Gfn Ssr Regional Guide Security Sector Reform In Southern-Books Pdf

GFN SSR REGIONAL GUIDE Security Sector Reform in Southern
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relevant justice conflict and fragile states related resources on the Governance and. Social Development Resource Centre website GSDRC,Current Security Challenges. The Southern African region is at present characterised by a peace dividend with an. absence of interstate conflict Although the region is generally free from conflict. governance deficits corruption and nepotism continue to weaken the ability of the. state to deliver security and justice to all Poverty food scarcity HIV AIDS. population pressures and movements crime and a range of socio economic ills all. affect Southern Africa Vast inequalities in access to and distribution of resources. and systemic patrimony characterise governance in many of countries presented. here and it is precisely these issues that threaten the democratic gains made in. Southern Africa and provide the greatest obstacles to SSR. SSR in Southern Africa, Much of what is called SSR in Southern Africa occurred during transitions to. democratic rule in the post colonial era However a deficiency of security. governance remains in many of the region s countries Furthermore there are few. SSR processes that can be seen to fulfill current ambitions of SSR as a multi. sectoral approach based on a broad assessment of the security and justice needs of. the state and its people As indicated in the available literature many of the states. that undertook some form of SSR have primarily followed sector specific reforms to. meet certain security and justice needs Furthermore much of the SSR that has. occurred in Southern Africa has been centred on defence or police reform with little. focus on the other security service providers or on the interdependencies and. interrelationships between the various sub sectors In reality meeting the. ambitions of comprehensive SSR rooted in improved democratic controls. accountability and the delivery of security services has not been possible. throughout the region, Out of the countries covered here only South Africa has undertaken or is. attempting to undertake comprehensive and fundamental reforms of the entire. security system Other countries have and continue to undertake ad hoc and. piecemeal reforms in line with democratic and governance evolutions and donor. interests There are severe deficiencies in the access to justice and the prisons in. the region are characteristically overcrowded There are major backlogs in the. courts in most states and poorer segments of society struggle to access the justice. system Those who cannot afford an attorney can wait in prison for years before. facing trail, SSR in Southern Africa has humble and mixed beginnings It is a topic that. attracted attention during transitions to democratic rule especially in the 1990s. Since then however very little has been achieved in terms of building on the. immediate democratic gains and ensuring that the region s security services are. accountable professional and protect human rights The challenge for stable. democracies in the region is that there is no immediate and pressing need for. reform within the security sectors and there is little civil society advocacy for. greater reforms with the exception perhaps of South Africa With social and. economic threats dominating the landscape the security sector does not attract. high levels of civil society or donor attention The key determinant for SSR in. Southern Africa is governance change in the governance structures and power. arrangements could bring change within the security sector albeit incremental. reforms As a regional community the commitment to the protection and. promotion of human rights is being challenged by atrocities committed by state. security agents in the region, There is a significant nexus between DDR and SSR particularly with reference to.
the police and military establishments For some Southern African countries the. DDR process was the first step towards broader defence and police reforms For. others DDR was the closest to comprehensive reform that was witnessed There. are many reasons for the second phenomena primarily associated with the political. context and perceived threats to the ruling regime However in Angola. Mozambique Namibia South Africa and Zimbabwe DDR has been considered as. largely unsuccessful partly because the reintegration element was overlooked In. many cases the unsuccessful programmes actually created security threats within. about a decade of being implemented, In terms of looking forward to a future agenda for SSR in Southern Africa the key. challenges and recommendations include, Creating security services that are responsive and suitable to the regional. context For example the establishment of the regional standby brigade and the. movement towards greater intelligence collaboration through the regional early. warning centre, Developing policy frameworks within states to guide the development and. interaction of the security services, Detailing the mandate function and powers of the security agencies in. legislation, Limiting the use of the security services for a political agenda political.
repression or to serve the interests of a political elite. Building professional security services curtailing human rights abuses and. ending impunity for security personnel who commit violations. Improving the equality of access to and delivery of justice and security services. Improving access to information and freedom of expression as the basis for. public participation in security policy formulation and monitoring. Creating effective regulation and oversight for Private Military and Security. Companies PMSCs, Enabling and supporting the participation of civil society organisations CSOs in. security discourse and in the oversight of security institutions. GFN SSR Southern Africa Resources,Changing intelligence dynamics in Africa. The book discusses the intelligence capacities of both larger more established. states and those of smaller and weaker states It includes two chapters on the. South African intelligence services, Lighting up the Intelligence Community A Democratic Approach to Intelligence. Secrecy and Openness, This policy paper is based on the 2008 report of the Ministerial Review Commission. on Intelligence in South Africa It begins with an outline of a democratic approach. to intelligence secrecy and then makes practical recommendations on expanding. intelligence transparency without prejudicing the security of the country. No Ownership No Commitment A Guide to Local Ownership of Security Sector. This publication aims to contribute to operationalising donor countries policy. commitments to local ownership of SSR It includes a chapter on inclusive SSR. Design and the White Paper on Defence in South Africa. More information on security sector reform throughout Southern Africa can be. found online in the GFN SSR Southern Africa SSR Guide webpage and further. documents in the GFN SSR Document Library,A Good Place to Start.
General SSR, Berg J 2005 Police Accountability in Southern African Commonwealth. Countries Institute of Criminology University of Cape Town. This University of Cape Town report provides a brief overview of the oversight. mechanisms that hold the police accountable in ten Southern African. Commonwealth countries The report reviews mechanisms such as laws policies. structures and institutions which have been created on paper to address police. accountability Making the police accountable in any developing country is a. process A culture of accountability and democratic process needs to be created to. replace a police culture of impunity and violence, Cawthra G du Pisani A and Omari A Eds 2007 Security and Democracy. in Southern Africa Wits P DM Governance Series University of the. Witwatersrand Wits University Press, What is the impact of democratic governance on national security in Southern. Africa How does it affect collaboration in regional security This study by the. Southern African Defence and Security Management Network SADSEM looks at. the countries of the Southern African Development Community SADC South. Africa Namibia Zambia Zimbabwe Mozambique Botswana Lesotho Mauritius. Seychelles Swaziland and Tanzania Taking both an historical and comparative. perspective it suggests that the relationship between democratisation national. security and security cooperation in the region is still not clear The relationship. depends on the stability of a country the nature of its democratic transition and the. degree of institutionalisation of its democratic governance. Hutton L 2010 Workshop Report The State of the Region Security Sector. Governance in Southern Africa 17 19 March 2010 Kievits Kroon Pretoria. Institute for Security Studies South Africa, What dynamics influence the democratic governance of the security sector in. Southern Africa This paper reports on a workshop that brought together regional. experts academics civil society representatives and national and regional security. practitioners Participants found that despite apparent democratic transitions in. many states deficits of security governance leadership conceptualisation and. regionalism remain Problems include the questionable behaviour of security actors. towards citizens and partisan regime centred security structures The Southern. African Development Community SADC and member states should adopt a. comprehensive human security approach and encourage greater involvement by. civil society in the security debate including women s groups. Ngoma N and Roux L L 2008 Regional Security in Southern Africa. Development Community Perspectives on Security Challenges in. Globalisation and Environmental Challenges Hexagon Series on Human and. Environmental Security and Peace Volume 3 Part VIII pp 811 818. What are the key security challenges facing the countries of the Southern Africa. Development Community SADC This chapter highlights the importance of sub. regional conflicts migration and xenophobia democracy and governance regional. institutional structures environmental and water issues HIV and security sector. reform It finds that in spite of many achievements regional security in the SADC. region must be comprehensively consolidated Incomplete SSR is one of the. greatest threats to security and development in Southern Africa. Defence Reform, Rupiya M ed 2005 Evolutions and Revolutions A contemporary history.
of militaries in Southern Africa Institute for Security Studies. How have the independent states of the Southern African Development Community. SADC responded to the challenges presented by defence and security threats in. the post colonial era How have they established financed controlled equipped. commanded reinforced and maintained their militaries This book from the. Institute for Security Studies describes how the 13 states of the SADC developed. their military institutions following independence. Disarmament Demobilisation and Reintegration DDR, Dzinesa G A 2007 Postconflict Disarmament Demobilisation and. Reintegration of Former Combatants in Southern Africa International Studies. Perspectives vol 8 pp 73 89, This paper examines the disarmament demobilisation and reintegration DDR of. former combatants in Angola Mozambique Namibia South Africa and Zimbabwe. It finds that in all cases DDR was unsuccessful partly because programming. neglected reintegration Further the unsuccessful programmes actually created. security threats within about a decade of implementation For example. disenchanted ex combatants protests demanding cash employment and. recognition from governments have threatened national stability and in Angola. failed DDR twice led to renewed armed conflict DDR initiatives should be informed. by principles of interconnectedness long term sustainability and social cohesion. Small Arms and Light Weapons, Gould C and Lamb G 2004 Hide and Seek Taking Account of Small Arms. in Southern Africa Institute for Security Studies Centre for Conflict Resolution. Gun Free SA, There has been no accurate validation to date of the argument that small arms and. light weapons SALW are an obstacle to sustainable peace in southern Africa This. monograph published jointly by the Centre for Conflict Resolution Gun Free South. Africa and The Institute for Security Studies reports results of a comprehensive. study of SALW proliferation in the region Only through an understanding of the. trade use and control of SALWs can sustainable strategies be identified to manage. proliferation and limit SALW misuse,Group 1 Botswana Malawi Namibia and Zambia.
For purposes of simplifying the presentation of information the states comprising. Southern Africa have been split into four groups This first group of states can be. classified as reasonably stable democracies with mechanisms for civil control and. legislative oversight of the security services in general All these states have. undertaken some sector specific reforms with no comprehensive coherent or. holistic SSR agenda, Botswana is characterised as a peaceful stable democracy and as an economic. success story It is dominated by the Botswana Democratic Party BDP which has. pursued policies that have encouraged relatively high socio economic development. Current security challenges include cross border crime refugees and small arms. HIV AIDS remains a problem and despite a heralded treatment programme one in

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