MEM30405 Certificate III in Engineering - Electrical/Electronic Trade Date this document was generated: 27 May 2012 Approved Page 3 of 12
Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Graywater Discharges From Vessels Us Epa
Graywater Discharges from Vessels Table of Contents. Table of Contents,1 INTRODUCTION 1,1 1 What is Graywater 1. 1 2 Regulatory Framework for Graywater Discharges 2. 2 GRAYWATER CHARACTERISTICS 6,3 CURRENT GRAYWATER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 13. 3 1 Graywater Management for Large Cruise Ships 13. 3 2 Graywater Management for Medium Cruise Ships and Large Ferries 13. 3 3 Graywater Management for Commercial Vessels on the Great Lakes 14. 3 4 Graywater Management for Other Vessels 14,4 GRAYWATER CONTROL STRATEGIES 17. 5 SUMMARY 24,6 REFERENCES 26,Graywater Discharges from Vessels List of Tables. LIST OF TABLES,1 Graywater Definitions 2, 2 Estimated Annual Graywater Generation by Commercial Vessels Greater Than 79. Feet in Length in U S Waters 7, 3 Percentage of Large Cruise Ship Untreated Graywater and Treated Sewage. Samples by Concentration Range 9, 4 Analyte Concentrations Measured in Untreated Graywater from Large Cruise. Ships in Alaska and Armed Forces Vessels 10, 5 Analyte Concentrations Measured in Untreated Graywater from Small Cruise. Ships and Large Ferries in Alaska 11, 6 Analyte Concentrations Measured in Untreated Graywater from Fishing Vessels. and Non Recreational Vessels Less Than 79 Feet in Length 12. 7 Vessel Operators Contacted to Discuss Graywater Management Practices 16. 8 Vessel Sewage Treatment System Vendors Contacted to Discuss Graywater. Treatment Claims 19, 9 Vessel Sewage Standards under Various U S and International Regimes 21. 10 Average Treated Effluent Data For Five Alaska Marine Highway Vessels. Treating Comingled Sewage and Graywater 22, 11 Large Cruise Ships AWTS Influent and Effluent Concentrations and Percent. Removals 23, The EPA technical contacts for this document are Ryan Albert 202 564 0763 and Juhi Saxena. 202 564 0719, Graywater Discharges from Vessels Section 1 Introduction. INTRODUCTION, The 2008 Vessel General Permit VGP regulates discharges incidental to the normal. operation of vessels operating as a means of transportation The VGP like other general permits. is issued by the permitting authority in this case EPA and covers multiple facilities within a. specific category for a specific period of time not to exceed 5 years The 2008 VGP includes. the following limits or requirements general effluent limits applicable to all discharges effluent. limits applicable to 26 specific discharge streams narrative water quality based effluent limits. inspection monitoring recordkeeping and reporting requirements and additional requirements. applicable to certain vessel types USEPA 2008a, Because EPA plans to reissue the VGP the Agency continues to gather information on. vessel wastewater sources while examining technologies that can be used to remove pollutants. before discharge into waters of the United States 1 This document contains updated information. on both vessel graywater discharge characteristics and recent developments in graywater. treatment technologies,1 1 W HAT IS G RAYWATER, For purposes of the 2008 VGP graywater means galley bath and shower water as. well as wastewater from lavatory sinks laundry and water fountains USEPA 2008a Other. regulations have expanded the definition of graywater to specifically include discharges from. dishwashers Table 1 shows various other definitions for graywater based on different. regulations USEPA 2008b According to information gathered by EPA during ship visits and. via responses to EPA s survey of cruise ships operating in Alaska in 2004 the following waste. streams were routed to the graywater system 2,Wastewater from bar and pantry sinks. Wastewater from salon and day spa sinks and floor drains. Wastewater from interior deck drains shop sinks and deck drains in non engine rooms. Refrigerator and air conditioner condensate, Wastewater from laundry floor drains in passenger and crew laundries. Dry cleaning condensate, Wastewater from garbage room floor drains and from sinks in restaurants and cafes. Wastewater from whirlpools and, Wastewater from medical facility sinks and medical floor drains. These waste streams are not specifically listed in the 2008 VGP graywater definition or. within other regulatory definitions of graywater listed in Table 1 although some have similar. characteristics For example wastewater from bar and pantry sinks would be expected to have. characteristics similar to dishwasher wastewater, Waters of the United States as defined in 40 CFR 122 2. Note that the 2008 VGP prohibits some of the sources below from being discharged into waters subject to that. Graywater Discharges from Vessels Section 1 Introduction. Table 1 Graywater Definitions,Source Graywater Definition. Clean Water Act 33 U S C Galley bath and shower water. International Maritime Organization Drainage from dishwasher shower laundry bath and washbasin drains. Guidelines for Implementation of and does not include drainage from toilets urinals hospitals and animal. Annex V of MARPOL spaces as defined in regulation 1 3 of Annex IV as well as drainage. from cargo spaces, Title XIV Certain Alaskan Cruise Only galley dishwasher bath and laundry wastewater. Ship Operations 33 U S C 1901,Note Sec 1414 4, Coast Guard regulations Drainage from dishwasher shower laundry bath and washbasin drains. implementing MARPOL and the Act and does not include drainage from toilets urinals hospitals and cargo. to Prevent Pollution from Ships 33 spaces,CFR 151 05. Graywater discharges can contain bacteria pathogens oil and grease detergent and soap. residue metals e g cadmium chromium lead copper zinc silver nickel and mercury. solids and nutrients USEPA 2008b USEPA 2010 Wastewater from medical facility sinks and. medical floor drains may contain constituents ranging from bacteria nutrients and oxygen. depleting substances e g BOD5 depending on the types of illness or treatment procedures. being performed, 1 2 R EGULATORY F RAMEWORK FOR G RAYWATER DISCHARGES. Graywater discharges from vessels operating in U S waters have historically been. excluded as discharges incidental to the normal operation of a vessel from Clean Water Act. CWA National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System NPDES permitting requirements. through regulations at 40 CFR 122 3 a However in December 2003 the long standing. exclusion of discharges incidental to the normal operation of vessels from the NPDES program. became the subject of a lawsuit in the U S District Court for the Northern District of California. On March 30 2005 the same court determined that the exclusion exceeded the Agency s. authority under the CWA and issued a court order vacating that exclusion As a result. discharges incidental to the normal operation of a vessel including graywater became subject to. CWA section 301 s prohibition against discharging without a NPDES permit unless covered. under an NPDES permit On December 19 2008 EPA issued the VGP to provide NPDES. permit coverage for vessel discharges incidental to normal operation from commercial vessels. greater than 79 feet into waters of the United States Waters of the United States as defined in 40. CFR 122 2 includes the 3 mile territorial sea as defined in Section 502 8 of the CWA and. inland navigable waters including navigable waters of the Great Lakes subject to the jurisdiction. of the United States USEPA 2008a The 2008 VGP did not include discharges incidental to. normal operation of vessels less than 79 ft and commercial fishing vessels 3 which are exempt. from NPDES permitting until December 2013 4 pursuant to a moratorium Approximately. 120 000 to 140 000 vessels fall under the moratorium including commercial fishing vessels and. Except for ballast water discharges for which these vessels still required NPDES permit coverage. Public Law P L 110 299 amended by P L 111 215, Graywater Discharges from Vessels Section 1 Introduction. those commercial vessels 79 feet or less in length Discharges from recreational and armed. forces vessels are also permanently excluded 5, The 2008 VGP includes several best management practices BMPs that EPA determined. are practicable and achievable for the control of graywater impacts USEPA 2008a First all. vessels must minimize the production and discharge of graywater while in port For vessels that. cannot store graywater the owner or operator should minimize graywater generation while in. port Second vessels greater than 400 gross tons that regularly travel more than 1 nautical mile. nm from shore and have the capacity to store graywater must discharge graywater greater than. 1 nm from shore while the vessel is underway unless the vessel meets the 2008 VGP graywater. treatment standards 6 Vessels that do not travel more than 1 nm from shore must minimize the. discharge of graywater and provided the vessel has available graywater storage capacity must. dispose of graywater on shore if appropriate facilities are available 7 unless the vessel can meet. the 2008 VGP graywater treatment standards Third vessel operators must minimize the. introduction of kitchen oils to the graywater system When cleaning dishes vessel. owners operators must remove as much food and oil residue as practicable before rinsing dishes. Vessel owners operators should not add oils used in cooking to the graywater system or. discharge oils from the galley and scullery in quantities that may be harmful as defined in 40. CFR 110 8 In addition soaps and detergents used in any capacity that will be discharged as part. of graywater must be nontoxic and phosphate free and should be biodegradable where possible. Additional management practices are also applicable if the vessel is within nutrient impaired or. protected waters of the United States, Medium cruise ships authorized to carry between 100 and 499 people for hire and large. cruise ships authorized to carry 500 or more people for hire with overnight accommodations. have additional requirements for graywater discharges under the 2008 VGP When pierside. medium and large cruise ships must discharge graywater to appropriate shore side receiving. facilities or treat graywater to meet discharge standards When pierside medium and large cruise. ships traveling within 1 nm of shore must either store graywater in on board holding tanks or. treat graywater to meet the discharge standards Untreated graywater can be discharged by. medium and large cruise ships between 1 and 3 nm from shore if the vessel is traveling at 6 knots. or greater USEPA 2008a, Large ferries that are authorized by the Coast Guard to carry 250 or more people are also. subject to additional graywater discharge requirements in the 2008 VGP however there are no. numeric treatment standards While pierside large ferries must discharge graywater to shore side. reception facilities if reasonably available If shore side reception facilities are not reasonably. 2008 33 U S C 1342 r and 1362 6 A, Discharge standards for graywater are 20 CFU 100 mls 30 day geometric mean for fecal coliform bacteria 10. ug L for total residual chlorine and the secondary treatment standards for BOD5 suspended solids and pH as. defined in 40 CFR 133 102, Appropriate reception facilities are those authorized for use by the port authority or municipality and that treat the. discharge in accordance with the reception facility s NPDES permit USEPA Vessel General Permit for Discharges. Incidental to the Normal Operation of Vessels VGP, 40 CFR 110 3 defines oils that may be harmful as those which violate applicable water quality standards or cause. a film or sheen or discoloration of the surface of the water or adjoining shorelines or cause a sludge or emulsion to. be deposited beneath the surface of the water or upon adjoining shorelines. Graywater Discharges from Vessels Section 1 Introduction. available the large ferry must hold the graywater if the vessel has the holding capacity and. discharge the effluent while underway outside 3 nm If the large ferry operates within 3 nm of. shore the ferry must discharge graywater while sailing at a speed of at least 6 knots if feasible. Both medium and large cruise ships and large ferries are also required to maintain records. estimating all discharges of untreated graywater including date location and volume discharged. and speed of the vessel at the time of discharge in their recordkeeping documentation These. records can be maintained as part of the vessels sewage and graywater discharge record book. required under 33 CFR 159 315, EPA estimates that approximately 70 000 vessels are subject to the VGP USEPA 2011. however not all of these vessels generate graywater The vast majority 78 percent of these. vessels that are subject to the VGP operate primarily in the Mississippi River System and the. Gulf Intracoastal Waterway Twenty one percent operate along the Atlantic Pacific and Gulf. Coasts and just over 1 percent mainly ply the waters of the Great Lakes. According to the U S Coast Guard s Marine Information for Safety and Law. Enforcement MISLE database there are approximately 70 000 additional U S flagged. commercial fishing vessels that may generate graywater USEPA 2010 However these. vessels currently fall under the moratorium that exempts all commercial fishing vessels from the. 2008 VGP s requirements for discharges incidental to the normal operation of a vessel including. After excluding barges which generally do not generate graywater EPA estimates there. are between 43 000 and 50 000 vessels that may be subject to graywater discharge limitations. under the next VGP EPA reports there are between 43 000 and 45 000 vessels 9 associated with. the current 2008 VGP whose Notice of Intent NOI status is either active or certified i e in the. waiting period prior to becoming active Albert 2010. Pursuant to section 312 of the CWA certain vessels operating in the Great Lakes are. required to treat graywater discharges differently than other vessels operating on other waters of. the United States With respect to commercial vessels as defined at 33 U S C 1322 a 1. operating on the Great Lakes graywater is included in the definition of sewage 33 U S C. 1322 a 6 and thus subject to CWA 312 not NPDES On the Great Lakes discharges of. untreated graywater from commercial vessels are prohibited unless treated by a United States. Coast Guard USCG certified marine sanitation device MSD 10 Commercial vessels operating. on the Great Lakes can instead place both graywater and sewage into holding tanks and. discharge the wastewater to shore side facilities if the vessel is not equipped with an MSD. Certain vessels operating in Alaska have federal requirements for graywater discharges. beyond those provided in the 2008 VGP On December 12 2000 Congress enacted an omnibus. appropriation that included new statutory requirements for certain cruise ship discharges. Owner operators only had to submit an NOI for a vessel if that vessel was greater than 300 gross tons or had the. ability to carry 8 cubic meters of ballast water Hence there are some vessels larger than 79 feet but smaller than. 300 gross tons which are covered by the VGP but did not have to submit an NOI. For purposes of the CWA a marine sanitation device is any equipment for installation on board a vessel which is. designed to receive retain treat or discharge sewage and any process to treat such sewage 33 CFR 159 3. Graywater Discharges from Vessels Section 1 Introduction. occurring in Alaska Departments of Labor Health and Human Services and Education and. Related Agencies Appropriations Act 2001 Pub L No 106 554 114 Stat 2763 enacting into. law Title XIV of Division B of H R 5666 114 Stat 2763A 315 and codified at 33 U S C. 1901 Note USEPA 2008b Title XIV sets discharge standards for sewage and graywater from. certain cruise ships those authorized to carry 500 or more passengers for hire while operating in. the Alexander Archipelago the navigable waters of the United States in the state of Alaska and. within the Kachemak Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve 11. Based on the various regulations and permit requirements described above only medium. and large cruise ships large ferries and commercial vessels operating on the Great Lakes have. specific discharge standards and or treatment requirements mandating the use of a treatment. technology for graywater under certain discharge conditions e g large and medium cruise ships. discharging graywater while at the pier large cruise ships discharging graywater in Alaskan. waters commercial vessels discharging graywater in the Great Lakes etc Requirements to. hold graywater for discharge are also limited to a few specific conditions e g for certain ocean. going vessels by the 2008 VGP The remainder of this document describes the feasibility of. expanding these requirements to apply to a greater number of vessels in U S waters or to. broaden the discharge conditions under which they apply. Title XIV Certain Vessels Operating in Alaska 33 CFR 159 Part E. Graywater Discharges from Vessels Section 2 Graywater Characteristics. GRAYWATER CHARACTERISTICS, Graywater consists of discharges from galley bath and shower water as well as. wastewater from lavatory sinks laundry and water fountains USEPA 2008a The volume of. graywater generated depends largely on the type of vessel and the number of passengers. onboard For example cruise ships generate more graywater than cargo ships since they have. many more passengers and crew than other ships Cruise ships also generate higher graywater. volumes per capita because passengers on these vessels use galleys and accommodations sinks. and showers to a greater extent than crew on cargo ships 12. Estimated graywater generation rates reported in response to EPA s 2004 cruise ship. survey ranged from 36 to 119 gallons day person with an average of 67 gallons day person. USEPA 2008b for large cruise ships During EPA s 2004 Alaskan cruise ship sampling. program graywater generation was measured on one ship at 45 gallons day person USEPA. 2006a The 2004 cruise ship survey data indicate there is no relationship between per capita. graywater generation rates and number of persons onboard the cruise ship Estimated graywater. generation rates reported in response to EPA s 2004 cruise ship survey indicate that. approximately 52 percent of graywater was from accommodations 17 percent from laundries. and 31 percent from galleys Total BOD5 contributions associated with all graywater sources. shows that 52 percent is from galleys 38 percent from food pulper food waste 8 percent from. accommodations and 2 percent from laundry EcoMarine 2010. To validate the information gathered from EPA s 2004 cruise ship survey EPA reviewed. literature information on graywater generation from other cruise vessels According to a report. from the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission cruise ship graywater generation is. approximately 120 liters per person day 32 gallons day person Hanninen 2009 The Ocean. Conservancy has estimated cruise ship grey water generation ranging from 114 to 322 liters per. day 30 to 85 gallons day person Hanninen 2009, To determine the total annual volume of graywater generated by various classes of. vessels EPA used information collected from telephone calls with vessel operators together with. typical passenger crew numbers and graywater generation rates Table 2 shows the total. estimated graywater generation by various common vessel classes in U S waters. Passengers and crew on cruise ships are expected to generate more graywater per capita than the crew of a cargo. ships since persons on cruise ships are engaged in leisure activities and more likely to use larger quantities of water. for bathing food preparation etc, Graywater Discharges from Vessels Section 2 Graywater Characteristics. Table 2 Estimated Annual Graywater Generation by Commercial Vessels Greater Than 79. Feet in Length in U S Waters,Days Vessel is Total Annual. Average Generating Graywater, Number Number of Graywater in Graywater Generation In. of Passengers U S Waters Generation Rate U S Waters. Vessel Class Vessels and Crew days yr a gal day person gallons yr. Large Cruise Ships 47b 3 506c 85d 45e 630 291 000,Medium and Small. Cruise Ships 36f 187g 274h 45e 83 006 000,Passenger Ferries. with Overnight,Accommodations 6i 610i 274h 45e 45 128 000. Passenger Vessels,Without Overnight,Accommodations 106j 282k 274h 45e 368 568 000. Dry Cargo Tanker 20 370 000 to,Ships 970l 25m 60n 14o to 45e 65 475 000. Great Lakes,Freighters 52p 24p 136h 45e 7 638 000,Off Shore Utility. Vessels 1 964q 4r 31h 45e 10 959 000,Public Vessels. Unclassified 559s 4r 88h 45e 8 855 000,Tug Boats Push 136 685 000 to. Boats 5 424t 6u 350v 12w to 45e 512 568 000,Fishing Vesselsz 69 944x 7y 94h 45e 2 071 000 000. a Within 3 nm of shore or anywhere in the Great Lakes. b CLIA 2010, c Average passenger and crew numbers calculated from Friends of the Earth FOE Report Card for Cruise Ships entering U S. Waters FOE 2010, d Based on 31 cruise ships in Alaska from May September in U S waters 60 of the time and 17 additional cruise ships. outside Alaska within U S waters 2 days per week and 52 weeks per year. e Sampling Episode Report for Holland America Veendam Sampling Episode 6503 Washington DC USEPA 2006a. f Total number of small and medium cruise ships from EPA 2008 VGP Notice of Intent Application database. g Average crew and passengers calculated from 23 medium and small cruise ships. h USEPA 2006b, i Passenger ferries having overnight accommodations Includes five Alaska Marine Highway ferries and one Great Lakes ferry. having overnight accommodations, j Calculated based on a total of 7 833 inspected passengers vessels of which 9 percent are greater than 79 feet USEPA. 2010b Based on personal contact with the Passenger Vessel Association approximately 15 of passenger vessels greater. than 79 feet in length 106 vessels discharge and the remainder use holding tanks and discharge to shore side facilities. k Average number of passengers and crew calculated based on random sampling of data from tour boats dinner cruise vessels. wedding party boats whale watching tours and shuttle service vessels. l US Army Corp of Engineers 2009,m Chamber of Shipping of America 2010. n Estimated time container vessels are in U S water based on USEPA Region 9 analysis of USCG Marine Information for. Safety and Law Enforcement MISLE data that indicates 2 3 days per port call EPA assumed vessel is in port 2 3 days. every 2 weeks which equals 60 days yr, o Calculated based on vessels using only galley operations while in port per personal communication with Horizon Lines See. Attachment B, p Total number of members is 55 however two have holding tanks and discharge shore side and a third vessel is the car ferry. Badger that discharges shore side Lake Carriers Association 2010. Graywater Discharges from Vessels Section 2 Graywater Characteristics. q Off shore utility vessels include school ships research vessels supply vessels industrial vessels and mobile off shore. drilling units Of the 5 610 utility vessels not classified as tugs and tows 35 are greater than 79 feet in length USEPA. r Assumes off shore utility vessels and public vessels have approximately four crew based on information in Great Lakes. Fisheries Commission Schneider 2001, s Of the 622 public vessels unclassified 90 are estimated to be greater than 79 feet in length USEPA 2010b. t US Army Corp of Engineers 2009, u Based on personal contact with AEP River Operations see Attachment B. v Assumes vessel is out of service for 15 days per calendar year for maintenance per personal contact with AEP River. Operations See Attachment B, w Based on personal contact with AEP River Operations who indicated the majority of tug boats are day boats and therefore. crew are not living onboard See Attachment B, x Total number of commercial fishing vessels USEPA 2010b. y Commercial fishing vessels typically include a captain first mate engineer boatswain and three deck hands according to the. Bureau of Labor Statistics Agriculture Forestry and Fishing 2010 2011 Edition. z Includes commercial fishing vessels of any length. As expected the class of vessels currently covered by the 2008 VGP that generates the. largest volume of graywater is large cruise ships Large cruise ships generate the largest volume. of graywater due primarily to the large number of passengers and crew on these types of vessels. Medium and small cruise ships also generate relatively large volumes of graywater also due to. their relatively large number of passengers and crew Surprising however is the relatively large. volume of graywater generated by tug and push boats as compared to other types of vessels. Although the number of crew on tug and push boats is small in comparison to other vessels there. are a relatively large number of these vessels operating in U S waters 5 424 operating for a. relatively large number of days resulting in the generation of large volumes of graywater. Commercial fishing vessels though currently excluded from NPDES permitting may generate. the highest total volume of graywater because of the large number of vessels in this class. In 2000 the Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative ACSI led a voluntary sampling effort to. characterize graywater discharged without treatment and treated sewage discharges from cruise. ships Twice during the 2000 cruise season samples were collected from each sewage and. graywater discharge port from each of the 21 large cruise ships operating in Alaska Sampling. was scheduled randomly at various ports of call and on all major cruise routes in Alaska. Analytes included total suspended solids TSS BOD5 chemical oxygen demand COD pH. fecal coliform total residual chlorine free residual chlorine and ammonia for all samples and. priority pollutants metals hydrocarbons organochlorines for one sample per ship Voluntary. sampling continued at the start of the 2001 cruise ship season through July 1 2001 when Alaska. state graywater and sewage discharge regulations AS 46 03 460 46 03 490 came into effect. Table 3 shows the number of graywater and treated sewage discharge samples collected from. cruise ships that fall into the different concentration ranges treated sewage sample. characteristics are shown to provide context for the pollutant strength of graywater The results. of this sampling effort demonstrate that the strength of the graywater as indicated by TSS. BOD5 and COD is variable and that graywater can have high levels of fecal coliform bacteria. Graywater Discharges from Vessels Section 2 Graywater Characteristics. Table 3 Percentage of Large Cruise Ship Untreated Graywater and Treated Sewage. Samples by Concentration Range,Analyte and,Concentration Ranges. Wastewater Type,Fecal Coliform 1 000 1 million, MPN 100 mL 0 to 200 200 1 000 1 million 10 million 10 million. Percentage of Graywater 22 3 42 19 14,Percentage of Treated 40 9 23 22 6. Sewage Samples,TSS mg L 0 150 150 1 000 1 000,Percentage of Graywater 60 35 5. Percentage of Treated 22 61 17,Sewage Samples,BOD5 mg L 0 100 100 1 000 1 000. Percentage of Graywater 25 55 20,Percentage of Treated 51 46 3. Sewage Samples,COD mg L 0 100 100 1 000 1 000 10 000 10 000. Percentage of Graywater 2 68 26 4,Percentage of Treated 0 25 62 13. Sewage Samples,Source ADEC 2001, In 2004 EPA sampled wastewater from four large cruise ships that operated in Alaska to. characterize graywater and sewage generated onboard and to evaluate the performance of the. Zenon Hamworthy Scanship and ROCHEM advanced wastewater treatment systems AWTS. EPA analyzed individual untreated graywater sources accommodations laundry galley and. food pulper wastewater on each ship for over 400 analytes including pathogen indicators. suspended and dissolved solids BOD5 oil and grease dissolved and total metals organics and. nutrients In addition laundry wastewater samples were analyzed for dioxins and furans and. galley wastewater samples were analyzed for organo halide and organo phosphorus pesticides. Table 4 summarizes the average conventional and nonconventional pollutant. concentrations measured in combined untreated graywater The data in Table 4 indicate that. untreated graywater characteristics are similar to and in some cases have a higher concentration. of constituents than domestic sewage entering land based wastewater treatment plants For. example the BOD5 of graywater measured by EPA in 2004 from large cruise ships 1 140 mg L. is nearly four times higher than domestic sewage The TSS concentration of graywater from. cruise ships is nearly double the concentration expected from domestic sewage The conclusion. that that can be drawn from the pollutant concentration data in Table 4 is that graywater from. commercial vessels has the potential to be as environmentally damaging to surface waters as. untreated domestic sewage discharged in similar quantities. Graywater Discharges from Vessels Section 2 Graywater Characteristics. Table 4 Analyte Concentrations Measured in Untreated Graywater from Large Cruise. Ships in Alaska and Armed Forces Vessels,Average Untreated Graywater Concentrations. Large Large Cruise,Cruise Ships Armed,Ships EPA ASCI ADEC Forces Domestic. Analyte Units 2004 Data a Data b Vesselsc Sewaged,Alkalinity mg L 53 8 57 8 NR NR. Ammonia Nitrogen mg L as N 2 13 2 21 102 12 50,BOD5 mg L 1 140 354 540 110 400. COD mg L 1 890 1 000 1 440 200 780,Chloride mg L 125 NC NR NR. Conductivity uS cm 427 2 250 NR NR,Fecal Coliform 10 000. 36 000 000 2 950 000 MPN 100 142 000,CFU 100 mL mL CFU 100 mL. CFU 100 mLe,Hexane Extractable,mg L 149 78f 164 50 150. Nitrate Nitrite mg L 0 087 0 009 3 2 NR,pH s u 6 9 6 9 NR NR. Settable Residue mg L 25 6 1 1 NR NR,Silica Gel Treated Hexane. mg L 36 6 NC NR NR,Extractable Material,Sulfate mg L 49 9 NC NR NR. Temperature C 39 6 NC NR NR,Total Dissolved Solids mg L 578 NC 1 760 NR. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen mg L 26 2 11 1 140 NR,Total Organic Carbon mg L 535 481 224 NR. Total Phosphorous mg L 10 1 3 3 NR 4 8,Total Residual Chlorine ug L NR 0 37 NR NR. TSS mg L 704 318 802 120 360,Turbidity mg L 224 NC NR NR. NC indicates that this information was not collected. NR indicates that this information was not reported. a EPA used flow rates for the individual graywater sources to calculate a flow weighted average to represent untreated. graywater Graywater sources include accommodations galley laundry and food pulper USEPA 2008b. b ADEC 2001 USEPA 2008b,c USEPA 1999,d Qasim 1999,e Metcalf Eddy 1991. f Measured as oil and grease, Table 5 presents the average concentration and the range of concentrations for all. untreated graywater samples collected unannounced by ADEC between 2001 and 2010 for 13. small cruise ships and five Alaska Marine Highway ferries as part of the Commercial Passenger. vessel Environmental Compliance Program CPVEC 13 Examination of ACSI ADEC untreated. graywater data from small passenger vessels including small cruise ships and ferries having. between 50 and 250 passengers shows analyte levels similar to graywater from large cruise. Alaska Statute AS 46 03 460 46 03 490 Commercial Passenger Vessel Environmental Compliance Program. Graywater Discharges from Vessels Section 2 Graywater Characteristics. Table 5 Analyte Concentrations Measured in Untreated Graywater from Small Cruise. Ships and Large Ferries in Alaska,Average Range of. Untreated Untreated,Graywater Graywater Domestic,Analyte Concentrationa Concentrationa Sewageb. Ammonia Nitrogen mg L 8 8 0 05 to 403 12 50,BOD5 mg L 326 2 to 4 050 110 400. COD mg L 592 1 5 to 4 400 200 780, Fecal Coliform 608 000 MPN 100 1 to 16 000 000 10 000 100 000. ml c MPN 100 ml c CFU 100 mLd, Hexane Extractable Material mg L e 36 5 3 to 320 50 150. pH s u 7 5 4 6 to 10 9 Not Reported,Total Phosphorous mg L 7 7 0 017 to 69 4 8. Total Residual Chlorine mg L 11 2 0 02 to 270 Not Reported. TSS mg L 122 0 65 to 2 570 120 360, a Alaska Commercial Passenger Vessel Environmental Compliance Program CPVEC Values reported as zero were not. included in the statistical calculation values reported as ND in the database was replaced with the reported method. detection limit and a symbol placed on the minimum value in the range. b Qasim 1999, c Only fecal coliform values reported as MPN 100 ml were used in statistical calculations. d Metcalf Eddy 1991,e Includes values measured as oil and grease. In 2009 EPA collected untreated graywater characterization data from a variety of. commercial fishing vessels and non recreational and recreational vessels less than 79 feet in. length USEPA 2010b Specifically EPA sampled graywater from eight vessels five tugboats. a shrimper a water taxi and a recreational powerboat These samples included graywater from. sinks dishwashers and showers as well as graywater samples from several mixed or unspecified. sources Graywater samples were analyzed for a range of analytes including pathogen indicators. classical pollutants nonylphenols metals and nutrients. Table 6 shows the average graywater analyte untreated graywater concentration and. range of untreated graywater concentration data from this sampling program The graywater data. collected by EPA from these vessels is similar to that collected by ADEC from small passenger. vessels see Table 5 above For example the average BOD5 concentration measured in. graywater by ADEC from 2001 to 2010 was 326 mg L and the average BOD5 concentration in. graywater measured by EPA in 2009 was 430 mg L, Graywater Discharges from Vessels Section 2 Graywater Characteristics. Table 6 Analyte Concentrations Measured in Untreated Graywater from Fishing. Vessels Non Recreational and Recreational Vessels Less Than 79 Feet in Length. Average Untreated Range of Untreated,Graywater Graywater Domestic. Analyte Concentrationa Concentrationa Sewageb,Ammonia Nitrogen mg L as N 1 3 0 19 4 5 12 50. BOD5 mg L 430 99 1 200 110 400,COD mg L 1 000 180 4 000 200 780. Fecal Coliform CFU 100 ml 200 000 Nondetect 570 000 100 000c. Total Phosphorous mg L 1 4 0 42 3 4 4 8, Total Residual Chlorine mg L 0 12 Nondetect 0 11 Not Reported. TSS mg L 52 14 81 120 360, Note Nondetect concentrations were replaced with of the reporting limit for calculating average concentrations which. can result in the average concentration being higher than the upper range. a USEPA Report to Congress Study of Discharges Incidental to Normal Operation of Commercial Fishing Vessels and. Other Non Recreational Vessels Less Than 79 Feet Average concentration based on eight vessels sampled by EPA. b Qasim 1999,c Metcalf Eddy 1991, The analyte concentrations shown in Table 6 above reflect the washing and bathing activities that. generate graywater onboard these vessels EPA found that BOD5 oil and grease measured as. hexane extractable material and TSS all exceeded a Potential Hazard Quotient PHQ 14. threshold of 1 indicating that these pollutants in untreated graywater may have the potential to. negatively impact receiving waters, PHQ divides the vessel s average concentration by a corresponding screening benchmark For BOD5 and oil and. grease the screening benchmark is the secondary treatment standards included in 40 CFR 133.
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MEM30405 Certificate III in Engineering - Electrical/Electronic Trade Date this document was generated: 27 May 2012 Approved Page 3 of 12
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Some important sources for research problems include reading, academic/ or other daily work experience, exposure to field situations, consultations, brainstorming, past research and intuition. Discussing how to select and define a project, Catherine Dawson in Practical Research Methods (2002) summarises the questions to be raised
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CO-OPERATIVE BANKING IN INDIA - AN OVERVIEW In the previous chapter, we have reviewed the available literature on cooperative banking. In continuation of that, in this chapter, an attempt is made to review the developments in co-operative banking in India in general and that of Kerala in particular. This is considered essential for getting a clear picture of the background in which the DCBs ...
27-May-2020 1 Views 6 Pages
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