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Handbook on Battery Energy Storage System
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HANDBOOK ON BATTERY, ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM, DECEMBER 2018. ASIANDEVELOPMENT, ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK, Creative Commons Attribution 3 0 IGO license CC BY 3 0 IGO. 2018 Asian Development Bank, 6 ADB Avenue Mandaluyong City 1550 Metro Manila Philippines. Tel 63 2 632 4444 Fax 63 2 636 2444, www adb org, Some rights reserved Published in 2018. ISBN 978 92 9261 470 6 print 978 92 9261 471 3 electronic. Publication Stock No TCS189791 2, DOI http dx doi org 10 22617 TCS189791 2.
The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies. of the Asian Development Bank ADB or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility for any. consequence of their use The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers does not imply that they. are endorsed or recommended by ADB in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. By making any designation of or reference to a particular territory or geographic area or by using the term country. in this document ADB does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area. This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3 0 IGO license CC BY 3 0 IGO. https creativecommons org licenses by 3 0 igo By using the content of this publication you agree to be bound. by the terms of this license For attribution translations adaptations and permissions please read the provisions. and terms of use at https www adb org terms use openaccess. This CC license does not apply to non ADB copyright materials in this publication If the material is attributed. to another source please contact the copyright owner or publisher of that source for permission to reproduce it. ADB cannot be held liable for any claims that arise as a result of your use of the material. Please contact pubsmarketing adb org if you have questions or comments with respect to content or if you wish. to obtain copyright permission for your intended use that does not fall within these terms or for permission to use. the ADB logo, In this publication refers to United States dollars. ADB recognizes Korea as the Republic of Korea, On the cover ADB Solar Mini Grid Pilot Project in Harkapur Okhaldhunga Nepal Photo by C Lao Torregosa. and ADB solar wind hybrid project site in Pira Kalwal and Wadgal Village Joharabad Khushab District Pakistan. Photo by Nasr ur Rahman, Corrigenda to ADB publications may be found at http www adb org publications corrigenda. Table and Figures vi, Foreword ix, Acknowledgments x. Abbreviations xi, Executive Summary xiii, 1 Energy Storage Technologies 1.
1 1 Storage Types 1, 1 2 Components of a Battery Energy Storage System BESS 7. 1 2 1 Energy Storage System Components 7, 1 2 2 Grid Connection for Utility Scale BESS Projects 9. 1 3 Battery Chemistry Types 9, 1 3 1 Lead Acid PbA Battery 9. 1 3 2 Nickel Cadmium Ni Cd Battery 10, 1 3 3 Nickel Metal Hydride Ni MH Battery 11. 1 3 4 Lithium Ion Li Ion Battery 11, 1 3 5 Sodium Sulfur Na S Battery 13.
1 3 6 Redox Flow Battery RFB 13, 2 Business Models for Energy Storage Services 15. 2 1 Ownership Models 15, 2 1 1 Third Party Ownership 15. 2 1 2 Outright Purchase and Full Ownership 16, 2 1 3 Electric Cooperative Approach to Energy Storage Procurement 16. 2 2 Factors Affecting the Viability of BESS Projects 17. 2 3 Financial and Economic Analysis 18, 2 3 1 Criteria for the Economic Analysis of BESS Projects 19. 2 3 2 Key Assumptions in the Cost Benefit Analysis of BESS Projects 19. 3 Grid Applications of Battery Energy Storage Systems 23. iv CONTENTS, 3 1 Scoping of BESS Use Cases 23, 3 2 General Grid Applications of BESS 24.
3 3 Technical Requirements 26, 3 3 1 Round Trip Efficiency 26. 3 3 2 Response Time 26, 3 3 3 Lifetime and Cycling 27. 3 3 4 Sizing 27, 3 4 Operation and Maintenance 28, 3 5 Use Cases 28. 3 5 1 Frequency Regulation 28, 3 5 2 Renewable Energy Integration 30. 3 5 3 Peak Shaving and Load Leveling 32, 3 6 Microgrids 34.
4 Challenges and Risks 35, 4 1 General Challenges 35. 4 1 1 Cost Reduction 35, 4 1 2 Deployment 36, 4 1 3 Incentive Program 36. 4 1 4 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 37. 4 2 General Risks 38, 4 2 1 Poorly Defined and Categorized Systems 38. 4 2 2 Unbundling of Operation and Network Development Activities 38. 4 2 3 Grid Tariff Applications and Licensing Issues 38. 4 2 4 Battery Safety 39, 4 3 Challenges of Reducing Carbon Emissions 40. 4 4 Battery Recycling and Reuse Risks 42, 4 4 1 Examples of Battery Reuse and Recycling 43.
4 4 2 Reuse of Electric Vehicle Batteries for Energy Storage 46. 4 4 3 Recycling Process 47, 5 Policy Recommendations 50. 5 1 Frequency Regulation 50, 5 2 Renewable Integration 50. Contents v, 5 2 1 Distribution Grids 50, 5 2 2 Transmission Grids 51. 5 3 Peak Shaving and Load Leveling 52, 5 4 Microgrids 52. Appendixes, A Sample Financial and Economic Analysis 53.
B Case Study of a Wind Power plus Energy Storage System Project in the. Republic of Korea 57, C Modeling and Simulation Tools for Analysis of Battery Energy Storage System Projects 60. D Battery Energy Storage System Implementation Examples 61. E Battery Chemistry 70, F Comparison of Technical Characteristics of Energy Storage System Applications 74. G Summary of Grid Storage Technology Comparison Metrics 75. TABLES AND FIGURES, 1 1 Discharge Time and Energy to Power Ratio of Different Battery Technologies 6. 1 2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Lead Acid Batteries 9. 1 3 Types of Lead Acid Batteries 10, 1 4 Uses of Lead Acid Batteries 10. 1 5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Nickel Cadmium Batteries 10. 1 6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries 11. 1 7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Lithium Ion Batteries 12. 1 8 Types of Lithium Ion Batteries 12, 1 9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Sodium Sulfur Batteries 13.
1 10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Redox Flow Batteries 14. 1 11 Types of Vanadium Redox Batteries 14, 2 1 Energy Storage Ownership Models 15. 2 2 Key Factors Affecting the Viability of Battery Energy Storage System Projects 17. 2 3 Comparison of Different Lithium Ion Battery Chemistries 21. 3 1 Energy Storage Use Case Applications by Stakeholder 23. 3 2 Technical Considerations for Grid Applications of Battery Energy Storage Systems 24. 3 3 Sizing Methods for Power and Energy Applications 27. 3 4 Operation and Maintenance of Battery Energy Storage Systems 28. 4 1 Energy Storage Services and Emission Reduction 41. A 1 Underlying Assumptions 53, A 2 Capital Expenditure 53. A 3 Operating Expenditure 54, A 4 Revenue 54, A 5 Financial Internal Rate of Return 54. A 6 Calculation of Financial internal Rate of Return 54. A 7 Calculation of Financial internal Rate of Return University of Minnesota Energy 55. Transition Lab Strategen Consulting and Vibrant Clean Energy 2017. B 1 Major Premises and Assumptions for Simple Levelized Cost of Electricity Estimations 57. of Wind Power, B 2 Comparison of Levelized Cost of Electricity for Wind Power Generation at Various Energy 58. Storage System Operating Rates, C 1 Available Modeling Tools 60.
D 1 Sokcho Substation Republic of Korea BESS Equipment Specifications 61. D 2 Other Examples of BESS Application in Renewable Energy Integration 65. Tables and Figures vii, 1 1 Classification of Storage Technologies by Energy Type 1. 1 2 Different Technologies for Different Purposes 2. 1 3 Comparison of Power Output in watts and Energy Consumption in watt hours for Various 3. Energy Storage Technologies, 1 4 Differentiating Characteristics of Different Battery Technologies 4. 1 5 Present and Future Battery Technologies 5, 1 6 Grid Storage Needs along the Value Chain 5. 1 7 Schematic of a Battery Energy Storage System 7. 1 8 Schematic of a Utility Scale Energy Storage System 8. 1 9 Grid Connections of Utility Scale Battery Energy Storage Systems 9. 2 1 Stackable Value Streams for Battery Energy Storage System Projects 17. 2 2 ADB Economic Analysis Framework 18, 2 3 Expected Drop in Lithium Ion Cell Prices over the Next Few Years kWh 19. 2 4 Breakdown of Battery Cost 2015 2020 20, 2 5 Benchmark Capital Costs for a 1 MW 1 MWh Utility Sale Energy Storage System Project 20.
Real 2017 kWh, 2 6 Benchmark Capital Costs for a 3 kW 7 kWh Residential Energy Storage System Project 21. Real 2017 kWh, 2 7 Lifetime Curve of Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries 22. 3 1 Battery Energy Storage System Deployment across the Electrical Power System 23. 3 2 Frequency Containment and Subsequent Restoration 29. 3 3 Suitability of Batteries for Short Bursts of Power 29. 3 4 Rise in Solar Energy Variance on Cloudy Days 30. 3 5 Solar Photovoltaic installation with a Storage System 31. 3 6 Illustration of Variability of Wind Power Generation 31. 3 7 Use of Energy Storage Systems for Peak Shaving 32. 3 8 Use of Energy Storage Systems for Load Leveling 33. 3 9 Microgrid on Jeju Island Republic of Korea 34, 4 1 Price Outlook for Various Energy Storage Systems and Technologies 35. 4 2 Magnified Photos of Fires in Cells Cell Strings Modules and Energy Storage Systems 40. 4 3 Second Life Process for Electric Vehicle Batteries 43. 4 4 GM ABB Second Life Electric Vehicle Battery Applications 44. 4 5 Second Life Energy Storage Application for BMW Electric Vehicle Batteries 44. 4 6 BMW Bosch Second Life Electric Vehicle Battery Demonstration Project 45. 4 7 Renault Powervault s Second Life Electric Vehicle Battery Application 45. 4 8 Nissan Sumitomo Electric Vehicle Battery Reuse Application 4R Energy 46. 4 9 Reuse of Electric Vehicle Batteries in Energy Storage Systems 46. 4 10 Second Life Electric Vehicle Battery Applications 47. 4 11 Lithium Ion Battery Recycling Process 48, 4 12 Chemical Recycling of Lithium Batteries and the Resulting Materials 48. 4 13 Physical Recycling of Lithium Batteries and the Resulting Materials 49. viii TABLES AND FIGURES, D 1 Sokcho Single Line Diagram 61.
D 2 Sokcho Site Plan 62, D 3 Bird s Eye View of Sokcho Battery Energy Storage System 62. D 4 Sokcho Battery Energy Storage System 63, D 5 BESS Application in Renewable Energy Integration 63. D 6 10 MW Yeongam Solar Photovoltaic Park Republic of Korea 64. D 7 Peak Shaving at Douzone Office Building Republic of Korea 66. D 8 Douzone Office Building System Diagram and CCTV Screen Capture 66. D 9 Graphical Illustration of Peak Shaving at Duozone Office Building 67. D 10 Black Start Capability 68, D 11 First Microgrid System on Gapa Island 68. D 12 Sendai Microgrid Project 69, D 13 System Configuration of Microgrid on Gapa Island 69. E 1 Lead Acid Battery Schematic and Physical Structure 70. E 2 Chemical and Physical Structures of Nickel Cadmium Battery 70. E 3 Chemical and Physical Structures of Nickel Metal Hydride Battery 71. E 4 Physical and Chemical Structures of Lithium Ion Battery 71. E 5 Chemical and Physical Structures of Sodium Sulfur Battery 72. E 6 Schematic of Redox Flow Battery 73, E 7 Physical Structure of Redox Flow Battery 73.
This Handbook on Battery Energy Storage Systems is part of a series of reference materials on advanced. technologies The objectives of this series are to support the Asian Development Bank ADB. operations in adopting and deploying advanced technologies in energy projects for its developing. member countries scale up the ADB Clean Energy Program and bring the energy sector closer to. achieving its targets in climate finance, This handbook outlines the various battery energy storage technologies their application and the. caveats to consider in their development It discusses the economic as well financial aspects of battery. energy storage system projects and provides examples from around the world The handbook also lays. down the policy requirements that will allow battery energy storage system development to thrive. Energy related carbon dioxide emissions increased by 1 7 in 2018 to a historic high of 33 1 gigatons of. carbon dioxide with the power sector accounting for almost two thirds of the growth in emissions. Additional capacity from renewables on the other hand declined in 2018 after 2 decades of sustained. growth These do not bode well and call for bigger and bolder efforts to fight climate change We. need to grab every opportunity to innovate and apply the most effective intervention at the quickest. possible time, As this handbook will show battery energy storage systems fulfill objectives that generate multiple. benefits integration of variable renewables improvement in energy efficiency reliability of electricity. supply and access to and security of energy Battery energy storage systems have a critical role in. transforming energy systems that will be clean efficient and sustainable May this handbook serve as a. helpful reference for ADB operations and its developing member countries as we collectively face the. daunting task at hand, Yongping Zhai, Chief of Energy Sector Group. Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department. Asian Development Bank, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, The Handbook on Battery Energy Storage System is an output of a comprehensive study carried out. by the Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department of the Asian Development Bank. ADB under Promoting Sustainable Energy for All in Asia and the Pacific Renewable Energy. FOREWORD This Handbook on Battery Energy Storage Systems This handbook outlines the various battery energy storage technologies their application and the Asian Development Bank Handbook on Battery Energy Storage System HANDBOOK ON BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM energy storage X

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