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Generic Solar Photovoltaic System Dynamic Simulation Model
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Issued by Sandia National Laboratories operated for the United States Department of Energy. by Sandia Corporation, NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the. United States Government Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof. nor any of their employees nor any of their contractors subcontractors or their employees. make any warranty express or implied or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the. accuracy completeness or usefulness of any information apparatus product or process. disclosed or represent that its use would not infringe privately owned rights Reference herein. to any specific commercial product process or service by trade name trademark. manufacturer or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement. recommendation or favoring by the United States Government any agency thereof or any of. their contractors or subcontractors The views and opinions expressed herein do not. necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government any agency thereof or any. of their contractors, Printed in the United States of America This report has been reproduced directly from the best. available copy, Available to DOE and DOE contractors from. U S Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information. P O Box 62, Oak Ridge TN 37831, Telephone 865 576 8401.
Facsimile 865 576 5728, E Mail reports adonis osti gov. Online ordering http www osti gov bridge, Available to the public from. U S Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service. 5285 Port Royal Rd, Springfield VA 22161, Telephone 800 553 6847. Facsimile 703 605 6900, E Mail orders ntis fedworld gov.
Online order http www ntis gov help ordermethods asp loc 7 4 0 online. SAND2013 8876, Unlimited Release, Printed October 2013. Generic Solar Photovoltaic System Dynamic, Simulation Model Specification. Abraham Ellis Michael Behnke, Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration. Sandia National Laboratories, P O Box 5800, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 MS1033. Ryan Elliott, Electric Power Systems Research, Sandia National Laboratories.
P O Box 5800, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 MS1140, This document is intended to serve as a specification for generic solar photovoltaic. PV system positive sequence dynamic models to be implemented by software. developers and approved by the WECC MVWG for use in bulk system dynamic. simulations in accordance with NERC MOD standards Two specific dynamic. models are included in the scope of this document The first a Central Station PV. System model is intended to capture the most important dynamic characteristics of. large scale 10 MW PV systems with a central Point of Interconnection POI at. the transmission level The second a Distributed PV System model is intended to. represent an aggregation of smaller distribution connected systems that comprise a. portion of a composite load that might be modeled at a transmission load bus. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, The authors wish to thank the U S Department of Energy s SunShot Initiative for supporting the. development of these model specifications Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program. laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation a wholly owned subsidiary of. Lockheed Martin Corporation for the U S Department of Energy s National Nuclear Security. Administration under contract DE AC04 94AL85000, The authors wish to recognize and thank the members of the WECC Renewable Energy. Modeling Task Force for their contributions to the development of these models and this. specification document In addition we would like to acknowledge Donald Davies and his. colleagues at WECC for their continued support of renewable energy modeling. Generic Solar Photovoltaic System Dynamic Simulation Model Specification ii. Acknowledgments 4, Contents 5, Nomenclature 7, 1 Introduction 8. 1 1 General model requirements 8, 2 Central station PV system model 10.
2 1 Key modeling assumptions 10, 2 2 Subsystem models 11. 2 2 1 Current injection 11, 2 2 2 Local active power control 11. 2 2 3 Local reactive power control 11, 2 2 4 Protective functions 12. 2 2 5 Plant level active and reactive power control 12. 2 3 Active and reactive control options 13, 3 Distributed PV system model PVD1 14. 3 1 Key modeling assumptions 14, 3 2 Control and protective functions 14.
3 2 1 Active power control 14, 3 2 2 Reactive power control 15. 3 2 3 Protective functions 15, 3 3 Model block diagram 16. 4 Concluding remarks 18, 5 References 20, Appendix A Central station PV model block diagrams 22. Appendix B Central station PV model input parameters 24. B 1 REGC A input parameters and output channels 24. B 2 REEC B input parameters and output channels 25. B 3 REPC A input parameters and output channels 27. Appendix C Distributed PV model input parameters 29. C 1 PVD1 input parameters and output channels 29, Distribution 31. Figure 1 Overall model structure for central station PV system 10. Figure 2 Distributed PV model block diagram 16, Figure 3 REGC A model block diagram 22.
Figure 4 REEC B model block diagram 22, Figure 5 REPC A model block diagram 23. Table 1 Active power control options 13, Table 2 REGC A input parameters 24. Table 3 REGC A internal variables 24, Table 4 REGC A output channels 24. Table 5 REEC B input parameters 25, Table 6 REEC B internal variables 26. Table 7 REEC B output channels 26, Table 8 REPC A input parameters 27.
Table 9 REPC A internal variables 28, Table 10 REPC A output channels 28. Table 11 PVD1 input parameters 29, Table 12 PVD1 internal variables 30. Table 13 PVD1 output channels 30, NOMENCLATURE, DC Direct current. DOE Department of Energy, FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. MOD Modeling and data standards, MVWG Model Validation Working Group.
NERC North American Electric Reliability Corporation. POI Point of Interconnection, PV Photovoltaic, PVD1 Distributed photovoltaic system model. REGC A Renewable energy generation and converter model. REEC B Renewable energy electrical control model, REPC A Renewable energy plant controller model. REMTF Renewable Energy Modeling Task Force, SNL Sandia National Laboratories. WECC Western Electric Coordinating Council, 1 INTRODUCTION. This document is intended to serve as a specification for generic solar photovoltaic PV. system positive sequence dynamic models to be implemented by software developers and. approved by the WECC MVWG for use in bulk system dynamic simulations in accordance with. NERC MOD standards Two specific dynamic models are included in the scope of this. document The first a Central Station PV System model is intended to capture the most. important dynamic characteristics of large scale 10 MW PV systems with a central Point of. Interconnection POI at the transmission level The second a Distributed PV System model is. intended to represent an aggregation of smaller distribution connected systems that comprise a. portion of a composite load that might be modeled at a transmission load bus. 1 1 General model requirements, The following general requirements shall apply to both models These general requirements are.
consistent with those applied to the generic wind turbine models developed by the WECC. REMTF and define the intended use and limitations of the models. The models shall be non proprietary and accessible to transmission planners and grid. operators without the need for non disclosure agreements. The models shall provide a reasonably good representation of dynamic electrical. performance of solar photovoltaic power plants at the point of interconnection with. the bulk electric system and not necessarily within the solar PV power plant itself. The models shall be suitable for studying system response to electrical disturbances. not solar irradiance transients i e available solar power is assumed constant through. the duration of the simulation Electrical disturbances of interest are primarily. balanced transmission grid faults external to the solar PV power plant typically 3. 9 cycles in duration and other major disturbances such as loss of generation or large. blocks of load, Systems integrators inverter manufacturers and model users with guidance from the. integrators and manufacturers shall be able to represent differences among specific. inverter and or plant controller responses by selecting appropriate model parameters. and feature flags, Simulations performed using these models typically cover a 20 30 second time frame. with integration time steps in the range of 1 to 10 milliseconds. The models shall be valid for analyzing electrical phenomena in the frequency range. of zero to approximately 10 Hz, The models shall incorporate protection functions that trip the associated generation. represented by the model or shall include the means for external modules to be. connected to the model to accomplish such generator tripping. The models shall be initialized from a solved power flow case with minimal user. intervention required in the initialization process. Power level of interest is primarily 100 of rated power However performance. shall be valid within a reasonable tolerance for the variables of interest current. active power reactive power and power factor within a range of 25 to 100 of. rated power, The models shall perform accurately for systems with a Short Circuit Ratio SCR of. two and higher at the POI, External reactive compensation and control equipment i e beyond the capability of.
the PV inverters shall be modeled separately with existing WECC approved models. 2 CENTRAL STATION PV SYSTEM MODEL, Central station PV plants which are constructed in a similar manner to utility scale wind. plants are typically transmission connected and come under FERC jurisdiction They are. subject to the same NERC and WECC reliability requirements as wind and other central station. generation These reliability requirements are reflected in technical capabilities such as dynamic. active and reactive power control and fault ride through. 2 1 Key modeling assumptions, Central station PV plants which are constructed in a similar manner to utility scale wind plants. are typically transmission connected and come under FERC jurisdiction They are subject to the. same NERC and WECC reliability requirements as wind and other central station generation. These reliability requirements are reflected in technical capabilities such as dynamic active and. reactive power control and fault ride through, As a result of investigations and discussions to date in the WECC REMTF a key simplifying. assumption which shall be incorporated in the Central Station PV System model is that the. dynamics related to the DC side of the inverter PV array dynamics inverter DC link and voltage. regulator shall be ignored Consultations with several inverter manufacturers have identified. that the time constants associated with these dynamics may in some cases be too short to ensure. reliable numerical stability for the simulation time steps used in many bulk system dynamics. cases This assumption will be reevaluated once the model is validated against field test data. The overall model structure is shown in Figure 1 below and consists of a generator model. REGC A to provide current injections into the network solution an electrical control model. REEC B for local active and reactive power control and an optional plant controller model. REPC A to allow for plant level active and reactive power control. REPC A Vt REEC B Vt REGC A, Vref Plant Level Qext Iqcmd Iqcmd Iq. Qref Q Cont rol, V Q Cont rol Current, Qbranch Generat or Net work.
Pref Limit, Model Solut ion, Pbranch Plant Level Ipcmd Logic Ipcmd Ip. Pref P Cont rol, Freq ref P Cont rol, Figure 1 Overall model structure for central station PV system. 2 2 Subsystem models, The model shall incorporate a high bandwidth current regulator that injects real and reactive. components of inverter current into the external network during the network solution in response. to real and reactive current commands Current injection is included in the REGC A model. 2 2 1 Current injection, Current injection shall include the following capabilities. User settable reactive current management during high voltage events at the generator. inverter terminal bus, Active current management during low voltage events to approximate the response of.
the inverter PLL controls during voltage dips, Power logic during low voltage events to allow for a controlled response of active. current during and immediately following voltage dips. The current injection model is identical to that which the WECC REMTF is. proposing to utilize for the Type 3 and Type 4 generic wind turbine models. 2 2 2 Local active power control, The active power control subsystem included in the REEC B model shall provide the active. current command to the current injection model The active current command shall be subject to. current limiting with user selectable priority between active and reactive current The active. current command shall be derived from a reference active power and the inverter terminal. voltage determined in the network solution The reference active power shall be the initial active. power from the solved power flow case or in the case where a plant controller model. Generic Solar Photovoltaic System Dynamic Simulation Model Specification Abraham Ellis Michael Behnke Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration Sandia National Laboratories P O Box 5800 Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 MS1033 Ryan Elliott Electric Power Systems Research Sandia National Laboratories P O Box 5800

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