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This project is funded by,the European Union,HANDBOOK A CONFLICT. SENSITIVE APPROACH TO,REPORTING ON CONFLICT AND,VIOLENT EXTREMISM. Disclaimer This handbook has been produced within the framework of the Contributing. to stability and peace in Central Asia through media literacy improved reporting and regional. cooperation Project implemented by Internews and funded by the European Union The contents. of this handbook are the sole responsibility of authors and can not be regarded as reflecting the. position of the European Union and Internews under any circumstances. FOREWORD 4,ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 5,ABOUT THE AUTHOR 5, OVERALL INTRODUCTION THE THINKING BEHIND THIS HANDBOOK 6. PART ONE CONFLICT SENSITIVE REPORTING 7,CASE STUDY GETTING IT WRONG 26. CASE STUDY FOOTBALL FOR PEACE 35, CASE STUDY A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH TO COVERING BORDER CONFLICTS 38.
KYRGYZSTAN KAZAKHSTAN UZBEKISTAN TAJIKISTAN AND TURKMENISTAN 129. BY AZAMAT TALANTBEK UULU PART SEVEN LEGAL ASPECTS WHEN COVERING TERRORISM. EXTREMISM AND RADICALISM IN KYRGYZSTAN KAZAKHSTAN UZBEKISTAN TAJIKISTAN. AND TURKMENISTAN BY AZAMAT TALANTBEK UULU 129,BIBLIOGRAPHY 141. While there may be some debate about the precise numbers it is widely recognised that. a disturbing number of people from Central Asia have been recruited in to the ranks of violent. extremist groups operating in Syria and Iraq over the past 10 years It s also evident that while these. groups have suffered significant setbacks in recent years their membership has not evaporated and. that there is a strong likelihood that Central Asian countries will have to deal with the fallout from. these conflicts There have also been repeated reports of people with connections to Central Asia. having played pivotal roles in terror attacks in other countries outside of the Middle East Over this. time it has also become clear that the groups involved in these conflicts and attacks have become. sophisticated users of new technology They have been effective in leveraging social media and. online discussion groups to promote their interests and to recruit new members from across large. geographic areas It is against this background that Internews with the support of the European. Union launched an ambitious region wide Contributing to Stability and Peace in Central Asia project. with the principle aims of equipping media organisations to contribute towards the prevention of. violent extremist growth in Central Asia This multipronged approach has involved the provision of. training to journalists bloggers and other media professionals to equip them to report constructively. on questions of radicalisation extremism and terror It has also involved the facilitation of courses for. communications specialists from government departments security agencies and religious bodies. These have aimed to prepare specialists to communicate with the media and the public about. extremist and terrorist activities and to play a role in helping to prevent the spread of extremism All. of these courses were facilitated by Internews media partners in the five Central Asian countries1. Internews contributed towards these courses by workshopping the curricula with trainers drawn. from these partner organisations and provided ongoing support as these trainers facilitated their. workshops A third prong of this project has involved raising the level of media literacy in the Central. Asian countries to equip consumers to engage more critically with content relating to extremism and. This Conflict Sensitive Approach to Reporting on Conflict and Violent Extremism Handbook has. been developed as part of this programme It is intended to serve the following functions. It is resource media trainers can draw on as they present courses to journalists dealing with. these subjects, It provides supplementary information for journalists who have attended these courses and. should reinforce lessons that have been learned, It introduces journalists who have not been able to attend these courses to many of the core. principles that have been covered, It should help communication specialists to identify ways in which they can assist journalists. wanting to make a constructive contribution through their reporting. While the main thrust of this Internews project has been on the prevention of radicalisation. extremism and terrorism this handbook also focuses extensively on general principles of conflict. sensitive reporting This more general focus on conflict is important because it is understood that. societies grappling with social conflicts can often serve as greenhouses for the spread of radicalisation. and extremism As such by assisting journalists to play a role in ameliorating the harmful effects. of conflict it is hoped that Internews can also empower them to contribute to the prevention of. radicalisation and extremism leading to terror,Farhod Rahmatov.
Project Director, Contributing to Stability and Peace in Central Asia Project Internews. 1 See acknowledgements for the names of these partner organisations and the trainers. Acknowledgements, This handbook owes its existence to the thousands of journalists who have committed their. careers and their lives to building a world in which people from diverse backgrounds can find peaceful. solutions to conflicts It recognises the contributions these reporters editors producers presenters. and bloggers have made and aims to make a small contribution to enhancing their ability to make. a difference If it can provide some of these courageous women and men with knowledge and tools. they can use as they grapple with this complex subject that it will have served its purpose. The value of having a handbook that brings together principles of conflict sensitive reporting. and constructive reporting on radicalisation extremism and terrorism for Central Asian journalists. was the brain child of the team at Internews Central Asia This team of dedicated media development. professionals have made vital contributions towards its coming into being both during the initial. stages of conceptualisation and production phase of the handbook Special thanks go to Internews. Project Director for Central Asia Farhod Rahmatov Regional Journalism Advisor Irina Chistyakova. Aigul Bolotova Regional Engagement Manager and Internews Conflict Prevention Advisor Ikbalzhan. Mirsaiitov for their critical contributions to their handbook Thanks also to Internews Programme. Managers Internews Regional Programme Manager Tmur Oganov Nazym Toganbayeva Kazakhstan. Aida Umanova Kyrgyzstan Sheroz Sharipov Tajikistan and Jahongir Nahanov Uzbekistan and. Regional Programme Assistant Yrysbek Choibalsan Uulu. A number of experts have contributed directly to this handbook and I owe a special vote of thanks. to Jem Thomas Albany Associates Ltd Director of Training and Research for his chapter dealing with. online extremism Azamat Talantbek uulu for preparing a chapter on Legal Aspects when Covering. Terrorism Extremism and Radicalism Ikbalzhan Mirsaiitov for his contribution on media law in. Central Asia and to the five regional specialists for their. inputs on the media and extremism in their countries Thanks also to different experts who gave. of their time to share their views on violent extremism and the media. Rasim Chelidze Doctor of theology expert in Kazakhstan. Rustam Azizi Deputy Director of the Institute of Islamic Studies under the President of. the Republic of Tajikistan, Viktor Mikhailov Independent expert on security in Uzbekistan. Yulia Denisenko Independent Expert on Religion, Mametbek Myrzabayev Director of the Islamic Studies Research Institute. Finally I d like to acknowledge the contributions of the different trainers from. Internews partner organisations in the region who all provided valuable ideas for. inclusion in this text during our ten day workshop in Bishkek. About the author, Peter du Toit is a Research Associate of the Sol Plaatje Institute for Media Leadership which forms.
part of the School of Journalism and Media Studies at Rhodes University Peter has been a journalist. and a media trainer for more than 30 years and has focused on Conflict Sensitive Reporting Training. across Africa South East Asia and in states that were formerly part of the Soviet Union His academic. qualifications include an M Ed in Higher Education Rhodes University and a M Phil Conflict. Management and Transformation Nelson Mandela University. Overall introduction,The thinking behind this handbook. Journalists across the world face deep dilemmas when it comes to reporting on conflicts that. are occurring in and sometimes devastating the communities they live and work in Sometimes these. conflicts play out in clashes between communities at other times they take the form of violent. attacks often perpetrated against innocents carried out by extremist and terrorist organisations In. all of these instances journalists must respond to the challenges of being part of a community. caught up in conflict while at the same time being part of a profession that expects fair and even. handed coverage of these conflicts When the people places issues principles and beliefs journalists. care about are threatened by conflict they are often called upon to make difficult and sometimes. seemingly impossible choices Where do the journalists loyalties lie Do their allegiances belong. to their profession or to their communities Whose interests should the journalists be trying to. serve These choices become even harder when media houses are owned or managed by people. determined to promote the interests of a particular group This handbook aims to respond to some. of these questions and to provide tools journalists can use that will help them report constructively. on conflict, The handbook begins with a more general focus on conflict and on the different contributions. journalists can make if they adopt a conflict sensitive approach to reporting Key ideas relating to. conflict senstive reporting are spelt out in some detail in Part One and this provides a conceptual. basis for the rest of the text The remainder of the handbook focuses more specifically on how a. conflict sensitive approach to reporting can enable journalists to make a constructive contribution. when reporting on situations involving violent extremists and terrorists Readers who are are primarily. interested in these issues can skip Part One and begin their reading at the start of Part Two That. said many of the ideas discussed in Part One such as tips for undersanding conflict or interviewing. people in conflict situations would also inform the coverage of extremism and terrorism. One of the corner stones of conflict sensitive reporting is the assumption that the more. journalists know about conflict the better equipped they will be to report constructively on disputes. confrontations insurgencies and wars The handbook assummes the same thing when it comes to. reporting on extremism and terrorism and consequently provides a detailed discussion of some. relevant aspects relating to these manifestation of conflict in Part Two Part Three looks specifically. at things journalsits can do when reporiting extremist activities in a community and how by applying. principles of fair independent and transparent reporting they can help to limit the harmful effects of. these activities Part Four deals specifically with contributions journalists can make when reporting. on actual terrorist attacks while Part Five written by Jem Thomas focuses specifically on violent. extremism in the digital world Part Six Looking After Yourself pays attention to question relating to. journalists physical safety and psychological well being. It s notable that in the parts that deal specifically with radicalisation leading to extremism. and terrorism the handbook recognises that there is currently a tendency to focus on extremism. within a religious context There are however many other forms of extremism in the world and as a. consequence the handbook has adopted a more inclusive approach to these issues The handbook. also offers some specific insights into radicalisation leading to extremism and terrorism in Central. Asian countries These can be found in the Country Reports by Regional Experts section in which. these experts describe the way terms are defined in their countries and the local laws journalsits. need to be aware of when covering extremist and terrorist activities The experts also provide some. suggestions about professional questions they believe journalists should consider when reporting. on these matters,Part One Conflict Sensitive Reporting2. 1 1 Core assumptions underpinning Part One of this this handbook. Five interrelated assumptions underpin the thinking behind this approach to conflict sensitive. reporting These are, Assumption One is based on lessons from the field of peace and conflict studies and assumes. that conflicts cannot be sustainably managed or resolved unless the needs and interests of all parties. involved are satisfied to an acceptable level, Assumption Two suggests that journalists can make a positive contribution towards the peaceful.
management and resolution of conflict in their communities by helping to create conditions that. allow for the needs and interests of various parties to be met. Assumption Three is that the more journalists understand about conflict the better equipped they. will be to report on events and processes in ways that enhance the likelihood of parties achieving. peaceful solutions, Assumption Four is that while journalists can make a positive contribution to creating conditions. that facilitate the peaceful management and resolution of conflict they should not promote the. agenda or interests of a particular group or advocate a particular solution. Assumption Five is that journalists need to be constantly reflecting on the impact of their work. and on the degree to which they are meeting the needs of their audiences. Taken together Assumptions One and Two are significant because they suggest journalists can. only serve the interests of their own communities if they also serve the interests of other stakeholders. involved in the conflict The journalist s ability to make a difference is thus contingent on his or her. commitment to providing fair accurate responsible and comprehensive1 coverage and on his or her. willingness to explore the hopes fears needs and concerns of all parties caught up in a conflict. If journalists wish to meaningfully contribute to managing and resolving conflict they also need to. be aware of the contributions they can make to easing tensions and to enhance their understandings. of the causes of conflict the dynamics of conflict escalation and how conflicts can be addressed Not. only must journalists be aware of the contributions they can make in promoting peace they should. also become conscious of how their reporting can impact negatively on conflict Inaccurate reports. biased coverage intentional or not sensationalism and in some instances outright propaganda can. exacerbate conflict and result in loss of life and destruction of property. Conflict sensitive reporting means adopting a conflict sensitive approach to the gathering and. presentation of news It also means finding ways to tell conflict sensitive stories in an engaging and. compelling manner If these stories cannot capture the attention of listeners viewers and readers. 2 Part One of this handbook draws heavily on an earlier handbook written by Peter du Toit with editorial assistance from senior Southern. African journalists Chris Chinaka Barbara Among Nikodemus Kioko Kivandi James Mpande and Setsabile Sibisi The original can be. found in English at https www internews org sites default files resources ConflictSensitiveReporting Peter du Toit 2012 03 pdf. then the impact of this journalism on a conflict will be limited This is especially the case today as. media channels proliferate and people become more reliant on social media. also become conscious of how their reporting can impact negatively on conflict Inaccurate reports. biased coverage intentional or not sensationalism and in some instances outright propaganda can. exacerbate conflict and result in loss of life and destruction of property. Conflict sensitive reporting means adopting a conflict sensitive approach to the gathering and. presentation of news It also means finding ways to tell conflict sensitive stories in an engaging and. compelling manner If these stories cannot capture the attention of listeners viewers and readers. then the impact of this journalism on a conflict will be limited This is especially the case today as. media channels proliferate and people become more reliant on social media. 1 2 Understanding conflict, Most news stories involve an element of conflict Why Because conflict is ubiquitous It permeates. every aspect of social existence Conflict is also always about change It s about people trying to meet. unfulfilled needs enhance their influence defend their identities gain increased access to resources. and reduce inequalities and injustice It can also be about people resisting change and fighting to. maintain privilege Conflict is an important driver of change and change is at the heart of almost. all reporting It s what makes news news Journalism is about the impact change has on individuals. communities groups and nations political structures economies and the natural environment And. people rely on journalists to help them orientate themselves to the world around them and respond. to shifting social and political environments People also rely on the information they get from. journalists in deciding how to react to conflict how they should feel about others in the conflict and. how they should behave towards them, Conflict is almost always more complex than it seems and journalists can make good use of. thinking tools from the field of peace and conflict studies to enhance their understanding of what is. happening and why The next few pages will introduce a range of useful concepts theories and tools. that can assist us in 1 enhancing our understanding of conflict 2 equipping us to tell stories about. conflicts that explain their complexity and 3 consider the impact of our own reporting on conflict. What is important about these concepts is that they can be applied in a variety of different contexts. Lessons that we learn from small intergroup conflicts can also prove useful when we are looking at. conflict on a national or even an international level. 1 2 1 What is conflict, Scholars have provided us with many definitions of conflict that contain many similar elements. This handbook draws on the definition provided by South African conflict specialist Mark Anstey who. writes that, Conflict exists in a relationship when parties believe their aspirations cannot be achieved.
at the same time or perceive a divergence in their values needs or interests latent conflict and. purposefully mobilise the power that is available to them in an effort to eliminate neutralise or. change each other to protect or further their interests in the interaction manifest conflict 3. From this definition a number of things become clear. Conflict takes place within relationships and the nature of these relationships will have. 3 Anstey M 2008 Managing Change Negotiating Conflict Cape Town Juta. an important influence on the way the conflict plays out Where parties have longstanding. histories of antagonism and hostility the prospects of finding mutually satisfactory outcomes. without confrontation is diminished Where there s a history of parties having dealt with. contentious issues in a constructive manner the likelihood of a peaceful outcome is enhanced. Parties beliefs and perceptions play a tremendously important role in shaping how a conflict. plays out The fact that a party believes something is true can be as important as the reality. of whether that belief is justifiable or not, Conflict will always involve parties needs values and interests. Conflict can exist in a latent state for a long time until one of the parties begins taking. steps that will alter the status quo It s possible for parties to be unaware of the potential for. conflict until something happens that alerts people to a problem. Conflict becomes manifest when parties begin to deliberately mobilise the power that. they have at their disposal This power can take many forms and include the use of military. hardware by governments and rebels strike action and lock outs by unions and corporations. hunger strikes by prisoners and demonstrations by marginalised citizens. While conflict all too often leads to violence violent confrontations are not a given Conflicts are. frequently managed and resolved without confrontation Often this is because there are established. mechanisms for addressing conflicts which might include the courts commonly agreed on rules and. procedures or longstanding customs Sometimes as a conflict progresses parties can become aware. of the validity of each other s claims and find ways to accommodate these peacefully. 1 2 2 Violence and conflict, Many people equate the concepts of violence and conflict but this is not the case Violence is a. manifestation of conflict and can serve a range of different functions simultaneously For instance. when demonstrators from a poorly serviced informal settlement hurl stones at police cars they can. be doing several things at once These could include. venting their anger over things that are frustrating them. communicating dissatisfaction to authorities, attracting media attention to place pressure on authorities. demonstrating that they are not powerless and or, threatening authorities with the prospect of heightened violence. Violence involves one party taking deliberate action to hurt another and does not always have. to involve the use of physical force Violence can also take the form of withholding material goods. Stopping food from reaching refugees causes great suffering Action aimed at undermining people s. sense of self and identity such as violating human rights or withholding political rights can also be. seen as violent Verbal abuse should also be seen as a violent act. 1 2 3 Identifying the causes of conflict, If journalists want to play a role in helping parties to find solutions to conflicts then they need.
to be able to understand how conflicts start and to be able to explain these origins to audiences The. following are some of the factors that can causes conflict Conflicts can be multi causal several. of the below conditions can be present at once which increases the difficulty of finding lasting. Scarce Resources, If a community or nation does not have the resources to ensure a reasonable standard of living. for everyone then conflict is likely 4as groups and individuals compete for scarce resources These. can include material resources such as land and access to water and health services or other benefits. such as jobs and opportunities for personal advancement Often these confrontations occur. because parties want to make different use of the resources It s not surprising that a large. percentage of the world s serious conflicts happen in areas characterised by high levels of poverty. Conflicts over resources can also be severely aggravated in situations where there are noticeable. inequalities in the distribution of resources The theory of relative deprivation argues that. when groups feel they are not getting a fair share of a resource or a social good in relation to. others then conflict is likely Resource based conflicts can also occur in situations where dramatic. shifts in societies and economies see people having to do without things they once took for granted. Human Needs5, Many conflict theorists argue that everyone has a range of basic human needs which need to. be satisfied These include physical needs such as food clothing and shelter and physical security. They also include identity needs which include the freedom to associate with people who share their. ideological political and religious beliefs and the freedom to express themselves openly without. being threatened Individual identity is often linked to groups and individuals tend to see the group s. structures beliefs and attitudes as extensions of themselves When something or someone threatens. a group s identity then members of that group are also likely to perceive the threat as directed at. themselves as individuals This can have serious implications for conflict because it allows leaders. to mobilise people around issues affecting group identity It is also makes it possible for people. pursuing their own agendas to manipulate people s perceptions of threats to group identity as a. way of mobilising people to their advantage Other needs include the need for control being able. to make and carry out decisions about your own life and the need for recognition the expectation. that others will acknowledge and respect an individual or a group s life choices The urge to satisfy. needs is believed to be so strong that groups unable to satisfy them by following accepted social. and political processes are likely to turn to more contentious strategies Needs are so integral to. individuals and groups that they cannot simply bargained away. Structural Imbalances, Conflict often occurs when there is an actual or perceived inequality of control of resources. and the way these are distributed This occurs when a dominant group uses its power to entrench. a privileged position and to secure an unequal allocation of resources In some instances political. structures have been established to benefit people from particular ethnic or religious groups often. at the expense of others Such structural imbalances often have their origins in colonial times when. ethnic identities were either manipulated or ignored in the construction of modern states Conflicts. are also likely in post colonial states when the interests of minority groups are not accommodated. by the State Prime examples of these problems occur when a minority group finds that a dominant. group s language and faith have been imposed on them Addressing structural conflicts is complex. and may often require a substantial transformation of the society away from one political system. to another more accommodating one This transformation can be a painful as previously privileged. groups are likely to be resistant to change while oppressed and marginalised groups may have. expectations that cannot easily be satisfied in the short term. 4 See Pruit D Kim S H 2008 Social conflict escalation stalemate and settlement 3rd edition Boston McGraw Hill p 19 20. 5 See Burton J 1990 Conflict Human Needs Theory London Macmillan Press for a comprehensiveexplanation of needs theory. Moving beyond such conflicts means finding ways of addressing immediate problems but also. devising ways in which past inequalities can be redressed. Information and communication, Conflicts sometimes occur in situations where the parties do not have sufficient access to the. information they need to make informed decisions Parties may misinterpret each other s motives. for acting in particular ways a situation that is exacerbated if they are unable or unwilling to. communicate openly with each other Parties in conflict often want to want to withhold information. from each other in the hopes that this will give them an advantage Anstey suggests that this strategic. withholding of information can be detrimental to everyone He argues that. Lack of shared and legitimate information gives rise to power struggles and contributes to rising. levels of mistrust in relations Over and above this it reduces the capacity of the parties to understand each. other s stances on issues contributing to the chances of misjudgement in embarking in trials of strength. instead of matters being worked out on the basis of a common data base they are fought out on the basis. of position and principle informed by guess work and assumption6. These problems can be exacerbated by the tendency of people to distort information to make. it fit into a pre existing understanding of a situation People are likely to believe the worst of an. opponent and it can become exceptionally difficult for someone wanting to make a conciliatory. gesture to ensure someone from the other side understands this Instead of being seen as having. made an effort to reach out to build a bridge between rival parties a group s honest attempt to bring. about positive change can be misinterpreted as strategic manoeuvring to gain an advantage. Interpersonal relations, Conflicts between groups may sometimes have their origins in interpersonal conflicts When.
influential people clash they will frequently mobilise their supporters to gain an advantage over. their opponents Supporters may participate in such struggles because they are genuinely loyal to. their leaders they may also be reliant on the leader s patronages When conflicts are allowed to. develop in this way they can take on a dynamic of their own sometimes extending beyond the. leader s sphere of influence This is especially so when conflicts turn violent and are accompanied by. the destruction of property injuries and deaths,Uncertainty. Conflict frequently breaks out during times of change uncertainty and transition when new. norms are being established and groups are grappling with the challenge of dealing with each other. In post war situations these uncertainties can cause conflict to re emerge. Differences may have been addressed on a macro level but bitterness and hatred between. people who were former enemies can persist Conflicts can also emerge when combatants who. are used to using force to achieve their objectives find themselves subjected to civilian laws For. example ex soldiers can struggle to submit to democratic processes they may feel do not serve their. interests The challenge of dealing with these uncertain situations can be exacerbated in situations. where weapons have become widely available Similarly as countries change from authoritarian to. democratic rule state security agencies such as the police intelligence services and the military may. resist having to account to a civilian authority,Goal incompatibility. There are many instances where parties goals might be incompatible and which might result. 6 Anstey 2008 p 29, in conflict A village might want to clear indigenous forest for growing crops while conservationists. want to see the forest protected A developer may want to build on seemingly vacant land while a. community wants to protect the graves of ancestors buried there The list of possible confrontations. is endless The challenge is to find ways to meet the needs of all parties to a satisfactory degree It. does not matter whether parties goals are actually incompatible the fact that they perceive them to. be so is all that is necessary for the conflict to exist. It is notable that this discussion does not mention ethnicity or religion as a cause of conflict. Although conflicts are often explained in terms of ethnic religious cultural or national differences. these terms are labels that are used to conceal something else The fact that people have different. ethnic or religious backgrounds is never a cause of conflict itself Conflicts may well have ethnic or. religious dimensions to them but the underlying causes of these conflicts will lie elsewhere such as. in the dimensions outlined above,1 2 4 Stages of conflict development. This section concentrates on some of the different stages that conflicts go through as they. escalate and explores some of the roles of journalists might play in enabling parties to address. conflicts constructively The stages of conflict escalation are depicted in Figure 1 below. Figure 1 Stages of conflict development,Latent conflict.
Latent conflict occurs when conditions that have the potential to result in conflict exist but have. not yet been recognised by the parties Latent conflict might be said to exist when a group decides. to pursue a goal without recognising that this might be or appear to be incompatible with the goals. of another group The following are some examples of latent conflict. Farmers decide to set traps to stop predators stealing their sheep In their minds the animals. are vermin who are threatening their livelihoods The farmers may be unaware that using. traps might lead to conflict between themselves and animal rights activists. A minority group in a particular country decides it no longer wishes to remain part of the. country or province dominated by people from another group The conflict can remain latent. until people decide they want to take action The moment the minority group begins making. demands for a territory of its own the conflict begins to emerge. Community members may have tolerated poor service delivery for years However when they. observe that other communities are getting services their frustrations can develop. It s possible to think that so long as a conflict remains latent all is well but the problem with. this approach is that issues never get addressed and people can become increasingly frustrated and. less tolerant of others This makes it harder to solve a conflict when it does begin to emerge It can. be important to identify latent conflicts and to make the issues visible so that they can be addressed. Emerging conflict, Emerging conflict begins when groups perceive they have mutually incompatible goals For. example conflict can begin to emerge when a disadvantaged group decides that conditions are. unjust and that they are no longer prepared to tolerate the status quo Conflict begins to emerge. when one group starts to express the need for change while the other makes it clear that they will. resist change At this stage it can be clear that parties acknowledge the existence of conflict and they. may well have identified their opponents,Manifest nonviolent. Conflict reaches this level when groups begin to mobilise their power to effect change while. others prepare to resist them This stage is often characterised by attempts by parties to persuade. others to see the conflict from their point of view and to persuade them to change their views Parties. will seek to mobilise as much support as possible at this stage to demonstrate their capacity to either. force the other party to submit or to resist efforts to force them to capitulate Parties will also try. to convince outsiders that their cause is just hoping external pressure discourages opponents from. pursuing their goals This stage of conflict can include relatively benign attempts to persuade others. to concede to demands but these attempts at persuasion can escalate to threats. Violent conflict, Actual violent conflict begins when parties start inflicting harm on one another This can mark. the beginning of an extremely destructive phase that introduces a mass of new dynamics Not only. will parties need to address the issues that originally led to the conflict but they will also have to. find ways of reconciling people who have suffered losses during confrontations. The progression from one level to the next is generally marked by a triggering event something. that happens which can push parties to escalate the conflict Once conflicts become manifest this. can mark the start of a spiral of conflict Conflict triggers can take on many forms and may even. be only tangentially related to the conflict For example when tensions exist between different. political groups living in an informal settlement a dispute over a stolen chicken can trigger a massive. confrontation between people from different factions. When it comes to reporting on conflict journalists tend to concentrate their coverage on the last. two stages of conflict escalation frequently ignoring the latent and emerging stages This focus on. the moments of real action rather than on the overall process can lead to audiences developing a. distorted understanding of events Instead of recognising that a conflict has welled up over time and. in response to a range of issues audiences can be left thinking the conflict flared without warning. Under these circumstances people will commonly blame belligerents without understanding that. these people may have made repeated attempts to address issues without threats and violence It can. also mean that journalists miss out on opportunities to sound early warning signals about impending. confrontations and that people don t respond to conflict in time. 1 2 5 Moderators and aggravators, Whether or not a conflict progresses through the four stages of escalation depends on a number. of factors which can either moderate or exacerbate the conflict If these factors can play a moderating. role then it is possible that when events occur that might trigger escalation the parties will be able. to manage the situation and prevent it from escalating If these moderators are absent or present. but in a negative sense this can increase the likelihood of conflicts escalating being violently. expressed and sometimes spiralling out of control Being conscious of these factors can help reporters. anticipate the likelihood of conflicts getting worse and equip them to ask questions that highlight. the potential consequences of growing antagonisms Anstey identifies a range of factors that can. either serve to moderate or aggravate a conflict These include. History Where parties share a common history of addressing previous conflicts peaceably. this can help to reduce tensions and provide them with mechanisms and approaches they. can draw on in preventing escalation They are also able to work together on the basis of. trust A history of antagonism and violence however will generally aggravate the conflict. Confronted with a conflict trigger people may reflect on past experiences and fall back on. old prejudices leading to elevated levels of anger which enhances the potential for violence. Shared values Where parties recognise each other s legitimacy and right to exist this can. contribute to creating conditions for peaceful dialogue When parties refuse to acknowledge. each other s rights to property citizenship and political representation then the prospects for. negotiation are limited and conflicts are likely to spiral. The availability of alternatives Parties who recognise a range of possible solutions are less. likely to allow conflicts to escalate Where confrontation seems to be the only options the. potential for a rapid escalation of conflict increases. Acceptable conflict management forums If parties have access to mutually acceptable forums. for dealing with conflict this can help to prevent violence Without these forums parties may. feel they have no choice but to resort to force, Perceptions of justice If parties are convinced their goals are legitimate and that their.
opponent s goals are not this will increase their desire to pursue goals and to mobilise. resources to achieve them When competing groups refuse to acknowledge their opponent s. claims this can lead to severely escalated conflict. Communication Where communication channels exist between parties the likelihood of. conflict escalating is reduced Conversely if there are no effective communication channels. then the possibility of misunderstandings and conflict spiralling increases. 1 2 6 What happens as conflicts escalate, Drawing on the work of several theorists Anstey offers a useful model of conflict escalation that. tracks what happens as conflicts escalate The model can help journalists anticipate what is likely. to happen as a conflict grows and this can inform the kinds of questions we ask and the decision we. make about who to talk to These shifts can include. Issues and demands Early in a conflict parties are likely to have a relatively limited range of. demands and the issues they are talking about can often be quite well defined As the conflict. develops and parties become more entrenched the number of demands can increase and. the issues become less clearly defined This makes it harder to establish what the conflict is. all about which can complicate attempts to reach agreements. Resources Parties will only have invested a limited amount of resources in pursuing their. goals at the start of a conflict However as the conflict continues and the number of issues. increases parties increase their investment in the conflict The more they invest the harder it. can be to withdraw or compromise without achieving tangible benefits. Participants The number of groups involved in a conflict tends to increase as it grows Each. new player brings a new set of demands making the conflict more complicate to resolve. Perceptions How groups perceive each other can change radically as conflict develops. Stereotypes and prejudices become more entrenched and groups begin to demonize each. other projecting their own fears onto their opponents Groups also tend to believe the. other side bears full responsibility for aggression and conflict and they can feel they are not. responsible for resolving the conflict themselves,.

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DECRETO LEGISLATIVO 14 marzo 2011 , n. 23 Disposizioni in materia di federalismo Fiscale Municipale. (11G0066) IL PRESIDENTE DELLA REPUBBLICA

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Equity Diversity and Inclusion Calendar 2015 2016

Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Calendar 2015-2016 ... (Wiccan) - September 23 Yom ... year. This day is dedicated to strengthening the ideals of peace, ...

Coven Synergy - OoCities

Coven Synergy OoCities

Coven Synergy Syllabus ... Synergy adheres to the Wiccan Rede, ... Training will occur over a minimum of a year and a day from the date of the Dedicancy Oath,

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Masters Project edited from the comments

to spot misleading statistics. Examples of innumeracy often go unnoticed: the cashier who does not understand why you give $5.05 when your bill is $4.05, the 7th grade student who asks which side of the ruler measures inches, people who are excited to get their tax return, as if receiving their own money is some kind of a gift. The general public seems to have a real hesitation or fear of ...

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ANSYS Transmission loss is calculated in ANSYS by applying the transfer matrix methodology. Each element of an acoustic system can be characterised by a transfer matrix whose parameters describe only that element (Young and Crocker 1975). Adopting acoustic pressure and volume velocity