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The translation of mogen 63 68 228, The translation of niet mogenfmoeten prohibitions 69 23 I. The translation of willen 70 77 232,The translation of laten 78 85 235. E The Use ofTag Questions 86 241,F The Use of Auxiliary do 87 93 243. Introduction 87 243,Negation 88 243,Questions 89 244. Negativequestions 90 244,Tagquestions 91 244,Emphatic affirmation 92 245.
Ellipsis 93 245,G The Use oftheDefinite Article 94 100 247. H The Use of the Indefinite Article IOI 108 251,The Use of the Genitive I09 II3 255. Introduction 109 255,s genitive or of construction IIO 255. Spelling rules III 256,The group genitive 112 257,Independent genitives II3 257. J Concord 114 115 259,Subject complement concord 114 259.
Subject object concord II5 259,K Adjectives used as Nouns II6 II8 261. Introduction II6 261,Generic and plural reference 117 261. Abstract reference 118 262,L The Pronouns 119 144 263. Personal pronouns 119 124 263,Reflexive pronouns 125 268. Personal or reflexive pronouns in prepositional phrases 126 269. Possessive pronouns 127 129 270,Demonstrative pronouns 130 132 272.
Interrogative pronouns 133 274,Relative pronouns 134 137 275. Indefinite pronouns 138 144 279,M The Translation ofmen je etc 145 150 287. Introduction 145 287,The passive voice 146 287,One 147 288. You 148 288,Theyfpeople 149 289,We 150 290,N The Translation ofer 151 159 291. Introduction 151 291,Ervan eruit etc 152 291,Er place adverb 153 292.
Er grammatical subject in existential sentences 154 157 292. Er anticipatory subject in extraposed sentences 158 294. Miscellaneous expressions with er 159 294,0 Exclamations with wat 160 297. p The Use ofas andlike 161 299,Q The Use ojif and when 162 166 301. A TheTenses,Introduction, 1 A tense can be defined as the form taken by the verb to indicate the time of an action. COD More precisely this grammatical category can be said to express the. temporal relationship between the event or action described by the verb and the. actual utterance earlier than simultaneous with and later than. 2 As a general rule English uses the same tense as Dutch when the Dutch sentence. contains no time adverbial Thus consider the following translations. Ik begrijp alles wat hij zegt I understand all that he says. Ik vroeg ofik zijn vader kon spreken I asked to see his father but he was not. maar die was niet thuis athome, Het zou beter zijn als je vader daar zelf It would be better if your father went. heenging there hirnself, Ik heb een nieuw woordenboek ge I have bought a new dictionary.
Heb je het laatste nieuws gehoord Have you heard the latest news. But note for example that the Dutch present perfect tense accompanied by a past. time adverbial or a place adverbial implying time e g in Paris in the example below. is translated by a past tense in English, Ik heb hem gisterenfvorige weekfin I saw him yesterday last weekfin Paris. Parijs gezien see section 9, Another well known difference in tense usage between the two languages is this a. Dutch present tense usually accompanied by al or reeds which indicates that an. event or state of affairs starts in the past and continues up to the present moment is. rendered by a present without already in English, Hij woont hier al vijfjaar He has lived here for five years see. section 16, 3 For our present purposes we can assume that English and Dutch have the following. eight tenses, The present tense Du onvoltooid tegenwoordige tijd.
The past tense Du onvoltooid verleden tijd, The present perfect tense Du voltooid tegenwoordige tijd. The past perfect tense Du voltooid verleden tijd, The future tense Du onvoltooid tegenwoordig toekomende tijd. The past future tense Du onvoltooid verJeden toekomende tijd. The present future perfect tense Du voltooid tegenwoordig toekomende tijd. The past future perfect tense Du voltooid verJeden toekomende tijd. and that each of them has a number ofuses These tenses will each be discussed below. In addition there will be aseparate unit devoted to comparing the past tense and the. present perfect 14 1 6 one on the use ofjor since and during 17 and one dealing with. the ways of referring to the futurein Dutch and English 20 26. The present tense, 4 The universal use which expresses eternal truths such as. Twee en twee is vier Two and two make four, De zon komt in het oosten op The sun rises in the east. 5 The instantaneous use which refers to an event that occurs simultaneously with the. present moment particularly in sports commentaries exclamations and demonstra. Macdonald speelt de bal naar Hoddle Macdonald passes the ball to Hoddle. en die scoort and he scores, Een goochelaar Nu zet ik hier een A conjurer I now put a box here.
doos neer met de onderkant naar with the bottarn up and on top ofit I. boven en plaats daar een fies gevuld stand a bottle filled with water. met water boven op, The simple present in English is far less frequently used than in Dutch To emphasize. the idea of an activity in progress or oflimited duration English normally uses the. present progressive where Dutch has either a simple form or sometimes a construc. tion like bezig zijn te infinitive zijn followed by aan het infinitive zitten te or. staan te see also sections 30 33, Wie past er op de kinderen Who s looking after the children. Ze wonen tegenwoordig niet meer They are no langer living here. Wat doe je nou toch allemaal What on earth are you doing. Hij is zijn huiswerk aan het maken He s doing his homework I think. geloofik Hij is bezig,6 The habitual use, Hij loopt iedere dag naar zijn werk He walks to his work every day. Hij gaat graag naar de schouwburg He loves going to the theatre. 7 The future use which occurs in main clauses to emphasize the idea that the future. event is completely predetermined as part of say an official schedule or program. me but which in sub clauses oftime or condition has a neutral future meaning. De trein vertrekt over vijf minuten The train leaves in five minutes. Ik zalje terugbetalen als ikje weer zie 1 11 pay you back when I see you again. This future use ofthe simple present tense will be discussed in the section on future. time reference where it will be contrasted with other ways ofexpressing futurity see. sections 20 26, 8 The historic use which refers to an event that took place in the past but portrays it as if. it was taking place now It is typical of popular spoken narrative. Plotseling komt er een man naar mij Suddenly a man comes walking up to. toelopen en die vraagt me wat ik aan me and he asks me what I am doing. hetdoen ben there, For further details see Leech 6 17 Z 133 135 and Close 13 7.
As far as the present tense is concerned then it is to be noted that Dutch and. English differ mainly in their use of this tense for future reference. The past tense, 9 The unitary use also called the normal or definite use of the past tense which. applies to events that occurred and were completed before the present moment. Ik ben in I976 in Amerika geweest I was in America in I976. T S Eliot is in I888 geboren en in T S Eliot was born in I 888 and died. I965 gestorven in I965, The present perfect in the Dutch examples may be replaced by a past tense although. some speakers may have a certain preference for one of the two forms The main. point hereisthat in English it is impossible to use the present perfect Weshallreturn. to this in the section on the use ofthe simple past and the present perfect in English see. sections I4 I6,IO The habitual use as in, Toen hij jonger was liep hij iedere When he was younger he walked to. dag naar zijn werk his work every dayfhe used to walk. In die tijd gingen we vaak naar de In those days we often went to the. schouwburg theatre, Other means ofexpressing habits or states in the past are used to and would the latter. with the particular sense of characteristic predictable behaviour. I I The attitudinal use which relates to the speaker s present feelings rather than to past. time and is usually feit to be more polite that the present tense. Wilde U mij spreken Did you want to see me, Ik dacht dat U mij misschien wel zou I thought that perhaps you would not.
willen helpen mind helping me, I2 The modal use which occurs in subordinate clauses in both Dutch and English to. express hypothetical meaning i e so mething which in the opinion ofthe speaker or. writer is desirable or conceivable In this case the function of the past tense is not to. express past time as opposed to say present time but to denote non fact see e g. QG I 1 25 I 1 48 Z 139 and Leech 163 ff It is most frequently found in conditional. clauses expressing unreal conditions but also in a number of other constructions. Alsjenaar mij luisterde zou je je heel If you listened to me you might save. wat moeilijkheden kunnen besparen yourself a great many difficulties. Als hij kwam zou ik het hem meteen Ifhe came I d ask him at once. Het wordt hoog tijd dat je eens naar It s high time you went to bed. Hij gedraagt zieh alsof het huis van He behaves as ifhe owned the place. Ik wou dat ik rijk was I wish I were rich, In all these examples the implication is but I assume you won t listen but I. assume he won t come etc Insentences with a conditional sub clause the first two. examples the main clause contains wouldfshould infinitive or the past tense of. another modal auxiliary e g might or could On the difference in meaning between. He behaves as ifhe owns the place and He behaves as ifhe owned the place see Leech 164. As implied in the previous paragraph English never uses the modal past oflexical. verbs in main clauses we find wouldfshould infinitive instead In Dutch on the. other hand it is quite normal to have the modal past oflexical verbs in main clauses. In both languages the accompanying sub clause expresses an unreal condition. although in some cases the condition may be suppressed See Z 141 and Leech 165. Ik ging niet als ik U was I should not go ifl were you. Ik deed het niet als ze het mij vroegen I should not do it if they asked me. Als het aan mij lag kreeg hij het niet Ifl had my way he would not get it. Als je ze niet gehalpen had waren ze If you had not helped them they. nu nog niet klaar would not have finished yet, In Rusland was zoiets uitgedraaid op In Russia something like this would. een pogrom in Utrecht werd de man have resulted in a pogrom in U trecht. beschuldigd van een of ander zeden the man was accused ofsome indecent. misdrijf en de veldwachter kwam act and the village policeman came to. hem halen text 17 fetch him, Achteraf bedenk ik dat we een Looking back on it now I think we. prachtig stel kerels geweest waren om would have been a splendid bunch of. rijk te zijn text 21 chaps to be rich, It is worth noting that in English the modals should and would but also could might.
and ought to are required for the expression ofhypothetical meaning in main clauses. Thus I did not go if I were you is impossible,The present perfect tense. 13 The present perfect in Dutch refers to some specific moment in the past or to some. indefinite happening in the past English as we have seen uses a past tense in the. former case and like Dutch it has an indefinite perfect in the latter. The indefinite perfect in both languages implies that the past event has present. relevance in thesensethat the past event may have results etc at the present time. The present perfect in English is also used to indicate that a state which started in. the past continues up to the present moment this too is present relevance Weshall. retum to those differences between the two languages below sections 14 16. For Dutch we shall distinguish two main uses of the present perfect. a The unitary use which is the equivalent of the unitary past tense in English and is. generally synonymaus with the unitary use ofthe past tense in Dutch section 9. Ik heb hem gisteren nog gezienfik zag I saw him only yesterday. hem gisteren nog, Ik ben in 1976 in Amerika geweest Ik I was in America in 1976. was in 1976 nog in Amerika,b Theindefinite use which also occurs in English. Zijn firma heeft weer een enorme His firm has made an enormaus profit. winst gemaakt again, For English we also distinguish two uses of the present perfect They are. a The indefinite use which as we have seen is the same as in Dutch. b The continuative use which signifies that a state extends from a point in the past up. to the present moment The Dutch equivalent oftbis is the present tense al. Past tense and present perfect compared, 14 Dutch and English both use a past tense or a present perfect to refer to activities in the.
past but there are some important differences One point of difference is that in. English the present perfect cannot be used with a specific adverbial of past time e g. I have seen him yesterday whereas Dutch may use either the past tense or the present. perfect Another point is that English unlike Dutch uses a present perfect to refer to. an activity continuing till now e g I have lived here since 1975 Dutch often uses a. simplepresent tensein this case e g lkwoon hier al sinds 1975 Thesedifferences will. be discussed in greater detail in sections 15 and 16. Here it is important to repeat that in many cases there is little or no difference. between the use of the simple past and the present p. Grammar Contents Sections Page A The Tenses 1 29 191 Introduction I 3 191 The present tense 4 8 192 The past tense 9 12 193 The present perfect tense 13 195 Past tense and present perfect compared 14 16 196 The use of Jor since and du ring 17 199 The past perfect tense 18 201 The future tense 19 202 Future time reference 20 26 202 The past future tense 27 208 The present future perfect tense

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