Handbook Of Operational Amplifier Applications Rev B-Books Pdf

Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications Rev B
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Some other application circuits were eliminated if they were deemed impractical in the. light of today s technology, This handbook has also been reorganized to eliminate some redundancy and place all. application circuits in one location, The reader is cautioned that proper decoupling techniques should be followed with. operational amplifiers Decoupling components are omitted from applications schematics. in this document for clarity Consult reference 2 for proper decoupling techniques. I also cleaned up grammatical and spelling mistakes in the original. Bruce Carter Texas Instruments Applications, Excerpts from Thomas Brown s original Preface. The purpose of this handbook is to provide a single source of information covering the proper. design of circuits employing the versatile modem operational amplifier This manual will be. helpful to the experienced user of operational amplifiers as well as the new user in extending. the range of potential applications in which these devices can be used to advantage. It is assumed that the reader will have a basic knowledge of electronics but no particular. knowledge of operational amplifiers is needed to use this handbook The operational amplifier is. treated as a circuit component inherently subject to certain rules of operation The design of the. operational amplifiers themselves is considered only when necessary to describe their less. evident properties, Readers with a working knowledge of operational amplifiers will want to refer directly to the. circuit collection Readers whose job functions have not previously brought them in contact with. operational amplifiers will want to proceed directly through the handbook until the desired degree. of familiarity is obtained, Refinements are continuously being made in the design and application of operational.
amplifiers yet the basic principles of application remain the same Please do not hesitate to. contact Texas Instruments at any time with questions or comments arising from the use of this. handbook It is after all intended for you the user. Thomas R Brown Jr, 2 HANDBOOK OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS. Search for TI op amps and technical resources, INTRODUCTION 7. Computation Control Instrumentation 7, The Feedback Technique 7. Notation and Terminology 8, Input Terminals 9, Output Terminals 9. Power Connections 10, Summary of Notation 10, Electrical Circuit Models 10.
Circuit Notation 11, The Ideal Operational Amplifier 12. Defining the Ideal Operational Amplifier 12, A Summing Point Restraint 13. CIRCUITS AND ANALYSES USING THE IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER 14. The Desirability of Feedback 14, Two Important Feedback Circuits 15. Voltage Follower 15, Non Inverting Amplifier 17, INVERTING AMPLIFIER 18. Intuitive Analysis Techniques 19, Current Output 20.
Reactive Elements 20, Integrator 21, Differentiator 21. Voltage Adder 23, Scaling Summer 23, Combining Circuit Functions 24. Differential Input Amplifier 24, Balanced Amplifier 25. Ideal Real Comparison 27, CHARACTERISTICS OF PRACTICAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 29. Open Loop Characteristics 29, Open Loop Operation 30.
Output Limiting 30, FREQUENCY DEPENDENT PROPERTIES 31. Introduction 31, Open Loop Gain and the Bode Plot 31. Bode Plot Construction 31, Closed Loop Gain 32, Stability 33. Compensation 33, Compensation Changes 34, Bandwidth 35. Loop Gain 35, The Significance of Loop Gain 36, BODE PLOTS AND BASIC PRACTICAL CIRCUITRY 37.
Voltage Follower 37, HANDBOOK OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS 3. Search for TI op amps and technical resources, Inverter 37. X1000 Amplifier 38, Differentiator 38, INTEGRATOR 40. OTHER IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 41. Summing Point Restraints 41, Closed Loop Impedance Levels 42. Output Impedance 42, Input Impedance 43, Differential Inputs and Common Mode Rejection 44.
The Common Mode Voltage Limit 44, Capacitive Loading 45. VOLTAGE DETECTORS AND COMPARATORS 46, Voltage Limiting Operational Amplifiers 46. THE VOLTAGE FOLLOWER 49, BUFFERS AND ISOLATION AMPLIFIERS 50. Inverting Buffer Adjustable Gain 50, Balanced Output 50. VOLTAGE AND CURRENT REFERENCES 50, Isolated Standard Cell 51.
Constant Current Generator 51, Buffer Variation 52. Presettable Voltage Source 52, Reference Voltage Supply 52. THE NON INVERTING AMPLIFIER 53, THE INVERTING AMPLIFIER 54. INTEGRATORS 55, PRACTICAL INTEGRATORS 55, Simple Integrators 56. Summing Integrator 58, Double Integrator 58, Differential Integrator 59.
AC Integrator 59, Augmenting Integrator 59, DIFFERENTIATORS 61. With Stop 61, Low Noise 62, Augmented Differentiator 62. THE VOLTAGE SUMMER 63, SUMMING AND AVERAGING AMPLIFIERS 64. Scaling Adder 64, Direct Addition 65, Averager 65, Weighted Average 66. THE DIFFERENTIAL INPUT AMPLIFIER 67, Adder Subtractor or Floating Input Combiner 68.
4 HANDBOOK OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS, Search for TI op amps and technical resources. THE DIFFERENTIAL BALANCED OUTPUT AMPLIFIER 69, DC AMPLIFIERS 70. Simple Inverting sign changing amplifier 70, Chopper Stabilized 70. Simple Gain Control 70, Linear Gain Control 71, Simple Non Inverting 71. Power Booster 71, Differential Output 73, Gain Control 73.
Inverting Gain Control 73, DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS 74. Subtractor 74, Difference Amplifier 74, Common Mode Rejection 75. Differential Input Output 75, AC AMPLIFIERS 76, DC Amplifiers with Blocking Capacitors 76. Simple Amplifier 76, Single Supply 76, Non Inverting 77. Double Rolloff 77, AC Preamplifier 78, CURRENT OUTPUT DEVICES 79.
Feedback Loop 79, Simple Meter Amplifier 79, Meter Amplifier 80. Current Injector 80, Linear Current Source 81, Deflection Coil Driver 82. OSCILLATORS AND MULTI VIBRATORS 83, Simple Oscillator 83. Wien Bridge Oscillator 83, PHASE LEAD AND LAG NETWORKS 84. Lag Element 84, Adjustable Lag 84, Lag value linear with R setting 85.
Adjustable Lead 85, Lead Lag 86, Time Delay 86, ADDITIONAL CIRCUITS 87. Absolute Value 87, Peak Follower 87, Precision Rectifier 88. AC to DC Converter 88, Full Wave Rectifier 89, Rate Limiter 89. Time Delay 90, Selective Amplifier 91, SECTION III SELECTING THE PROPER OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER 92. HANDBOOK OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS 5, Search for TI op amps and technical resources.
Focus on Limiting Specifications 92, Avoid Closed Loop vs Open Loop Confusion 92. Selection Check List 92, Assistance Available from Texas Instruments 93. References 93, Figure 1 Operational Amplifier with Feedback 8. Figure 2 Texas Instruments Standard Symbols 8, Figure 3 Op Amp Package Options 9. Figure 4 Power Supply Connections 10, Figure 5 Summary of Notation Introduced 10.
Figure 6 Circuit Model of the Single Ended Operational Amplifier 10. Figure 7 Circuit Model of the Differential Output Operational Amplifier 11. Figure 8 Notation and Terms Used in Closed Loop Circuits 11. Figure 9 Equivalent Circuit of the Ideal Operational Amplifier 12. Figure 10 Open Loop Operation 14, Figure 11 Basic Amplifier Circuits 15. Figure 12 Voltage Follower 15, Figure 13 Feedback Resistor Added to the Voltage Follower 16. Figure 14 Non Inverting Amplifier 17, Figure 15 Non Inverting Amplifier Re Drawn to Show Similarity to the Voltage Follower 17. Figure 16 Non Inverting Amplifier Analyzed as a Voltage Divider 17. Figure 17 Inverting Amplifier 18, Figure 18 Intuitive Devices for Analysis of Circuits Based on the Inverting Amplifier 19. Figure 19 Inverting Amplifier as a Linear Current Output Device 20. Figure 20 General Form of the Inverting Amplifier 20. Figure 21 Integrator Circuit 21, Figure 22 Differentiator Circuit 21.
Figure 23 An Intuitive Picture of the Differentiator 22. Figure 24 Voltage Adding Circuit 23, Figure 25 Scaling Summer Circuit 24. Figure 26 Differential Input Amplifier Circuit 24, Figure 27 Analyzing the Differential Input Amplifier Circuit as Non Inverting Amplifier 25. Figure 28 The Differential Output Operational Amplifier 26. Figure 29 Equivalent Circuit of a Real Operational Amplifier 27. Figure 30 Amplifier Circuit Using a Real Operational Amplifier 27. Figure 31 Input Output Transfer Relation for the Open Loop Operational Amplifier 29. Figure 32 Bode Plot of an Operational Amplifier and its Linear Approximation 31. Figure 33 Sketching the Bode Plot Approximation for Figure 32 32. Figure 34 Closed Loop Gain of a X100 40 dB Inverting Amplifier 32. Figure 35 The Effect of Internal Phase Compensation 33. Figure 36 Composite Bode Plots Showing Stability Provided by Proper Phase Compensation34. Figure 37 The Effect of Internal Compensation for Gains Greater Than 1 34. Figure 38 Instability when an Uncompensated Amplifier is Used at Gains Lower Than the. Designated Level 35, Figure 39 Loss of High Frequency Response When Heavy Feedback is Used 36. Figure 40 Voltage Follower Circuit 37, Figure 41 Voltage Inverter Circuit 37. 6 HANDBOOK OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS, Search for TI op amps and technical resources.
Figure 42 60 dB Amplifier Circuits 38, Figure 43 Differentiator Circuit 38. Figure 44 Differentiator With Stop 39, Figure 45 Differentiator With Double Stop 39. Figure 46 Integrator Circuit 40, Figure 47 DC Summing Point Conditions 41. Figure 48 Voltage Follower 42, Figure 49 Voltage Follower 43. Figure 50 Inverting Amplifier with Current Offset Control 44. Figure 51 Drift Stabilizing the Inverting Amplifier 45. Figure 52 Gain Peaking Caused by Capacitive Loading 45. Figure 53 Voltage Limiting Operational Amplifiers 46. Figure 54 Fully Clamped Voltage Comparator 47, Table 1 Compound Amplifier Resulting Performance 72.
Table 2 Current Source Scaling Resistors 81, INTRODUCTION. The operational amplifier is an extremely efficient and versatile device Its applications span the. broad electronic industry filling requirements for signal conditioning special transfer functions. analog instrumentation analog computation and special systems design The analog assets of. simplicity and precision characterize circuits utilizing operational amplifiers. Computation Control Instrumentation, Originally the term Operational Amplifier was used in the computing field to describe. amplifiers that performed various mathematical operations It was found that the application of. negative feedback around a high gain DC amplifier would produce a circuit with a precise gain. characteristic that depended only on the feedback used By the proper selection of feedback. components operational amplifier circuits could be used to add subtract average integrate. and differentiate, As practical operational amplifier techniques became more widely known it was apparent that. these feedback techniques could be useful in many control and instrumentation applications. Today the general use of operational amplifiers has been extended to include such applications. as DC Amplifiers AC Amplifiers Comparators Servo Valve Drivers Deflection Yoke Drivers. Low Distortion Oscillators AC to DC Converters Multivibrators and a host of others. What the operational amplifier can do is limited only by the imagination and ingenuity of the user. With a good working knowledge of their characteristics the user will be able to exploit more fully. the useful properties of operational amplifiers, The Feedback Technique. The precision and flexibility of the operational amplifier is a direct result of the use of negative. feedback Generally speaking amplifiers employing feedback will have superior operating. characteristics at a sacrifice of gain, HANDBOOK OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS 7.
Search for TI op amps and technical resources, E output RO. E input RI, Figure 1 Operational Amplifier with Feedback. With enough feedback the closed loop amplifier characteristics become a function of the. feedback elements In the typical feedback circuit figure 1 the feedback elements are two. resistors The precision of the closed loop gain is set by the ratio of the two resistors and is. practically independent of the open loop amplifier Thus amplification to almost any degree of. precision can be achieved with ease, Notation and Terminology. Texas Instruments employs the industry standard operational amplifier symbols shown in figure. 2 Power pins are often omitted from the schematic symbol when the power supply voltages are. explicit elsewhere in the schematic Some op amp symbols also include offset nulling pins. enable disable pins output voltage threshold inputs and other specialized functions. Figure 2 Texas Instruments Standard Symbols, Symbol a is a buffer op amp. Symbol b is a differential input single ended output op amp This symbol represents the. most common types of op amps including voltage feedback and current feedback It is. often times pictured with the non inverting input at the top and the inverting input at the. Symbol c is a differential input differential output op amp The outputs can be thought of. as inverting and non inverting and are shown across from the opposite polarity input for. easy completion of feedback loops on schematics, 8 HANDBOOK OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS.
Search for TI op amps and technical resources, Figure 3 Op Amp Package Options. Figure 3 represents a small number of the many op amp package options offered by Texas. HANDBOOK OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS Bruce Carter and Thomas R Brown ABSTRACT While in the process of reviewing Texas Instruments applications notes including those from Burr Brown I uncovered a couple of treasures this handbook on op amp applications and one on active RC networks These old publications from 1963 and 1966 respectively are some of the finest works on op amp

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