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www dese mo gov, The Department of Elementary and Secondary Education does not discriminate on the basis of race color religion. gender national origin age or disability in its programs and activities Inquiries related to Department programs and to. the location of services activities and facilities that are accessible by persons with disabilities may be directed to the. Jefferson State Office Building Office of the General Counsel Coordinator Civil Rights Compliance Title VI Title. IX 504 ADA Age Act 6th Floor 205 Jefferson Street P O Box 480 Jefferson City MO 65102 0480 telephone number. 573 526 4757 or TTY 800 735 2966 email civilrights dese mo gov. TABLE OF CONTENTS,Overview 1,Why Use Portfolio Assessments 1. What is a Student Portfolio 2,Creating and Using Portfolios 3. 1 Why is the portfolio being created 3,2 Who is the audience s for the portfolio 6. 3 What samples of student work will be included 6, 4 What processes will be engaged in during the development of the. portfolio 6, 5 How will time and materials be managed in the development of the. portfolio 7, 6 How and when will the portfolio be shared with pertinent audiences 7. 7 How will the portfolio be used for evaluation 8, Portfolio Assessment as a Tool for Teacher Evaluation 9. Appendix i, The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education would like to offer a special thank you to the following. education organizations for providing support and resources towards the development of this handbook. Center on Great Teachers and Leaders,Ohio Department of Education. Austin Independent School District,Why Use Portfolio Assessments. Research shows that students at all levels see assessment. as something that is done to them by someone else out. of their control or circle of influence Most often they do. not acknowledge knowing any evaluation criteria beyond. the letter grade or percent correct recorded on their work Portfolios can bridge this gap by providing. a structure for involving students in developing and understanding criteria for good work and through. the use of critical thinking and self reflection enable students to apply these criteria to their own work. efforts and that of other students Through the use of Portfolios students are regularly asked to. examine how they succeeded or failed or improved on a task or set goals for future work No longer is. the learning just about the final product evaluation or grade but becomes more focused on students. developing metacognitive skills that will enable them to reflect upon and make adjustments in their. learning in school and beyond, Research has found that students in classes that emphasize improvement progress effort and the process. of learning rather than grades and normative performance are more likely to use a variety of learning. strategies and have a more positive attitude toward learning. What is a Student Portfolio, A portfolio is best described as a purposeful collection of student work that tells the story of the. student s efforts progress or achievement in a content area Purposeful describes the way that. student work is selected and is indicative of the story you want the portfolio to tell. A portfolio can serve many purposes It can highlight or celebrate the progress a student has made it. can capture the process of learning and growth it can help place students academically or it can even. simply showcase the final products or best work of a student Ultimately a portfolio is not just the pile. of student work that accumulates over a quarter semester or year Instead it is a very intentional. process both teacher and student must be clear about the story the portfolio will be telling and both. must believe that the selection of and reflection upon their work serves one or more meaningful. Although approaches to portfolio development may vary in an effective portfolio the student must be. an active participant involved in constructing the story of his or her journey academically through the. portfolio process of selecting organizing and reflecting Effective portfolios have the following. characteristics in common, They clearly reflect Student Learning Objectives SLOs identified in the core or essential. curriculum, They focus upon a student s performance based learning experiences knowledge and skill. acquisition collaboration and attitude, They contain work samples that stretch over a designated period of time and represent a. variety of assessment tools and, They contain student self assessments and reflections of work samples. Students are crucial,instructional decision,We must build classroom. environments in which students,use assessments to understand. what success looks like and how,to do better the next time In. effect we must help students,use ongoing classroom. assessment to take,responsibility for their own,academic success. Rick Stiggins 2005, I like the idea of portfolio assessment but isn t it a lot more work. It is hard work but your efforts will be well rewarded by your students increased. motivation involvement in their own learning and by improved achievement The. challenge of portfolio assessment lies in the organization of the whole endeavor. Effective portfolio assessment requires planning in advance and keeping records These. will quickly become a habit and result in more efficient professional work. CREATING AND USING PORTFOLIOS,How do you Create a Portfolio. The task of designing the portfolio assignment may be approached by thinking of it as a series of. questions to be answered,1 Why is the portfolio being created purpose. 2 Who is the audience s for the portfolio, 3 What samples of student work will be included content. 4 What processes will be engaged in during the development of the portfolio. 5 How will time and materials be managed in the development of the portfolio. 6 How and when will the portfolio be shared with pertinent audiences. 7 How will the portfolio be used for evaluation,1 Why is the portfolio being created. Before beginning a portfolio process it is essential that there is shared understanding about its. purpose The purpose and student learning object s will determine the type of portfolio and. the artifacts you want students to include as well as the criteria on which those artifacts will be. assessed Without purpose a portfolio is just a folder of student work Portfolios can reflect a. single learning objective a series of learning objectives or all learning objectives in a given. subject They can also cross subject areas If the portfolio is to be used to document student. growth a complete picture or record of where the student was at the beginning of the. designated period of learning time interval including activities drafts revisions projects. presentations quizzes assessments etc should be included This allows for a clear picture of. student growth toward the attainment of the Student Learning Objective s SLOs. The Portfolio process should be continuous capture a rich array of what students know and can. do involve realistic and relevant contexts communicate to students and others what is valued. portray the processes by which work is accomplished and be integrated with instruction. Portfolios typically are created for one of the following purposes a to show growth b to. evaluate cumulative achievement and c to showcase current abilities Since the purpose of. the Showcase Portfolio is not typically on student growth but more on displaying a student s. best efforts this document will focus its attention on the growth and evaluation portfolios. I see that the assessment process also includes students evaluation of themselves and each. other How reliable are my students evaluations, With individual guidance time practice and especially given clear assessment criteria students will. learn to become better evaluators and will benefit from the process deepening their. understanding of their own learning, a Growth Portfolios Collection of artifacts that demonstrates growth in particular skills. over time Appropriate when your purpose is, 1 to show growth or change over time 2 to help develop process skills. 4 to track development of one or more, 3 to identify strengths and weaknesses products or performances. b Evaluation Portfolios Collection of teacher directed student artifacts that respond to. specific criteria determined by the teacher Appropriate when your purpose is. 1 To show process and product of 2 To evaluate and report on student progress. 3 To show student achievement,with respect to specific curricular. Becoming reflective learners developing an,internal feedback loop learning to set goals and. noticing new competencies and new challenges are, all habits of thought we can cultivate in students. through the use of portfolios,RJ Stiggins JA Arter J Chappuis and S Chappius. 2 Who is the audience s for the portfolio, Selecting relevant audiences for a portfolio goes hand in hand with identifying your purposes. Who should see the evidence of a student s growth The student teacher and parents are. good audiences to follow the story of a student s progress on a certain project or in the. development of certain skills or knowledge Who should see a student s best or final work. Again the student teacher and parents might be good audiences for such a collection but. other natural audiences might be the class schoolmates school faculty external audiences. such as employers or colleges the local community at large or school board Just as the. purpose for the portfolio should guide the development of it the selection of audience should. help shape its construction,3 What samples of student work will be. The decision as to what content to include in,the portfolio should be dependent on the. purpose and audience for the portfolio Since,knowledge reasoning skill product and. disposition could be the focus of evidence,gathering for portfolios all forms of. assessment can be included as evidence pre,tests tests and quizzes extended response. assessments performance assessments,documentation of the results of personal. communication student work samples,reflections video audio graphs photos etc. However regardless of the assessments used perhaps the most important concept to. remember is that portfolios used to show student performance growth over a specified period. of time must include initial examples of student work to document baseline data formative. examples after teacher instruction and a culminating performance piece to document growth. 4 What processes will be engaged in during the development of the portfolio. One of the greatest attributes of the portfolio is its potential for focusing on the processes of. learning Although a variety of processes can be developed or explored through portfolios. three of the most common are,Selection of contents of the portfolio. Reflection on the samples of work and processes,Conferencing about the contents and processes. Selection As students make work selections and create their portfolios they are actively. involved in and reflecting on their own learning Increased metacognition has a positive. impact on a student s self confidence facilitates student use of learning strategies and. increases the student s ability to assess and revise work To satisfy a purpose there needs to. be a rationale for the selection of the items to be included this requires an analysis of the work. and what it demonstrates Work sample annotations are comments by students or teachers. about each piece of evidence selected for the portfolio. Reflection Another essential element of the portfolio process is the student reflection on his. or her learning and progression towards the mastery of the material documented in the. portfolio Students are missing a vital benefit of the portfolio process if they are not required to. reflect upon the quality and growth of their work Student identification of and reflection upon. strengths and weaknesses examples of progress and strategies for improvement will be more. meaningful and purposeful if goal setting is part of the process The reflection phase holds the. most promise for promoting student growth and moving learning to Level 4 on Depth of. Knowledge DOK, As a skill reflection is not something that can be mastered in one or two attempts If students. haven t done reflective thinking before not the fill in the blank thinking but open ended. deep thinking about his or herself as a learner be prepared to spend time helping them learn. how to do it through instruction modeling lots of practice and feedback. Conferencing Conferencing on student work and processes can provide valuable information. about the student s thinking and progress and provide the student with meaningful feedback. The teacher could meet with individual students or with small groups of students in high. functioning classrooms Another beneficial means of conferencing can be peer to peer. conferencing which gives students the opportunity to learn how to provide feedback as well as. receiving it However it is important to note that peer conferences should never replace. student teacher conferences, 5 How will time and materials be managed in the development of the portfolio. The physical and time constraints of developing a portfolio can be daunting Where do you. keep the stuff How do you keep track of it Who gets access to it and when Should you. manage paper or create electronic portfolios How you answer the many management. questions in part depends on how you answer the questions about purpose audience. content and process As a general rule it is good practice to develop a management system. and schedule before initiating the portfolio process. 6 How and when will the portfolio be shared with pertinent audiences. Portfolios are meant to be shared The samples reflections and other content invite others to. observe and celebrate students growth and accomplishments Students should be the ones. telling their stories In doing so they take ownership and are active participants in the process. that led to their growth and achievement Of course deciding how to tell the story will be. influenced by the intended audience, 7 How will the portfolio be used for student evaluation. If the purpose of evaluation is to demonstrate,growth the teacher may want to make. judgments about the evidence of progress,periodically and provide feedback to students. or make note of them for his or her own,records The student could also self assess. progress shown or not shown goals met or not,met On a larger scale an evaluation of the. contents within the portfolio may be conducted,by the teacher by peers or external evaluators. for the purpose of judging completion of SLOs, standards or other requirements Regardless of the purpose however the criteria must be. fully and carefully defined and transparent to all This is usually best done through the use of a. rubric Giving students a voice in defining success criteria gives them ownership in the process. There are three possible levels of assessments within the portfolio evaluation process. the work samples selected,student reflections on the work samples. the portfolio itself, Again it is essential to have clearly articulated the criteria at each of these levels. Work Samples, It is important to establish criteria that would commonly be used to define quality. performances within a content or skill area Each of these criteria should be clearly outlined. and explained to students so they understand the component parts that indicate mastery In. order to ensure that the portfolio assessment process does not become overwhelming it is. important to assess the individual samples prior to their inclusion in the portfolio Each work. sample included in the portfolio may be assessed using similar types of performance based. assessment tools checklists rating scales or rubrics. Student Self Reflection, The set of criteria on which student reflections will be assessed should support students as they. reflect on both the processes and products of their learning Criteria might include. thoroughness of analysis inclusion of details and evidence. honesty of assessment,self understanding revelation. evaluation of personal goals,statement of future goals. personal voice,quality of writing, Each reflection piece included in the portfolio may be assessed using similar types of. performance based assessment tools checklists rating scales or rubrics. The Portfolio Itself, The portfolio should reflect those elements that you have determined are critical to the. development of the portfolio You and your students might consider criteria such as. Organization,Visual appeal,Evidence of growth,Variety of artifacts. Evidence of positive attitude to learning,Balance of process and product. Risk taking,Achievement of specific curricular objectives. Inclusion of all required elements completeness, There are many ways to evaluate the portfolio as a whole Some portfolios are graded simply. on whether or not the portfolio is completed as required In using portfolios to show student. growth teachers may feel that it is appropriate to assign a value to the end product that. reflects progress toward or attainment of SLOs,PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT AS A TOOL FOR. TEACHER EVALUATION, How is portfolio assessment connected to teacher evaluation. A portfolio based system is one plausible way to assess teacher performance through evidence of student. growth Portfolio assessment has the potential to improve the complex task of student assessment making it. possible to document the unfolding process of teaching and learning over time A successful portfolio. assessment that provides evidence of student growth for the purposes of teacher evaluation. Includes clearly defined student learning objectives. Begins with a pre assessment to gauge student learning. Is ongoing rather than representative of a single point in time. Allows a window into process as well as products, Provides opportunities for students to revisit and revise guided by evaluation criteria. Allows for diverse means of demonstrating competency. Serves as a demonstration of student strengths, Includes student reflection decision making and goal setting. Provides tangible evidence of student s knowledge skill abilities and growth. Involves student choice, Includes student evaluation and progress monitoring. Provides a means for managing and evaluating multiple assessments for each student variety pre post. formative audio video essays letters journals self assessments reflections drawings graphs etc. Includes an audience, Allows students the opportunity to communicate present and discuss their learning with teachers. parents community and or experts, The portfolio must be more than just a collection of test results essays homework graphs of student. performance or the products of student activities It must be systematic organized evidence of both student. learning and the teacher s role in that learning,REFERENCES. Arter J and Spandel V 1992 Using portfolios of student work in instruction and assessment. National Council on Measurement in Education NCME Instructional Module. Covington M 1992 Making the grade A self worth perspective on motivation and school reform. New York Cambridge University Press, Darling Hammond L 2008 Powerful learning What we know about teaching for understanding. San Francisco Jossey Bass, Education Consumer Guide 1993 November Student portfolios Classroom uses. Retrieved April 14 2014 http www2 ed gov pubs OR ConsumerGuides classuse html. Elliott D 2005 Teaching on target Thousand Oaks CA Corwin Press. Fogarty R 1998 Balanced Assessment Arlington Heights IL Skylight Training and Publishing. Hayes Jacobs H 1997 Mapping the big picture Integrating curriculum assessment K 12. Alexandria VA ASCD, Marzano R J and Kendall J S 2008 Designing assessing educational objectives Applying the. new taxonomy Thousand Oaks CA Corwin Press, Nash R 2011 Harness the Power of Reflection Thousand Oaks CA Corwin Press. Rogers S and Graham S 2003 The high performance toolbox 3rd edition Evergreen CO. Peak Learning Systems Inc, Stiggins R J 2005 September New Assessment Beliefs for a New School Mission Phi Delta. Kappan p 22 27, Stiggins R J Arter J A Chappius J and Chappius S 2004 Classroom assessment for student. learning Doing it right using it well Portland OR Assessment Training Institute. Education Consumer Guide 1993,Judith Arter and Vicki Spandel 1992.
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