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Greek Philosophy and History
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WH6 4 8 Describe the enduring contributions of important Greek figures in the arts and sciences e g Hypatia Socrates Plato. Aristotle Euclid Thucydides,Many philosophers were teachers One. Greek Philosophers Greek philosopher Pythagoras puh THA. Greek philosophers developed ideas guh ruhs taught his pupils that the uni. that are still used today verse followed the same laws that governed. Reading Connection What is right What is wrong music and numbers He believed that all. What makes a government good Read to learn how the relationships in the world could be. ancient Greeks tried to answer similar big questions expressed in numbers As a result he devel. oped many new ideas about mathematics,Most people know his name because of the. The word philosophy fuh LAH suh fee Pythagorean theorem that is still used in. comes from the Greek word for love of wis geometry It is a way to determine the. dom Greek philosophy led to the study of length of the sides of a triangle. history political science science and mathe, matics Greek thinkers who believed the Who Were the Sophists The Sophists. human mind could understand everything SAH fihsts were professional teachers in. were called philosophers fuh LAH suh fuhrs ancient Greece They traveled from city to. This artwork shows Greek philosophers involved in a. discussion Where does the word philosophy come from. CHAPTER 8 Greek Civilization 393,Scala Art Resource NY. Greek Philosophers,Sophists Socrates Plato Aristotle.
Main Idea Sophists like Libanius He was a critic of He rejected the idea Aristotle taught the. above thought that the Sophists Socrates of democracy as a idea of the golden. people should use believed that there form of government mean He believed. knowledge to improve was an absolute Plato believed that observation and. themselves They right and wrong philosopher kings comparison were. believed that there should rule society necessary to gain. is no absolute knowledge,right or wrong, Important They developed the He created the He described his He wrote over 200. Contribution art of public speak Socratic method vision of the ideal books on philoso. ing and debate of teaching government phy and science He. in his work the divided all govern,Republic ments into three. basic types, Influence The importance of His methods He introduced the His political ideas. on Today public speaking can influenced the way idea that govern still shape political. be seen in political teachers interact ment should be ideas today. debates between with their students fair and just,candidates. city and made a living by teaching others Socrates believed that an absolute truth. They believed students should use their existed and that all real knowledge was. time to improve themselves Many taught within each person He invented the. their students how to win an argument and Socratic method suh KRA tihk of teaching. make good political speeches still used today He asked pointed questions. Sophists did not believe that gods and to force his pupils to use their reason and to. goddesses influenced people They also see things for themselves. rejected the concept of absolute right or Some Athenian leaders considered the. wrong They believed that what was right Socratic method a threat to their power At. for one person might be wrong for another one time Athens had a tradition of ques. tioning leaders and speaking freely, The Ideas of Socrates One critic of the However their defeat in the Peloponnesian.
Sophists was Socrates SAH kruh TEEZ War changed the Athenians They no longer. Socrates was an Athenian sculptor whose trusted open debate In 399 B C the leaders. true love was philosophy Socrates left no accused Socrates of teaching young. writings behind What we know about Athenians to rebel against the state A jury. him we have learned from the writings of found Socrates guilty and sentenced him to. his students death Socrates could have fled the city but. 394 CHAPTER 8 Greek Civilization, l Mary Evans Picture Library cl Scala Art Resource NY cr Museo Capitolino Rome E T Archives London SuperStock r Reunion des Musees Nationaux Art Resource NY. he chose to remain He argued that he had should not eat too little or too much but just. lived under the city s laws so he had to enough to stay well. obey them He then drank poison to carry Aristotle also helped to advance science. out the jury s sentence He urged people to use their senses to make. observations just as scientists today make,observations Aristotle was the first person. The Ideas of Plato One of Socrates stu,to group observations according to their sim. dents was Plato PLAY TOH Unlike Socrates,ilarities and differences Then he made gen. we are able to learn a lot about Plato from,eralizations based on the groups of facts.
his writings One work Plato wrote is called,Like Plato Aristotle wrote about gov. the Republic It explains his vision of gov,ernment He studied and compared the. ernment Based on life in Athens Plato,governments of 158 different places to find. decided that democracy was not a good,the best form of government In his book. system of government He did not think,Politics Aristotle divided the governments.
that rule by the people produced fair or sen,into three types. sible policies To him people could not live,Government by one person such as a. good lives unless they had a just and rea,monarch king or queen or a tyrant. sonable government,Government by a few people which. In the Republic Plato described his ideal,might be an aristocracy or an.
government He divided people into three,basic groups At the top were philosopher. Government by many people as in a,kings who ruled using logic and wisdom. Warriors made up the second group They, defended the state from attack Aristotle noticed that governments run. The third group included the rest of the by a few people were usually run by the. people They were driven by desire not by rich He noticed that most democracies. wisdom like the first group or courage like were run by the poor He thought the best. the second These people produced the government was a mixture of the two. state s food clothing and shelter Plato also Aristotle s ideas shaped the way. believed that men and women should have Europeans and Americans thought about. the same education and an equal chance to government The founders of the United. have the same jobs States Constitution tried to create a mixed. government that balanced the different,types Aristotle had identified. Who Was Aristotle Plato established a, school in Athens known as the Academy His Contrast How did.
best student was Aristotle AR uh STAH tuhl Aristotle s idea of government differ from Plato s. Aristotle wrote more than 200 books on,topics ranging from government to the. planets and stars,In 335 B C Aristotle opened his own. school called the Lyceum At the Lyceum Web Activity Visit ca hss glencoe com and. Aristotle taught his pupils the golden click on Chapter 8 Student Web Activity to. mean This idea holds that a person should learn more about ancient Greece. do nothing in excess For example a person,CHAPTER 8 Greek Civilization 395. 6 4 6 Compare and contrast life in Athens,and Describe. Sparta with the enduring,emphasis on their rules in.
contributions,the Persian andofPeloponnesian,important Greek figures in. the arts and sciences e g Hypatia Socrates,Plato Aristotle Euclid Thucydides. PLATO AND ARISTOTLE,Plato c 428 347 B C,Aristotle 384 322 B C. Plato was from a noble Greek family and had planned a career. in politics However he was so horrified by the death of his teacher. Socrates that he left politics and spent many years traveling and. writing When Plato returned to Athens in 387 B C he founded an. academy where he taught using Socrates method of questioning. His academy drew bright young students from Athens and other. Greek city states Plato looked for truth beyond the appearances of. everyday objects and reflected this philosophy in his writing and. teaching He believed the human soul was the connection between. the appearance of things and ideas, Plato and Aristotle two of the greatest ancient Greek. philosophers met as teacher and student at Plato s Academy in Plato. Athens Aristotle left his home in Stagira and arrived on the Academy s. doorstep when he was eighteen years old He remained at Plato s Academy for. 20 years until the death of his teacher Unlike Plato Aristotle did not come from. a noble family His father was the court physician to the king of Macedonia At an early. age Aristotle s father introduced him to the topics of medicine and biology and these. became his main interests of study Aristotle sought truth through a systematic scientific. approach He liked to jot down notes and details about different topics from weather to. human behavior and arrange them in categories He did not trust the senses ability to. understand the universe, After Plato s death Aristotle traveled for about 12 years.
He also tutored the future Alexander the Great Later in his. life he returned to Athens and opened his own school the. Lyceum He made his school the center for research in every. area of knowledge known to the Greeks,Aristotle spent 20 years at Plato s Academy. What present day careers or subjects of study,require lifelong learning. t SEF Art Resource NY b Scala Art Resource NY, WH6 4 8 Describe the enduring contributions of important Greek figures in the arts and sciences e g Hypatia Socrates Plato. Aristotle Euclid Thucydides,Many historians consider Thucydides. Greek Historians thoo SIH duh DEEZ the greatest historian of. Greeks wrote the first real histories in the ancient world Thucydides fought in the. Western civilization Peloponnesian War Afterward he wrote. Reading Connection How would the United States be his History of the Peloponnesian War. different if we did not know our history Read to learn how Unlike Herodotus Thucydides saw war. the Greeks began to write history and politics as the activities of human. beings not gods He also stressed the, In most places in the ancient world peo importance of having accurate facts.
ple used legends and myths to explain their, past No one tried to explain the past by Either I was present myself at the. studying events Then in 435 B C a Greek events which I have described or. named Herodotus hih RAH duh tuhs else I heard of them from eye. wrote the history of the Persian Wars witnesses whose reports I have. In his book Herodotus tried to separate checked with as much. fact from legend He asked questions thoroughness as possible. recorded answers and checked the truthful, ness of his sources Although his history Thucydides History of the. includes some errors and uses gods and Peloponnesian War. goddesses to explain some events many, European and American historians consider Identify How did. him the father of history Thucydides view war and politics. Study Central Need help with Greek,philosophy and history Visit ca hss glencoe com. and click on Study Central,What Did You Learn,Reading Summary 1 Who were the Sophists and.
what were their beliefs,4 Science Connection How,are Aristotle s teachings related. Review the to the scientific method used,2 Before Herodotus how did. The ideas of Greek philosophers Greeks explain the past by scientists today CA 6RC2 3. including Socrates Plato and,5 Contrast What is different. Aristotle still affect modern Critical Thinking,about the works of Herodotus. thinking about education gov 3 Organizing Information and Thucydides CA 6RC2 2. ernment and science Draw a diagram like the one,below Use the diagram to 6 How did the ideas.
organize Plato s ideas about an of Greek philosophers affect. Herodotus and Thucydides are,ideal government CA 6RC2 4 Greek society CA HI2. considered western civilization s, first historians They believed 7 Persuasive Writing Do you. that people could understand the agree with Plato s vision of the. present by studying the past ideal state in the Republic. Write an editorial expressing,your viewpoint CA 6WA2 5. WH6 4 8 Describe the enduring contributions of important Greek figures in the arts and sciences e g Hypatia Socrates Plato Aristotle Euclid Thucydides

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