. 3 1 Introduction 27, 3 2 Qualities of prison staff 27. 3 3 Recruitment and selection of staff 28, 3 4 Training and development of staff 29. 3 5 Conditions of service 33, 3 6 Professional standards and ethics 33. 3 7 Contribution of specialist staff and other people 35. 4 Assessing and managing the risks posed by violent extremist prisoners 41. 4 1 Introduction 41, 4 2 Admission classification and categorization 42. 4 3 Allocation and accommodation 46, 4 4 Assessing different types of risk tools and approaches 54. 4 5 Understanding the reasons for prisoners violent extremist behaviour 57. 4 6 Need for regular reassessment of risk 61, 4 7 Violent extremist prisoners with specific needs 62. 5 Prison based disengagement interventions 69, 5 1 Introduction 69. 5 2 Defining intervention goals and outcomes 71, 5 3 Understanding the reasons for and the process of disengagement 71. v, 5 4 Impact and types of interventions 74, 5 5 Education 78. 5 6 Vocational training 81, 5 7 Faith based interventions 83. 5 8 Psychological and cognitive interventions 86, 5 9 Creative cultural and recreational activities 89. 5 10 Reporting monitoring and evaluating interventions 93. 6 Managing the implementation of disengagement interventions 97. 6 1 Introduction 97, 6 2 Integrated case management and the disengagement process 97. 6 3 Creating a supportive working environment for interventions 98. 6 4 Methods and approach to delivering interventions 99. 6 5 Roles responsibilities and teamwork when implementing interventions 100. 6 6 Intervention case conferences record keeping and confidentiality of information 101. 6 7 Codes of ethics standards of practice and supporting intervention team members 102. 6 8 Timetabling interventions and maximizing use of facilities 103. 6 9 Engaging and motivating prisoners to participate in interventions 103. 6 10 Promoting interventions to the outside community 105. 7 Preventing radicalization to violent extremism in prison 107. 7 1 Introduction 107, 7 2 Radicalization to violence cycle 109. 7 3 Enablers and precursors of radicalization to violence in prison 110. 7 4 Vulnerability and models of recruitment in prison 113. 7 5 Preventing and detecting radicalization to violence in prisons 114. 7 6 Disrupting radicalization to violence in prisons 118. 7 7 Supporting individuals vulnerable to recruitment by violent extremists 118. 8 Preparing violent extremist prisoners for reintegration into the community 119. 8 1 Introduction 119, 8 2 Progress through the system 120. 8 3 Prison based reintegration interventions 121, 8 4 Involving community organizations 123. 8 5 Establishing strong contact with families 124. 8 6 Preparing victims and the community 125, 8 7 Protective measures on release 126. 8 8 Post release interventions and support 127, 8 9 Monitoring and supervision after release 131. vi, 9 Summary of key principles and recommendations 135. Glossary of key terms 141, ANNEX Relevant international instruments standards and principles 145. vii, 1 Introduction and context, 1 1 Who the Handbook is for and what it covers. This Handbook is one of a series of tools developed by UNODC to support Member States. in the implementation of the rule of law and the development of criminal justice reform It. is designed to be used by prison managers and prison staff in particular but will also be. relevant for other actors involved in the criminal justice system such as policymakers legisla . tors and members of non governmental organizations It can be used in a variety of contexts . both as a reference document and as the basis for staff training While some elements of the. Handbook may not be achievable immediately in some jurisdictions particularly in post . conflict situations the Handbook provides national authorities with guidelines for the devel . opment of policies and protocols that meet international standards and good practice . This Handbook constitutes the first technical guidance tool to addresses the manifestation. of radicalization to violence and violent extremism in prison settings at the level of the United. Nations It provides practical guidance on , The management of violent extremist prisoners prisoners who have embraced violent. extremism , Preventing the progression to violent extremism in prisons prisoners who may be. vulnerable to radicalization to violence , Interventions aimed at disengaging violent extremist prisoners from violence and at. facilitating their social reintegration upon release . Within these parts the Handbook covers key prison management policies and mechanisms . such as the need for overall prison conditions to be in line with international minimum. standards effective assessment and classification systems physical procedural and dynamic. security professional prison staff training fair humane and non discriminatory treatment . preventing corruption various categories of disengagement interventions involving experts. from different disciplines and social reintegration and post release support . Overall the Handbook advocates an approach aimed at strengthening these key components. of prison management Not only is such an approach explicitly called for in the international. good practice documents it also provides value by creating sustainable benefits for the entire. prison system The following considerations summarize the key principles underlying all. recommendations made in the Handbook , 1, 2 HANDBOOK ON THE MANAGEMENT OF VIOLENT EXTREMIST PRISONERS. Adherence to fundamental rights international standards and good prison practice It is. crucial that any efforts in prison to address violent extremism must not lead to under . mining human rights to which all persons including violent extremist prisoners are. entitled Under international human rights law no exceptions or restrictions are per . missible to the prohibition of torture or other cruel inhuman or degrading treatment . Equally relevant is the protection of the right to hold an opinion and to have or adopt. a religion or belief of one s choice 1 although certain manifestations may be subject. to limitations if strictly necessary and provided by law e g for the protection of. public order or the respect of others rights At the same time Member States should. prohibit by law any propaganda for war and any advocacy of national racial or reli . gious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination hostility or violence . Relevance of overall prison conditions and prison management Guidance on the manage . ment of violent extremist prisoners and the prevention of radicalization to violence in. prisons must ensure that any proposed intervention is closely embedded in broader. prison reform efforts Stand alone disengagement interventions which are imple . mented in isolation of the broader prison context are unlikely to yield positive results . in particular if the latter fails to adhere to international standards and norms Vulner . ability to radicalization to violence is exacerbated in prisons that are overcrowded . understaffed fail to provide basic services to prisoners or are otherwise managed in. a disorderly manner , The most powerful weapon in the fight against radicalization in prisons is without a doubt a. humane detention policy that respects the fundamental rights of the detainees and focuses. indefatigably on rehabilitation and reintegration Therefore a custodial sentence or measure has. to be executed under psychosocial physical and material conditions that respect the dignity of. the human person has to render the preservation or growth of the self respect of the detainee. possible and has to appeal to their individual and social responsibility . Belgium Federal Public Service Justice 2014 Action Plan against Radicalization in Prisons pp 4 and 6 . The importance of definitions and differentiation This Handbook reiterates that prisoner. radicalization far from being a new phenomenon is a very old issue which is not in. itself a threat to the prison administration or society if not connected to violence Not all. radicalization is negative or a precursor to violent extremism Only a very small number. of radicals actually become violent extremists Definitions and differentiation are impor . tant therefore when dealing with the sensitive topic of violent extremism and radi . calization to violence in particular in order to differentiate between thought and action . See the glossary for a definition of key terms used for the purpose of this Handbook . 1, Arts 7 18 1 19 1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Art 2 2 of the Convention. against Torture and Other Cruel Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Human Rights Committee . General Comment no 20 para 3 General Comment no 22 CCPR C 21 Rev 1 Add 4 paras 2 3 and General. Comment no 34 CCPR C GC 34 para 9 , Chapter 1 Introduction and context 3. Specific challenges posed by violent extremist prisoners The above notwithstanding prison. managers should not forget that while both violent extremists and other criminals may. employ violence to attain specific goals most violent extremists are motivated by ideo . logical religious or political gain and believe that they are fighting for a cause This. can have a significant impact on the way violent extremist prisoners should be man . aged as this Handbook will set out , The focus of this Handbook is on adult male and female violent extremist prisoners The. specific issue of children alleged as accused of or recognized as having committed violent. extremist offences will be dealt with in a separate UNODC publication recognizing the dif . ferent legal regime applicable to children deprived of their liberty Collective disengagement. from violent extremism is also not covered in this Handbook as its focus is on the individual. prisoner and interventions aimed at individual disengagement from violence Groups may. also abandon their use of violent methods but the reasons for them doing so are not neces . sarily the same as when an individual disengages from violence 2. 1 2 The overall context of violent extremism, Violent extremism is an affront to the purposes and principles of the United Nations It undermines. peace and security human rights and sustainable development No country or region is immune. from its impacts Violent extremism is a diverse phenomenon without clear definition It is. neither new nor exclusive to any region nationality or system of belief Definitions of terrorism . and violent extremism are the prerogative of Member States and must be consistent with their. obligations under international law in particular international human rights law Violent. extremism undermines our collective efforts towards maintaining peace and security fostering. sustainable development protecting human rights promoting the rule of law and taking. humanitarian action , Plan of Action to Prevent Violent Extremism Report of the United Nations Secretary General A 70 674 2015 . paras 1 2 5 and 12 , While most of the media s attention has been on acts of systematic terror committed by groups. such as ISIS Boko Haram and Al Qaida in the name of Islam it is important to note that the growth. in extremist violence is not limited to one religion Even in the Middle East crimes have been. committed in defense of Judaism and Christian militias exist in many parts of the world In Asia . groups have committed violations in the name of Hinduism and Buddhism and in other parts of. the world political ideologies have led groups to take up arms . Countering Violent Extremism While Respecting The Rights And Autonomy Of Women And Their Communities in . Preventing Conflict Transforming Justice Securing The Peace A Global Study on the Implementation of United. Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 2015 p 222 . Many countries are currently facing a threat from violent extremism and hardly a week goes. by without an act of violent extremism taking place somewhere in the world The threat of. terrorism is rated high in many countries and most regions of the world have seen the. 2, For a discussion on group disengagement see Cronin A 2009 How Terrorism Ends Understanding the Decline. and Demise of Terrorist Campaigns Princeton Princeton University Press and Bjorgo T and Horgan J 2009 . Leaving Terrorism Behind Individual and collective disengagement London Routledge . 4 HANDBOOK ON THE MANAGEMENT OF VIOLENT EXTREMIST PRISONERS. consequences of different acts and types of violent extremism Attacks undertaken by violent. extremist cause more than loss of life and economic damage they can sow the seeds of. division between communities giving rise to increasingly reactionary and extremist views in. other parts of society This contributes to a breeding ground for violent extremism perpetu . ating a vicious cycle of radicalization to violence aggression and violent responses . The main motivations to resort to violent extremist acts can be grouped under three head . ings notwithstanding the fact that people can also be motivated to use violence by more. than one issue , Ideological violence, a Political ideologies such as nationalist neo Nazi groups white supremacy or hate. groups that advocate the use of violence b extreme interpretations of religious ide . ologies and beliefs that advocate the use of violence or c violent left wing anarchist . and right wing ideologies , Issue based violence, a Violent animal liberation and animal rights movements b environmental or eco . related violent extremism or c anti government anti globalizationization or anti . capitalist movements that advocate the use of violence . Ethno nationalist or separatist violence , Violent political or independence struggles based on race culture geography or. ethnicity , Violent extremism has evolved and taken on new forms and capabilities Extremist groups. now occupy large amounts of territory have seized and generate substantial resources for. example oil kidnappings and illicit trade and make sophisticated use of social media and. communication tools to propagate their messages disseminate their ideology and incite vio . lence The trends means and patterns of radicalization to violence equally continue to broad . en 3 Violent extremism now finds its inspiration in a larger variety of ideologies and its. activities are no longer the exclusive domain of centralized and hierarchical organizations . The threat has progressively evolved to include smaller groups cells and lone actors operat . ing in a more unconstrained and unpredictable way They plan attacks with limited or no. direction from an organization making prevention even more difficult Violent extremists are. capitalizing on advances in technology to find new ways of engaging with disaffected youth . taking advantage of social networking sites online video channels and radical chat rooms . They tend to spread their propaganda more widely more rapidly and more effectively and. usually with more alacrity than governments , Very little attention has been paid historically to the idea of working with violent extremists. to disengage them from violence except perhaps by the traditional means of physical force. or imprisonment More recently countries have realized that they cannot solve violent extrem . ism with force and imprisonment alone referred to as the hard approach 4 They have also. realized that relying on repressive means alone may actually cause more problems than it. 3, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament the Council the European Economic. and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions Preventing radicalisation to terrorism and violent extrem . ism strengthening the EU s response 2014 , 4, Cronin A 2009 How Terrorism Ends Understanding the decline and demise of terrorist campaigns Princeton. Press , Chapter 1 Introduction and context 5, solves Consideration is therefore increasingly being given to adopting a more systematic and. holistic way of understanding and managing the risk of individuals entering and re entering. violent extremist groups and of exploring methods aimed at getting individuals to disengage. from violent extremism voluntarily and then reintegrating them back into society referred. to as the soft approach 5, 1 3 Prisons and violent extremist prisoners. It is impossible to give a figure for the number of violent extremist prisoners that are currently. held around the world Some countries have only a few violent extremists within their prison. systems while other countries have many hundreds or thousands in detention Given the. number of violent extremist prisoners currently incarcerated there is no doubt that prisons. have a significant role when it comes to tackling violent extremism a role which has been. increasingly recognized by the United Nations and the international community at large . I therefore recommend that Member States f Reform national legal frameworks and penitentiary. systems to ensure the security of inmates personnel and facilities and establish procedures to. prevent and counter radicalization in prisons based on human rights and the rule of law . Plan of Action to Prevent Violent Extremism Report of the Secretary General A 70 67 2015 para 50 f . Law and order cannot be established and the safety and security of citizens and of the State. cannot be preserved without police and other law enforcement agencies operating in. conjunction with functioning justice and corrections systems Functional corrections systems are. also a prerequisite to efforts to tackle new global threats such as violent extremism and. transnational organized crime which are affecting an increasing number of conflict and post . conflict settings , Prison Support in United Nations Peace Operations 2015 United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations . Department of Field Support Ref 2015 11 , Obligation to Prevent Terrorism To ensure that States fulfil their obligation to prevent terrorism . States must provide the responsible authorities the necessary specialized training and technical. and material assistance States must also adopt as needed non punitive counter radicalization. and deradicalization policies and programs that include engaging and working with prison. rehabilitation programs to ensure effective implementation and sustainability of these related. measures , Principles and Guidelines on Human and Peoples Rights while Countering Terrorism in Africa 2015 Part 1 B . An effective system for incarcerating convicted terrorists is a critical part of an effective criminal. justice response to terrorism Such a system should prevent further radicalization of prisoners . prevent terrorist activities from being directed or supported from within the prison system and. provide for the deradicalization and reintegration of prisoners into society where possible and. thereby reduce recidivism , Global Counter Terrorism Forum 2012 Rabat Memorandum on Good Practices for Effective Counterterrorism. Practice in the Criminal Justice Sector Good Practice 11 . 5, Bjorgo T and Horgan J 2009 Leaving Terrorism Behind Individual and collective disengagement London .
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