Genetic Determinants Of Energy Expenditure And Insulin-Books Pdf

Genetic Determinants of Energy Expenditure and Insulin
02 Jul 2020 | 7 views | 0 downloads | 12 Pages | 311.30 KB

Share Pdf : Genetic Determinants Of Energy Expenditure And Insulin

Download and Preview : Genetic Determinants Of Energy Expenditure And Insulin


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Genetic Determinants Of Energy Expenditure And Insulin



Transcription

K ALMIND AND C R KAHN, FIG 1 Body weight and percentage weight. gain of mice that were fed a low fat and a, high fat diet The weight of intercross F2 E. B6 F and 129 mice was measured, during a period of 18 weeks on a low fat A. and high fat B diet Weight gain calculated, as percentage of initial weight in B6 129 and. F2 mice on low fat C and high fat D diets, Results are expressed as mean SE B6 n.
8 129 n 8 and F2 n 50 mice, approved by the Animal Care Committee of the Joslin Diabetes Center and or expressed sequence tags with 30 45 present on the chips Three to four. were in accordance with the National Institutes of Health guidelines chips were used for each strain and the data were normalized to 1 500 using. Phenotype analysis Weight blood glucose plasma insulin and plasma the GeneChip software MAS 5 0 Genes in Table 2 were obtained using Celera. leptin were measured at 0 2 6 12 and 18 weeks Fasted serum free fatty acids Discovery System Rockville MD. were measured at week 0 and week 18 Blood glucose values were determined Statistical analysis Data analysis was performed using MapMaker EXP 3 0. from whole venous blood using an automatic glucose monitor Glucometer and MapMaker QTL 1 1 18 20 as well as Map Manager version QTXb20 21. Elite Bayer Mishawaka IN Insulin and leptin levels were measured in MapMaker QTL calculates the strength of the association between markers. plasma samples by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using mouse insulin and traits as the log base 10 of the odds ratio logarithm of odds LOD score. and mouse leptin as standards Crystal Chem Chicago IL Glucose tolerance The permutation test 10 000 permutations from Map Manager estimates an. was performed in the mice after the 18 week period mice were 7 months empirical genome wide probability for a given likelihood ratio statistic LRS. old by intraperitoneal injection of 2 g glucose kg body wt after an overnight SPSS for Windows version 11 5 was used for the other statistical analyses. fast Insulin tolerance tests were performed in random fed mice by injection P 0 05 two tailed was considered significant Insulin levels in the F2 mice. of 1 unit insulin kg body wt on both low and high fat diet deviated from a normal distribution and were. Indirect calorimetry and activity Another set of B6 and 129 mice n 4 in log transformed for the quantitative trait locus QTL analysis. each group were maintained on low or high fat diet for 6 weeks The mice. were placed individually in indirect calorimetry chambers Oxymax OPTO M3. system Columbus Instruments Columbus OH After 48 h to allow for. adaptation to the metabolic chamber O2 consumption and CO2 production Body weight gain Parallel groups of 6 week old B6. were measured every 30 min for 48 h and activity was measured as beam n 8 129 n 8 and intercross B6 129 F2 n 50. break counts During the first 24 h the mice had free access to food and water. and during the second 24 h the mice had access to water only. male mice were placed on a low fat 14 or high fat 55. Genome wide scan in 100 F2 intercross mice DNA was prepared from tail diet see RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS for an 18 week. tips as previously described 15 The mice were genotyped using 114 period Although starting body weights in all three groups. polymorphic markers covering the 19 autosomal chromosomes and the X were almost identical during the 18 weeks of study the F2. chromosome Research Genetics Huntington AL with a proposed average and B6 mice gained 18 g on the low fat diet and 24 g on. distance of 20 cM Genotypes were scored using 4 agarose gels and this was. done blindly Any ambiguous results were repeated in an independent. the high fat diet whereas the 129 mice gained only 6 g and. analysis Marker linkage maps were generated with our own data and the 14 5 g on the two diets respectively Fig 1 Indeed the B6. Celera database and compared with the public maps at the Mouse Genome and F2 mice gained more weight on a low fat diet than the. Database Reasonable agreement was found with these mouse databases 129 mice gained even on the high fat diet The difference in. although the exact position of markers sometimes deviated slightly from the. positions identified by genome wide sequence analysis. weight gain between the low and high fat diets however. RNA isolation cRNA preparation array hybridization and analysis Skel was higher for the 129 strain gained 35 more weight on. etal muscle liver and epididymal fat pads were removed from B6 and 129 the high fat versus low fat diet than the B6 gained 27. mice at the age of 6 months after the mice were maintained on a standard diet more weight on the high fat versus low fat diet Thus the. that contained 21 of calories from fat 22 from protein and 57 from B6 mouse gains more weight than the 129 independent of. carbohydrates Total RNA was extracted and purified with RNeasy Qiagen. Chatsworth CA and a total of 25 g pooled from two to three mice was used. diet but is less sensitive to changes in dietary fat. for cRNA synthesis 17 A total of 15 g of cRNA was hybridized on The variance is a measure of the spread of a distribution. Affymetrix Santa Clara CA murine chips U74Av 2 that contain 12 488 genes about its average value thus the larger the variance the. DIABETES VOL 53 DECEMBER 2004 3275, INSULIN RESISTANCE IN DIET INDUCED OBESITY. FIG 2 Effect of diet on leptin and insulin, levels Random fed plasma leptin levels of. B6 F intercross F2 E and 129 mice, were measured over 18 weeks on a low fat. A and high fat B diet and insulin was, measured in the same way C and D Re.
sults are expressed as mean SE B6 n, 8 129 n 8 and intercross F2 n 50. more heterogeneous is the group At week 18 on a low fat on the test diets revealed impaired glucose tolerance in B6. diet the variance of the percentage weight gain was 307 mice on both low and high fat diets In contrast the 129. 55 and 36 for the F2 B6 and 129 mice respectively mice showed impaired glucose tolerance only on the. whereas on the high fat diet the variance was 534 118 high fat diet Fig 3A The response to exogenous insulin. and 132 for the F2 B6 and 129 mice respectively The during the insulin tolerance was also reduced in B6 mice. larger variance in the F2 mice confirms the effects of the on either diet indicating greater insulin resistance in this. mixed genetic background The larger variance on the strain Fig 3B. high fat versus low fat diet also suggests a larger degree of Indirect calorimetry and activity The increased weight. heterogeneity among mice on factors such as individual gain of the B6 strain could potentially be due to a higher. dietary intake activity etc level of food intake or decreased energy expenditure To. The fact that the F2 mice show patterns of average decide which factors were most important we subjected. weight gain almost identical to those of B6 suggests that B6 and 129 mice to indirect calorimetry after they were. B6 mice carry dominant genes in the control of body maintained on the various diets for 6 weeks age of 12. weight between these strains In all cases circulating weeks and caloric intake was assessed Despite the. leptin levels which generally reflect adipose mass 22 higher level of weight gain B6 mice ate less than the 129. paralleled the changes in body weight Fig 2A and B on the low fat diet and a similar number of calories on the. Effect of diet on glucose tolerance and insulin sensi high fat diet Fig 3C indicating the higher caloric effi. tivity Both the F2 and the B6 mice showed an increase in ciency i e grams of weight gained per gram of food. insulin during the 18 weeks that was greater than that in intake of the B6 strain Fig 3D Consistent with this the. the 129 mice indicating higher levels of insulin resistance metabolic rate measured as O2 consumption was 6. Fig 2C and D This increase occurred faster when the higher in the 129 mice than in the B6 mice during feeding. mice were maintained on the high fat diet The variance of on the low fat diet 5 higher during fasting on the high fat. the insulin levels on low fat diet at week 18 was 2 593 diet P 0 01 and 14 higher P 0 001 during feeding. 1 251 and 0 4 ng ml and on high fat diet it was 2 649 on the high fat diet Fig 4 In addition metabolic rate. 1 242 and 1 3 ng ml for the F2 B6 and 129 mice respec showed significant increases in the 129 mice when. tively Thus the F2 mice show the effects of the mixed changed from fasting to feeding 30 increase on low fat. genetic background and after 18 weeks the spread of diet and 10 increase on high fat diet Fig 4A whereas. insulin was independent of the fat content of the diet The the B6 mice showed reduced thermic effect of food Fig. random fed plasma glucose levels on either diet were 4 The higher metabolic rate of 129 mice was independent. highest in the B6 mice 150 mg dl slightly lower in the of activity In fact activity levels calculated by beam. F2 mice 140 mg dl and considerably lower in the 129 breaks over 24 h were 50 lower P 0 001 in the 129. mice 105 mg dl and these did not change during the 18 than in the B6 mice under all conditions Fig 5A The. weeks Glucose tolerance tests performed after 18 weeks respiratory quotient an indicator of the relative rates of. 3276 DIABETES VOL 53 DECEMBER 2004, K ALMIND AND C R KAHN. FIG 3 Effect of diet on glucose and insulin tolerance A Glucose tolerance tests were performed after an overnight fast in B6 and 129 mice on. low and high fat diets respectively Animals received intraperitoneal injections of 2 g kg body wt glucose Blood glucose was recorded from. tail vein samples at 0 15 30 60 and 120 min B Insulin tolerance tests were performed on random fed B6 and 129 mice on low and high fat diets. respectively Animals received intraperitoneal injections of 1 unit kg body wt insulin Blood glucose was measured at 0 30 and 60 min B6 on. high fat diet B6 on low fat diet F 129 on high fat diet and 129 on low fat diet E Data points are mean SE with eight mice in each. group C Food intake determined as kcal g body wt was measured in B6 f and 129 on low and high fat diets Feeding efficiency was. calculated as weight gain kcal of food intake in mice on both diets D Results are expressed as mean SE with four mice in each group. substrate oxidation 23 was significantly lower in B6 than data of 15 markers in F2 mice revealed a QTL for insulin. in 129 mice during feeding on both a low fat P 0 027 levels at week 18 in mice on a low fat diet with a peak at. and high fat P 0 001 diet and during fasting on the marker D14Mit52 and a LOD score of 3 0 accounting for. low fat diet P 0 001 indicative of a higher percentage up to 25 of the variation of this trait Fig 6A Table 1. of fat oxidation in the B6 mouse whereas the respiratory The location of this QTL is virtually superimposable with. quotient was similar in both strains during fasting on the the previously identified locus in the IR IRS 1 double. high fat diet Fig 5B When both B6 and 129 mice were heterozygous knockout mice 15 In the F2 generation. shifted from fasting to feeding there was a change in insulin levels of mice homozygous for the B6 allele at. substrate oxidation from fat to carbohydrate as expected marker D14Mit52 were 8 9 fold higher than the insulin. Fig 5B levels of mice homozygous for the 129 allele P 0 002. Identification of QTLs in intercross B6 129 F2 and mice heterozygous at the marker were intermediate. mice F2 mice n 100 were genotyped using a total of between the other two genotypes suggesting a gene. 114 polymorphic markers covering the 19 autosomal chro dosage effect Fig 6B A QTL with linkage to weight gain. mosomes and the X chromosome Linkage maps for at week 18 was also found on chromosome 14 around. weight weight gain glucose insulin and leptin at the five marker D14Mit192 with a LOD score of 3 0 Fig 6A Table. time points on either the low or high fat diet were 1 Mice carrying two B6 alleles at marker D14Mit192. constructed by using MapMaker EXP QTLs were calcu gained 5 2 g or 22 5 more weight at week 18 than mice. lated using MapMaker QTL and MapManager 18 21 and carrying two 129 alleles P 0 007 A third QTL on. permutations test were performed using MapManager chromosome 14 at marker D14Mit192 was found for. 24 The QTLs with the highest LOD scores are described glucose in mice that were maintained on a high fat diet. below and in Table 1 and depicted in Fig 6 with a LOD score of 3 3 at week 12 Table 1 For verifying. A linkage map of chromosome 14 based on genotyping the QTL analyses tests with 10 000 permutations were. DIABETES VOL 53 DECEMBER 2004 3277, INSULIN RESISTANCE IN DIET INDUCED OBESITY. FIG 4 Effect of diet on O2 consumption Oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry in B6 and 129 mice during 24 h of fasting. A and C and 24 h of feeding B and D in mice that were maintained on either low fat A and B or high fat C and D diet The thick black line. on the abscissa denotes the dark period E The bars represent the calculated mean SE oxygen consumption during 24 h of feeding or fasting. respectively in B6 f and 129 mice P 0 01 P 0 001, carried out using MapManager 21 24 The permutation Our previous results have suggested a locus on chromo. test estimates an empirical genome wide probability for a some 12 D12Mit231 with linkage to hyperglycemia and. given LRS 21 The permutation tests confirmed that the another on chromosome 7 linked to leptin levels 15 In. identified QTL with linkage to insulin at D14Mit52 as well the present study there was a QTL on chromosome 12. as the QTLs at D14Mit192 were significant LRS score at D12Mit231 with linkage to leptin at week 2 in mice that. Genetic Determinants of Energy Expenditure and Insulin Resistance in Diet Induced Obesity in Mice Katrine Almind and C Ronald Kahn Diet induced obesity is the primary determinant of the current epidemic of diabetes We have explored the role of genetics in this phenomenon using C57Bl 6 B6 129S6 SvEvTac 129 and intercross B6 129 F2 mice on a low or high fat diet Over an 18 week

Related Books

Ricoh Aficio MP 161 MP 161F MP 161SPF Toner impresoras

Ricoh Aficio MP 161 MP 161F MP 161SPF Toner impresoras

Ricoh Aficio serie MP 161 produce todas las copias que necesita Productividad en un dise o compacto Una de las garant as fundamentales de Ricoh Aficio serie MP 161 consiste en lograr una mayor productividad en menor tiempo y con un menor costo La producci n de 16 p ginas por minuto brinda la velocidad necesaria para terminar los proyectos en el tiempo planeado y sin necesidad de

RICOH MP C2003SP MP C2503SP

RICOH MP C2003SP MP C2503SP

Ricoh s unique stapleless stapler allows you to bind up to five pages without using a staple You save on resources no need to remove staples when shredding documents and no risk of staples scratching the glass platen when a document is scanned Ultra convenient Print from USB SD cards or make full use of the built in Smart Card Reader Simultaneously copy both sides of an ID card onto on

Manuel utilisateur Informations Imprimante Scanner Ricoh

Manuel utilisateur Informations Imprimante Scanner Ricoh

Manuel utilisateur Informations Imprimante Scanner Lisez ce manuel avec attention avant d utiliser cet appareil et conservez le port e de main pour vous y reporter ult rieurement

Test 5 Traveller B2 You are welcome M i c r o

Test 5 Traveller B2 You are welcome M i c r o

TRAVELLER LEVEL B2 TEST BOOKLET TEST 5 Copyright 2010 MM Publications 3 READING I You are going to read a text about Mardi Gras Seven sentences have been

Introduzione alle moderne tecniche di Analisi

Introduzione alle moderne tecniche di Analisi

3 2 Voltammetria ciclica Cyclic Voltammetry CV 10 3 3 Voltammetria con scansione a gradini Staicase Voltammetry STCV 10 L analisi dei metalli in tracce 32 10 1 Pulizia dei materiali e dell ambiente di lavoro 32 10 2 Pulizia della vetreria 33 11 Manutenzione e pulizia 33 11 1 Elettrodo a goccia di mercurio 33 11 2 Elettrodo d oro di platino e di grafite

La differenza tra un ottimo investimento e un pessimo

 La differenza tra un ottimo investimento e un pessimo

L analisi ciclica consente di individuare il tempo in cui due o pi cicli si trovano nel medesimo minimo La sincronia ciclica lo scopo di questa analisi ovvero trovare il momento in cui l investimento raggiunge il miglior rapporto Reward Risk c iclo daily c iclo mensile c iclo trimestrale 7 Francesco Maggioni www francescomaggioni com I cicli vengono osservati su dati mensili

An lisi agregada catsalut gencat cat

An lisi agregada catsalut gencat cat

Informe agregat atenci sociosanit ria CatSalut Central de Balan os 2015 Deutes a llarg termini 74 Deutes a curt termini amb les Administracions P bliques 77 Ingressos i despeses 79 Despesa de personal 83 Plantilla equivalent 84

ANALISI DELLA RISPOSTA CICLICA DI TERRENI GRANULARI

ANALISI DELLA RISPOSTA CICLICA DI TERRENI GRANULARI

ANALISI DELLA RISPOSTA CICLICA DI TERRENI GRANULARI ATTRAVERSO UN MODELLO BOUNDING SURFACE Angelo Amorosi Sapienza Universit di Roma angelo amorosi uniroma1 it Daniela Boldini Universit di Bologna daniela boldini unibo it Annamaria di Lernia Politecnico di Bari annamaria dilernia poliba it Fabio Rollo Sapienza Universit di Roma fabio rollo uniroma1 it Sommario La modellazione numerica

EDIZIONE MAGGIO 2012

EDIZIONE MAGGIO 2012

L analisi di scenario basata su una metodologia ciclica anch essa controllabile tramite processi quantitativi e statistici Questo tipo di approccio ha lo scopo di aumentare il grado medio di affidabilit delle indicazioni privilegiando la componente numerica dei prezzi e del mercato e limitando il peso della componente soggettiva e interpretativa La struttura del report centrata sui

Evoluzione dell analisi ciclica in finanza

Evoluzione dell analisi ciclica in finanza

L analisi ciclica classica lavora in termini di trasformata di Fourier correlazioni coefficienti ecc mentre per far trading abbiamo bisogno di considerare il profit factor win loss ratio drawdown ecc Questi sono due Universi completamente differenti il bellissimo Universo dell analisi ciclica e il meno bello e a volte doloroso Universo del trading Non semplice trovare un ponte

Heartbeat of Baghdad Op 2 free scores com

Heartbeat of Baghdad Op 2 free scores com

Lance Conway Arranger Composer Teacher Iraq Erbil About the artist Name Lance Joseph Conway Born 24 Dec 1974 Baghdad Learning