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G U I D E T O M A C H I N I N G CARPENTER SPECIALTY ALLOYS. Carpenter Technology Corporation,Wyomissing Pennsylvania 19610 U S A. Copyright 2002 CRS Holdings Inc,All Rights Reserved Printed in U S A. The information and data presented herein are suggested starting point values and are not a guarantee. of maximum or minimum values Applications speci cally suggested for material described herein. are made solely for the purpose of illustration to enable the reader to make his her own evaluation. and are not intended as warranties either express or implied of tness for these or other purposes. There is no representation that the recipient of this literature will receive updated editions as they. become available Unless otherwise noted all registered trademarks are property of CRS Holdings. Inc a subsidiary of Carpenter Technology Corporation ISO 9000 and QS 9000 Registered. Headquarters Reading PA,Guide to Machining,CARPENTER SPECIALTY ALLOYS. Introduction 1, General Stainless Material and Machining Characteristics 3. Classi cation of Stainless Steels 5,Basic Families and Designations 5. Austenitic Alloys 5,Ferritic Alloys 7,Martensitic Alloys 7. Duplex Alloys 8,Precipitation Hardenable Alloys 8,Free Machining Alloys 9. Project 70 Stainless Enhanced Machining Alloys 12,Machinability of Stainless Steels 15. De nitions of Machinability 15,General Machining Properties 16. Austenitic Alloys 16,Ferritic and Martensitic Alloys 18. Duplex Alloys 19,Precipitation Hardenable Alloys 20. Relative Machinability of Stainless Steels,and Other Alloys 22. The Carpenter Selectaloy Method 23,Criteria for Selecting 23. Selecting for Corrosion Resistance 26,Selecting for Mechanical Strength 26. Enhanced Selectaloy Diagram 27,Nitrogen Strengthened Grades 27. Other Grades to Consider 29,Guide to Machining,CARPENTER SPECIALTY ALLOYS. Traditional Machining Operations 31,General Considerations and Guidelines 31. Turning Speeds Feeds Turning can be found on pages 37 to 40. Turning Parameters 35,Single Point Turning Tools 35. Cutoff Tools 41,Form Tools 41,Shaving Tools 42,Trouble Shooting Check Chart 43. Drilling Speeds Feeds Drilling can be found on pages 48 and 49. General Guidelines 45,Drilling Parameters 46,Grinding of Drills 46. Small Diameter Drills 47,Special Drills 49,Trouble Shooting Check Chart 51. Tapping Speeds Feeds Tapping can be found on pages 57 and 58. Types of Holes and Taps 55,Percent of Thread 58,Grinding of Taps 60. Trouble Shooting Check Chart 61, Threading Speeds Feeds Threading can be found on page 65 to 66. Die Threading 63,Types of Chasers and Geometries 63. Die Threading Parameters and Cutting Fluid 65,Percent of Thread 66. Thread Rolling 67,Trouble Shooting Check Chart 68,Guide to Machining. CARPENTER SPECIALTY ALLOYS, Milling Speeds Feeds Milling can be found on pages 71 and 72. Types of Milling Cutters 69,Grinding of Milling Cutters 70. Milling Parameters and Cutting Fluid 73,Trouble Shooting Check Chart 74. Broaching Speeds Feeds Broaching can be found on pages 79 and 80. General Guidelines 77,Broach Design and Grinding 77. Trouble Shooting Check Chart 81, Reaming Speeds Feeds Reaming can be found on pages 85 and 86. General Guidelines 83,Types of Reamers 83,Grinding and Care of Reamers 84. Reaming Parameters 87,Alignment 87,Trouble Shooting Check Chart 88. Sawing Speeds Feeds Sawing can be found on page 90. General Guidelines 89,Sawing Parameters 89,Grinding Parameters 91. Guide to Machining,CARPENTER SPECIALTY ALLOYS, Other Specialty Metals Speeds Feeds Other Carpenter Specialty. Alloys can be found on pages 93 to 112,These include. Carpenter Tool Steels,Carpenter High Temperature Alloys. Nickel Base and Cobalt Base,Carpenter Electronic Alloys. Cutting Fluids page 113,Stainless Steel Cutting Oils. Emulsi able Fluids,General Practices,Cleaning and Passivating page 119. Cleaning Before Heat Treating,Passivating,Citric Acid Passivation. Nontraditional Machining Operations pages 123 to 136. Abrasive Jet Machining,Abrasive Water Jet Machining. Electrochemical Machining,Electrochemical Grinding. Electrical Discharge Machining,Electron Beam Machining. Laser Beam Machining,Plasma Arc Machining,Chemical Machining. Guide to Machining,CARPENTER SPECIALTY ALLOYS,Helpful Tables pages 137 to 167. Automatic Machining Ef ciency Index Table,Machine Hours Per 1 000 Pieces. Approximate Stock Required to Make 1 000 Pieces,Weights of Steel Bars Per Lineal Foot. Decimal Sizes of Drills Length of Drill Points,Drills for Tapped Holes. Table of Cutting Speeds,Fractions Decimal Metric Equivalents. Hardness Conversion Table,Wire Gauges,Introduction. Carpenter Technology Corporation Carpenter is a materials. company making specialty alloys and engineered parts for dozens. of industries with hundreds of applications Specialty Alloys. Operations our specialty steel and alloy manufacturer and. distributor comprises the core business Dynamet Incorporated. a Carpenter company produces bar and coil products from titanium. and other alloys Carpenter Powder Products makes and sells tool. and high speed steels and specialty alloy powder products The. Engineered Products Group is a consortium of companies that. makes precision drawn products complex ceramic parts thin. wall tubing and other engineered materials, Since 1928 when Carpenter introduced the world s rst free. machining stainless steel we have been concentrating on the. business of making stainless and other specialty alloys more. useful and more pro table to industry, Our record of accomplishment in this endeavor has been gratifying. Through never ending research exacting quality controls and rigid. production techniques we have led the eld in the introduction. of new and improved specialty alloys and services to help industry. improve product quality and reduce fabricating costs. The Carpenter list of rsts is impressive It includes the rst. free machining stainless Type 416 the rst free machining. chrome nickel stainless Type 303 the rst free machining Invar. Free Cut Invar 36 alloy and this evidence of leadership. continues with the widespread acceptance of the Project 70. stainless and Project 7000 stainless grades and now. Project 70 stainless, Through these constant efforts to improve specialty alloy quality. we have built every known production and performance advantage. into every machining bar we produce But no specialty steel can. be so good that it will perform satisfactorily in the shop when it. s mishandled or misunderstood, The purpose of this book is to help you the fabricator get. every bene t out of the Carpenter specialty alloys you machine. The machining tables are intended to provide you with suggested. starting feeds and speeds Machine setup tooling and other fac. tors beyond Carpenter s control will affect actual performance. A section on machining Carpenter tool steels high temperature. alloys and electronic alloys is also included These are tabbed. together under Other Specialty Metals, If the answer to your particular machining problem cannot be. found here we hope you will call us at 1 800 654 6543 for help. Or refer to our online technical information database at. www cartech com Registration is free,General Stainless Material and Machining. Characteristics, Stainless steels do not constitute a single well de ned material. but instead consist of several families of alloys each generally. having its own characteristic microstructure type of alloying and. range of properties To complicate the matter further compositional. differences within each family produce an often bewildering variety. of alloys suited to a wide range of applications The common thread. among the alloys is the presence of a minimum of about 11 percent. chromium to provide the excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance. which is the chief characteristic of the materials. Because of the wide variety of stainless steels available a. simple characterization of their machinability can be somewhat. misleading As shown in later sections of this booklet the machin. ability of stainless steels varies from low to very high depending. on the nal choice of alloy In general however stainless steels are. considered more dif cult to machine than certain other materials. such as aluminum or low carbon steels Stainless steels have been. characterized as gummy during cutting showing a tendency to. produce long stringy chips which seize or form a built up edge. BUE on the tool Machine operators may cite reduced tool life. and degraded surface nish as consequences These broad observa. tions are due to the following properties which are possessed by. stainless steels to different extents,1 high tensile strength. 2 large spread between yield strength and ultimate. tensile strength,3 high ductility and toughness,4 high work hardening rate. 5 low thermal conductivity, Despite these properties stainless steels are machinable as long as it. is recognized that they behave differently from other materials and. consequently must be machined using different techniques. In general more power is required to machine stainless steels. than carbon steels cutting speeds must often be lower a positive. feed must be maintained tooling and xtures must be rigid chip. breakers or curlers may be needed on the tools and care must be. taken to ensure good lubrication and cooling during cutting. Classi cation of Stainless Steels,Basic Families and Designations. Stainless steels can be divided into ve families Four are based. on the characteristic microstructure of the alloys in the family. austenitic ferritic martensitic or duplex austenitic plus ferritic. The fth family the precipitation hardenable alloys is based on. the type of heat treatment used rather than microstructure. In addition stainless steels may be divided into the non free. machining alloys and the free machining alloys Free machining. alloys form a limited group that cuts across the basic families. Finally both non free machining and free machining alloys may. be available in the Project 70 stainless version having enhanced. machining properties compared to the standard alloys. Because of the variety of stainless steels it is usually possible. to obtain an alloy possessing the desired set of attributes unless. they are mutually exclusive This same wealth of alloys can create. problems during the selection process simply because of the number. of alloys that must be considered and evaluated for their suitability. An invaluable aid in this process is Carpenter s Selectaloy method. described later in this booklet The following sections describe the. basic characteristics which may be important during the selection. process for a particular stainless steel,Austenitic Alloys. Austenitic stainless steels have a face centered cubic structure. and are nonmagnetic in the annealed condition The alloys can. be subdivided into two categories the standard alloys such as. Type 304 containing nickel to provide the austenitic structure. and those containing instead a substantial quantity of manganese. usually with higher levels of nitrogen and in many cases nickel. Examples of the latter are 22Cr 13Ni 5Mn 21Cr 6Ni 9Mn and. 15 15LC stainless Nitrogen may also be used to provide. strengthening in the chromium nickel grades as in Type 304HN. The standard chromium nickel alloys with lower nitrogen levels. have tensile yield strengths of 30 40 ksi 205 275 MPa in the. annealed condition while alloys containing higher nitrogen have. yield strengths up to about 70 ksi 480 MPa, Austenitic stainless steels possess good ductility and toughness. even at cryogenic temperatures and can be hardened substantially. by cold working The degree of work hardening depends on alloy. content Austenitic stainless steels with a lower alloy content may. become magnetic due to transformation of austenite to martensite. during cold working or even machining if the surface is heavily. deformed A corrective anneal or the selection of an alloy with. a lower work hardening rate may be necessary if a low magnetic. permeability is required for the intended application Corrosion. resistance of austenitic alloys varies from good to excellent again. depending on alloy content, The most common austenitic stainless steel is Type 304 which. contains approximately 18 percent chromium and 8 percent nickel. In addition to the alloying variations noted above higher chromium. higher nickel molybdenum or copper may be added to improve. particular aspects of corrosion or oxidation resistance Examples. are Type 316 Type 309 Type 310 and 20Cb 3 stainless Many of. the more corrosion resistant alloys such as 20Cb 3 stainless have. nickel levels high enough to rate classi cation as nickel base alloys. Titanium or columbium is added to stabilize carbon in alloys such as. Type 321 or Type 347 in order to prevent intergranular corrosion. after elevated temperature exposure Conversely carbon levels are. reduced to low levels during melting to produce the AISI L or S. alloys such as Type 304L Type 316L or Type 309S,Ferritic Alloys. Ferritic stainless steels have a body centered cubic structure and. are magnetic In the annealed condition they have a tensile yield. strength of about 40 50 ksi 275 345 MPa They are generally. hardenable only by cold working but not to the same extent as. the austenitic stainless steels The alloys possess fairly good. ductility in the annealed condition but are not used where tough. ness is a concern They have a broad range of corrosion resistance. depending on alloy content However as a class they are considered. less corrosion resistant than the austenitic alloys. The most well known alloy of this family is Type 430 which is an. iron base alloy with 16 18 percent chromium Other alloys such. as Type 405 or Type 409 contain lower chromium Higher levels. of chromium are used in alloys such as Type 443 or Type 446 for. improved corrosion or oxidation resistance Molybdenum is added. to certain alloys such as Type 434 in order to improve corrosion. resistance particularly in chloride containing solutions Titanium. or columbium is used to stabilize carbon and nitrogen in order to. improve the as welded properties of alloys like Type 409. Martensitic Alloys, Martensitic stainless steels have a body centered cubic tetragonal. structure and are magnetic In the annealed condition they have a. tensile yield strength of about 40 ksi 275 MPa and like the ferritic. alloys can be moderately hardened by cold working However. martensitic alloys are normally heat treated by hardening plus. tempering to yield strength levels up to about 280 ksi 1930 MPa. depending primarily on carbon level The alloys exhibit good. ductility and toughness which decrease however as strength. capability increases, The most commonly used alloy of this family is Type 410 which. contains about 12 percent chromium and 0 1 percent carbon to. provide strengthening Carbon level and consequently strength. capability increase in the series Type 420 Type 440A Type 440B. and Type 440C Chromium is increased particularly in the latter. three alloys to maintain corrosion resistance since chromium is. removed from solution forming carbides with increasing carbon. level Molybdenum may be added to improve mechanical proper. ties or corrosion resistance as in TrimRite stainless Nickel may. be added for the same reasons as in Type 414 Nickel also serves. to maintain the desired microstructure preventing excessive free. ferrite when higher chromium levels are used to improve corrosion. resistance in a lower carbon alloy like Type 431 The limitations on. alloy content required to maintain the desired fully martensitic. structure limit the corrosion resistance obtainable with martensitic. alloys to only moderate levels,Duplex Alloys, Duplex stainless steels contain a mixture of ferrite and austenite. and are magnetic They have tensile yield strengths of about 80 ksi. 550 MPa in the annealed condition or about twice that of the. standard austenitic alloys Strength can be increased by cold. working The alloys have good ductility and toughness along. with excellent corrosion resistance, The original alloy in this classi cation was 7 Mo stainless or. Type 329 which contains chromium molybdenum and suf cient. nickel to provide the desired balance of ferrite and austenite More. recent alloys such as 7 Mo PLUS stainless also contain nitrogen. and a different austenite ferrite balance,Precipitation Hardenable Alloys. Precipitation hardenable stainless steels are categorized by their. ability to be age hardened to various strength levels The alloys. can be subdivided into the austenitic e g Pyromet alloy A 286. martensitic e g Custom 630 17Cr 4Ni or semi austenitic. classi cations e g Pyromet alloy 355 The latter alloys may have. an austenitic structure for formability but can be subsequently.
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Gebruik van social media door ondernemers 4 Inleiding Toelichting op het onderzoek In het jaar dat treitervlogger het Van Dale-woord van het jaar werd, bestaat Hyves niet meer als vriendenplatform en
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