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GSM Tutorial
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GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS GSM, Simply Easy Learning by tutorialspoint com. tutorialspoint co, ABOUT THE TUTORIAL, GSM Tutorial. GSM is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communications. GSM uses narrowband Time Division Multiple Access TDMA for providing voice and text based. services over mobile phone networks, This tutorial has been designed for readers who want to understand the basics of GSM in very. simple terms This tutorial provides just about enough material to have a solid foundation on GSM. from where you can move on to higher levels of expertise. Prerequisites, A general awareness of some basics of telecommunications is sufficient to understand the concepts. explained in this tutorial, Copyright Disclaimer Notice.
Copyright 2014 by Tutorials Point Pvt Ltd, All the content and graphics published in this e book are the property of Tutotorials Point Pvt Ltd. The user of this e book is prohibited to reuse retain copy distribute or republish any contents or a. part of contents of this e book in any manner without written consent of the publisher. This tutorial may contain inaccuracies or errors Tutorials Point Pvt Ltd provides no guarantee. regarding the accuracy timeliness or completeness of our website or its contents including this. tutorial If you discover any errors on our website or in this tutorial please notify us at. contact tutorialspoint com, Table of Contents, Overview 5. What is GSM 5, GSM History 6, GSM Architecture 8, GSM network areas 9. GSM Specification 10, Modulation 10, Access Methods 10. Transmission Rate 10, Frequency Band 11, Channel Spacing 11.
Speech Coding 11, Duplex Distance 11, GSM Addressing and Identifiers 12. International Mobile Station Equipment Identity IMEI 12. International Mobile Subscriber Identity IMSI 12, Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number MSISDN 13. Mobile Station Roaming Number MSRN 13, Location Area Identity LAI 13. Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity TMSI 15, Local Mobile Subscriber Identity LMSI Error Bookmark not defined. Cell Identifier CI Error Bookmark not defined, GSM Operations Error Bookmark not defined.
Call from Mobile Phone to Public Switched Telephone Network PSTN Error Bookmark. not defined, Call from PSTN to Mobile Phone Error Bookmark not defined. GSM Protocol Stack 17, MS Protocols 17, The Mobile Station MS to Base Tranceiver Station BTS Protocols Error Bookmark not. BSC Protocols 18, MSC Protocols Error Bookmark not defined. GSM User Services Error Bookmark not defined, 1 Teleservices or Telephony Services Error Bookmark not defined. VOICE CALLS Error Bookmark not defined, VIDEOTEXT AND FACSMILE Error Bookmark not defined.
SHORT TEXT MESSAGES Error Bookmark not defined, 2 Bearer Services or Data Services Error Bookmark not defined. 3 Supplementary Services Error Bookmark not defined. GSM Security and Encryption Error Bookmark not defined. Mobile Station Authentication Error Bookmark not defined. Signaling and Data Confidentiality Error Bookmark not defined. Subscriber Identity Confidentiality Error Bookmark not defined. GSM Billing Error Bookmark not defined, Telephony Service Error Bookmark not defined. SMS Service Error Bookmark not defined, GPRS Services Error Bookmark not defined. Supplementary Services Error Bookmark not defined, GSM Mobile Phones Error Bookmark not defined. GSM Enabled Phones Error Bookmark not defined, What is GSM.
If you are in Europe or Asia and using a mobile phone then most probably you are using GSM. technology in your mobile phone, GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communication It is a digital cellular technology used. for transmitting mobile voice and data services, The concept of GSM emerged from a cell based mobile radio system at Bell Laboratories in the. early 1970s, GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European. mobile telephone standard, GSM is the most widely accepted standard in telecommunications and it is implemented. GSM is a circuit switched system that divides each 200 kHz channel into eight 25 kHz time. slots GSM operates on the mobile communication bands 900 MHz and 1800 MHz in most parts. of the world In the US GSM operates in the bands 850 MHz and 1900 MHz. GSM owns a market share of more than 70 percent of the world s digital cellular subscribers. GSM makes use of narrowband Time Division Multiple Access TDMA technique for. transmitting signals, GSM was developed using digital technology It has an ability to carry 64 kbps to 120 Mbps of.
data rates, Presently GSM supports more than one billion mobile subscribers in more than 210 countries. throughout the world, GSM provides basic to advanced voice and data services including roaming service Roaming is. the ability to use your GSM phone number in another GSM network. GSM digitizes and compresses data then sends it down through a channel with two other streams. of user data each in its own timeslot, Listed below are the features of GSM that account for its popularity and wide accepatance. Improved spectrum efficiency, International roaming. Low cost mobile sets and base stations BSs, High quality speech.
Compatibility with Integrated Services Digital Network ISDN and other telephone company. Support for new services, GSM History, The following table shows some of the important events in the rollout of the GSM system. Years Events, Conference of European Posts and Telegraph CEPT establishes a GSM group to. widen the standards for a pan European cellular mobile system. 1985 A list of recommendations to be generated by the group is accepted. Executed field tests to check the different radio techniques recommended for. the air interface, Time Division Multiple Access TDMA is chosen as the access method with. Frequency Division Multiple Access FDMA The initial Memorandum of. Understanding MoU is signed by telecommunication operators representing. 12 countries, 1988 GSM system is validated, The European Telecommunications Standards Institute ETSI was given the. responsibility of the GSM specifications, 1990 Phase 1 of the GSM specifications is delivered.
Commercial launch of the GSM service occurs The DCS1800 specifications are. The addition of the countries that signed the GSM MoU takes place Coverage. spreads to larger cities and airports, 1993 Coverage of main roads GSM services starts outside Europe. Data transmission capabilities launched The number of networks rises to 69 in. 43 countries by the end of 1994, 1995 Phase 2 of the GSM specifications occurs Coverage is extended to rural areas. 1996 June 133 networks in 81 countries operational. July 200 networks in 109 countries operational around 44 million subscribers. Wireless Application Protocol WAP came into existence and became. operational in 130 countries with 260 million subscribers. 2000 General Packet Radio Service GPRS came into existence. As of May 2001 over 550 million people were subscribers to mobile. telecommunications, GSM Architecture, A GSM network comprises of many functional units These functions and interfaces are explained in. this chapter The GSM network can be broadly divided into. The Mobile Station MS, The Base Station Subsystem BSS. The Network Switching Subsystem NSS, The Operation Support Subsystem OSS.
Given below is a simple pictorial view of the GSM architecture. The additional components of the GSM architecture comprise of databases and messaging systems. Home Location Register HLR, Visitor Location Register VLR. Equipment Identity Register EIR, Authentication Center AuC. SMS Serving Center SMS SC, Gateway MSC GMSC, Chargeback Center CBC. Transcoder and Adaptation Unit TRAU, The following diagram shows the GSM netwrok along with the added elements. The MS and the BSS communicate across the Um interface It is also known as the air interface or. the radio link The BSS communicates with the Network Service Switching NSS center across the A. GSM Network Areas, In a GSM network the following areas are defined.
Cell Cell is the basic service area one BTS covers one cell Each cell is given a Cell Global Identity. CGI a number that uniquely identifies the cell, Location Area A group of cells form a Location Area LA This is the area that is paged when a. subscriber gets an incoming call Each LA is assigned a Location Area Identity LAI Each LA is. served by one or more BSCs, MSC VLR Service Area The area covered by one MSC is called the MSC VLR service area. PLMN The area covered by one network operator is called the Public Land Mobile Network. PLMN A PLMN can contain one or more MSCs, GSM Specification. The requirements for different Personal Communication Services PCS systems differ for each PCS. network Vital characteristics of the GSM specification are listed below. Modulation, Modulation is the process of transforming the input data into a suitable format for the transmission. medium The transmitted data is demodulated back to its original form at the receiving end The. GSM uses Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying GMSK modulation method. Access Methods, Radio spectrum being a limited resource that is consumed and divided among all the users GSM.
devised a combination of TDMA FDMA as the method to divide the bandwith among the users In. this process the FDMA part divides the frequency of the total 25 MHz bandwidth into 124 carrier. frequencies of 200 kHz bandwidth, Each BS is assigned with one or multiple frequencies and each of this frequency is divided into. eight timeslots using a TDMA scheme Each of these slots are used for both transmission as well as. reception of data These slots are separated by time so that a mobile unit doesn t transmit and. receive data at the same time, Transmission Rate, The total symbol rate for GSM at 1 bit per symbol in GMSK produces 270 833 K symbols second. The gross transmission rate of a timeslot is 22 8 Kbps. GSM is a digital system with an over the air bit rate of 270 kbps. Frequency Band, The uplink frequency range specified for GSM is 933 960 MHz basic 900 MHz band only The. downlink frequency band is 890 915 MHz basic 900 MHz band only. Channel Spacing, Channel spacing indicates the spacing between adjacent carrier frequencies For GSM it is 200 kHz. Speech Coding, For speech coding or processing GSM uses Linear Predictive Coding LPC This tool compresses.
the bit rate and gives an estimate of the speech parameters When the audio signal passes through a. filter it mimics the vocal tract Here the speech is encoded at 13 kbps. Duplex Distance, Duplex distance is the space between the uplink and downlink frequencies The duplex distance for. GSM is 80 MHz where each channel has two frequencies that are 80 MHz apart. Miscellaneous, Frame duration 4 615 mS, Duplex Technique Frequency Division Duplexing FDD access mode previously known as. Speech channels per RF channel 8, GSM Addressing and Identifiers. GSM treats the users and the equipment in different ways Phone numbers subscribers and. equipment identifiers are some of the known ones There are many other identifiers that have been. well defined which are required for the subscriber s mobility management and for addressing the. remaining network elements Vital addresses and identifiers that are used in GSM are addressed. International Mobile Station Equipment Identity, The International Mobile Station Equipment Identity IMEI looks more like a serial number which. distinctively identifies a mobile station internationally This is allocated by the equipment. manufacturer and registered by the network operator who stores it in the Entrepreneurs in. Residence EIR By means of IMEI one recognizes obsolete stolen or non functional equipment. Following are the parts of IMEI, Type Approval Code TAC 6 decimal places centrally assigned.
Final Assembly Code FAC 6 decimal places assigned by the manufacturer. Serial Number SNR 6 decimal places assigned by the manufacturer. Spare SP 1 decimal place, Thus IMEI TAC FAC SNR SP It uniquely characterizes a mobile station and gives clues about. the manufacturer and the date of manufacturing, International Mobile Subscriber Identity. Every registered user has an original International Mobile Subscribter Identity IMSI with a valid. IMEI stored in their Subscriber Identity Module SIM. IMSI comprises of the following parts, Mobile Country Code MCC 3 decimal places internationally standardized. Mobile Network Code MNC 2 decimal places for unique identification of a mobile network. within the country, Mobile Subscriber Identification Number MSIN Maximum 10 decimal places identification. number of the subscriber in the home mobile network. Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number, The authentic telephone number of a mobile station is the Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number.
MSISDN Based on the SIM a mobile station can have many MSISDNs as each subscriber is. assigned with a separate MSISDN to their SIM respectively. Listed below is the structure followed by MSISDN categories as they are defined based on. international ISDN number plan, Country Code CC Up to 3 decimal places. National Destination Code NDC Typically 2 3 decimal places. Subscriber Number SN Maximum 10 decimal places, Mobile Station Roaming Number. Mobile Station Roaming Number MSRN is an interim location dependent ISDN number assigned. to a mobile station by a regionally responsible Visitor Location Register VLA Using MSRN the. GSM Tutorial GSM is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communications GSM uses narrowband Time Division Multiple Access TDMA for providing voice and text based services over mobile phone networks Audience This tutorial has been designed for readers who want to understand the basics of GSM in very simple terms This tutorial provides just about enough material to have a solid

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