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Gender Inequalities in the Cultural Sector
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Gender Inequalities in the cultural sector,Culture Action Europe. Report compiled by Sandrine Pujar April 2016, Through its over 130 members Culture Action Europe CAE gives voice to about. 80 000 cultural organisations active in all disciplines across the EU and beyond with. the aim of putting culture at the heart of decisions making process and the public. debate both at the European and local level Since 1992 CAE previously EFAH. promotes arts and cultural diversity as a cornerstone of the European project and as. an essential component for sustainable democratic societies that want to forge a. better life for the current and future generations. Culture Action Europe thanks the European Commission for their support This communication. reflects the views of Culture Action Europe and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any. use which may be made of the information contained therein. Copyright 2016 Culture Action Europe All rights reserved. Table of Contents,INTRODUCTION 4,I GENDER EQUALITY IN CULTURE WHY DOES IT MATTER 5. 1 THE HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE 5, 2 THE CULTURE S TRANSFORMATIVE POWER PERSPECTIVE 10. 3 THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE 14, II GENDER EQUALITY IN THE CULTURAL SECTOR STATE OF THE.
2 MAIN PATTERNS WITH THEIR CAUSES WORK SEGREGATION BY SEX IN THE. CULTURAL INDUSTRIES THE IMPACT OF STEREOTYPES 20,2 1 SEXISM AND SOCIAL STIGMA 26. 2 2 THE BURDEN OF DOMESTIC AND CARING RESPONSIBILITIES 27. 2 3 WOMEN S DIFFICULT ACCESS TO NETWORKS OF INFLUENCE AND FUNDING 27. 3 GOOD PRACTICES WHAT CAN BE DONE 29, 4 AN INSUFFICIENT IMPLEMENTATION OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING DESPITE THE. HIGH LEVEL COMMITMENT TO THE POLICY 31,5 UNESCO S FINAL RECOMMENDATIONS 33. BIBLIOGRAPHY 35,INTRODUCTION, Women are strongly represented and even overrepresented in the cultural and. creative sector or at least in some fields of this sector However despite what one. could think when looking at their quantitive superiority in public cultural. institutions or programmes of higher education in culture management and the arts. the creative sector is far from offering equal opportunities for women and men The. barriers found in the creative sector for women are not different from those. observed in other economic sectors, Such conclusions can look all the more surprising since the commonly shared.
perception of the culture and arts world might let one think that it is immune to. problems of gender inequality affecting other professional sectors Prejudices about. the cultural sphere prevent some from being aware and even imagining the. existence of discriminatory practices According to Fleur Pellerin former French. Minister of Culture and Education many people believe that the world of art and. more generally the world of culture is fundamentally based on a spirit of freedom. an opposition to prejudices and even by a certain taste for contravention Gender. Equality Heritage and Creativity UNESCO p 93 The creative sector is commonly. and generally perceived as being more easily accessible and open to all individuals. and as requiring a lower skills threshold, Over the past two decades a few reports have been published in Europe on the topic. but most of the time at a national scale and in hardly more than one cultural field. public cultural institutions art museums heritage institutions cultural industries. or artistic discipline performing arts music production cinema etc at a time The. first and only large scale and transversal study conducted so far is UNESCO s. Gender Equality Heritage and Creativity from 2014 My report thus will consist of. a synthesis of the observations formulated in this landmark document with those. from the above mentioned per discipline analyses by European researchers since. Europe is the focus of this paper This does not mean however that the present. paper will not resort sometimes to examples from other parts of the world when. they are particularly enlightening to understand what is at stake First it shall be. demonstrated why ensuring gender equality particularly in the cultural sector is. capital Then it will be described how gender inequalities manifest themselves on. the ground why in the way they do and how cultural actors can try to overcome. GENDER EQUALITY IN CULTURE,WHY DOES IT MATTER,The Human Rights perspective. At present gender discrimination is so frequently defended by reference to culture. religion and tradition that it seems safe to conclude that no social group has suffered. greater violation of human rights in the name of culture than women 1. Farida Shaheed UNESCO s Special Rapporteur,in the field of cultural rights. Because access and participation in culture is a fundamental right and. fundamental rights apply to everyone without distinction of any kind. including gender, Regarding access participation and contribution to culture which will be in what. follows referred to as cultural rights the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. UDHR adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 states that. everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community to. enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits Article 27. paragraph 1, But this comes only after article 2 of the same text has specified that the everyone.
who is referred to and is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this. Declaration includes absolutely all individuals all human beings without. distinction of any kind such as race colour sex language religion political or other. opinion national or social origin property birth or other status. So the gender equality principle among others is enshrined in the UDHR like a. watchdog set in front of any authority who would be tempted to deprive someone or. a particular category of people man or woman from the enjoyment of their cultural. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization Gender Equality Heritage and. Creativity Foreword by Farida Shaheed Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights UNESCO. Paris 2014, More broadly one can see in the combination of articles 2 and 27 an early. expression and defence of the principle of diversity of cultural expressions whose. recognition would later culminate with the adoption of the Convention on the. Protection and Promotion of Diversity of Cultural Expressions by 140 States in. 2005 Gender which similar to all the criteria mentioned in the UDHR colour. language religion national or social origin property etc is a form of diversity can. be an unexpectedly complex issue that goes beyond the male female division In her. chapter of the UNESCO study dedicated to Gender and Intangible Cultural. Heritage Janet Blake reports that some native North American tribal groups. recognize up to seven different genders including transgender and double spirited. people UNESCO report p 51 By virtue of the principle of diversity of cultural. expressions special attention is paid in the Convention to the status and role of. women in society With the aim to contribute to a new international framework for. the governance and management of culture the Convention ensures artists. cultural professionals practitioners and citizens worldwide can create produce. disseminate and enjoy a broad range of cultural goods services and activities. including their own 2 provided that due attention is being paid to the special. circumstances and needs of women as well as various social groups including persons. belonging to minorities and indigenous peoples article 7 of the Convention This. shows awareness of the fact that gender blind access to human rights cultural. rights in this case is neither granted nor obvious and suggests that respect for. diversity of cultural expressions as a norm is less welcome in certain contexts than. it is in others, In this regard the UDHR was careful to add to its first set of safeguards against. potential discrimination principles of equality between individuals a second one. not linked this time to social boundaries but related to geopolitical ones. Furthermore no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political jurisdictional. or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs whether. it be independent trust non self governing or under any other limitation of. sovereignty art 2 Cultural Human Rights are for anyone whether women or. men anywhere, And therein lies the problem some would say How can the United Nations. advocate for the universal character of what they present as fundamental human. rights and recognize at the same time the diversity of cultural expressions knowing. that cultural specificities are often used as a justification to explain and legitimate. the existence of human rights violations among which are gender based. discriminatory practices especially against women When human rights and. http en unesco org creativity convention about, women rights in particular are contested for being alien contradictory to in. opposition with particular cultures what is said to be universal is rejected for being. nothing more than western according to those who don t want to subscribe. The Universalism vs Relativism debate is a recurrent one which has been treated. extensively in international literature on human rights since the 1960s In her. foreword to the report Gender Equality Heritage and Creativity UNESCO Special. Rapporteur in the field of cultural right Farida Shaheed reiterates some of the. arguments commonly used against those who would argue that struggling for. women s human or cultural rights and gender equality is disrespectful of cultures. traditions or religions giving lower status to women than to men and are. threatening the diversity of cultural expressions on the pretext of universalism. The reason why discourses claiming that women should not benefit from the same. rights as men has little relevance is that they are based on the idea that this is how. things work have always worked and must keep on working in given societies and. that the communities who perpetuate allegedly discriminatory traditions are doing. nothing but safeguarding and transmitting an immutable and invaluable heritage. The point is that these discourses present cultures as being monolithic static. ahistorical UNESCO report p 5 thus essentializing them. Yet as reminded by Shaheed culture is never static and is constantly evolving. Cultural practices evolve or are discarded as community perceptions shift and. alternatives are pursued History and historical changes have proved that nothing. is essential Things are what they are at one point and change because of a game. of power because of the state of power relations at a given time So that the. question to be answered when trying to understand the functioning of a society is. who holds the power And in the case of culture which can be described as what. defines a community s collective identity and ensure social cohesion one may ask. who in the community holds the power to define its collective identity. How does the state of power relations between men and women and more groups. in a given society shape the prevailing definition of gender and genders roles. Culture and gender are social constructions the result of fluctuating power. relations This is why essentializing discourses cannot be accepted as valid. arguments to claim that a particular culture is intrinsically discriminatory to. Invoking culture cultural specificities to justify gender based discriminations. prevent people from holding accountable the institutions authorities and actors. who maintain such rules It is necessary to adopt a reflective critical and analytical. view to understand and explain the power relations that underpin discriminatory. practices embedded in many societies institutions structures at all levels starting. with family But since there is no way to irrefutably demonstrate that only one or. more groups should hold power over the others or that one or more groups should. have no or little right to express themselves why not give all a chance to contribute. to the definition of their community s collective identity which is not written in. stone The maintaining of community cohesion should not be detrimental to one. group in the community and to women in particular, That being said Shaheed also stresses that the question when adopting a human.
rights perspective is not to determine whether and how culture and tradition. prevail over women s human rights but how to ensure that women own both their. culture including religion and tradition and their human rights UNESCO report p. 5 It is not so much about trying to impose to different cultures a new hierarchy of. their priorities women s human rights over tradition instead of the contrary as. about ensuring that women have equal say as men in the definition of what makes. tradition Did they agree with it subscribe to it take part in the discussions leading. to the validation of the practice and were they listened to as seriously as their male. counterparts It is about women s empowerment, Concretely for Shaheed women should enjoy the right to equally determine and. interpret cultural heritage decide which cultural traditions values or practices are. to be kept intact which are to be retained but modified and which are to be. discarded altogether The right to participation includes the right not to participate. in any ritual custom or practice which contravenes the human dignity of girls and. women regardless of cultural justifications Women and girls must enjoy the. freedom to join leave and re join as well as create new communities of shared. cultural values around any markers of identity they want to privilege without fear. of punitive actions including any form of violence. What about when women themselves subscribe to discriminatory practices that. apparently harm them Regarding the cases when women encourage traditional. discriminatory practices against themselves Janet Blake declares that one should. investigate the social function of the practice and analyse the gender dynamics at. play It might be that the practice serves a social economical or other purpose for a. particular group so one should wonder through which kind of other alternative. these needs could be fulfilled While it is vital to tackle social norms and taboos that. result in discrimination and recognise that victims may often collude in their. victimization for many reasons communities also need to become aware of what. these are in order to address them appropriately and in terms acceptable to the. people involved UNESCO report p 53, The challenge for gender equality and human rights defenders in general is to. ensure that these rights are strongly embraced legitimized and internalized by the. individuals of all human societies despite cultural diversity Otherwise there is no. chance that they will be implemented in practice To this end any principle of. human rights needs to get a cultural translation matching each community to be as. Farida Shaheed puts it vernacularized through for example initiatives that. ground human rights concepts within the traditions of diverse cultures UNESCO. Report p 6 Human rights principles must contribute to perpetuate the existence of. diverse cultures with their specificities but they cannot be used to shield gender. based discriminatory practices from criticism,The Culture s transformative. power perspective, Heritage is gendered in that it is too often masculine and tells a predominantly. male centred story promoting a masculine vision of past and present. Laurajane Smith in Heritage Gender and Identity 20083. Because culture is where society is both mirrored and shaped with or without. gender inequalities it s the perfect playground to question gender related. norms to experiment suggest and impose to potentially large audiences new. visions of what things reality could ideally or should not look like How. Through Heritage, Heritage is defined in the UNESCO report as a legacy from past generations.
cherished in the present for its recognised aesthetic spiritual and social values within. society It comprises historic monuments cultural properties and artefacts landscapes. natural environments as well as intangible or living heritage These same values. compel individuals groups and communities to draw significance and enjoyment from. their heritage in the present and to transmit it to future generations UNESCO. report p 33, The fact that the aesthetic spiritual and social values of the ancestor s legacy need. to be recognised in order to be called heritage shows that it is the result of a. choice This choice mirrors the values that a society decides to transmit and the way. it wants to define itself Who defines what heritage is and its significance Who. decides the collective identity Who speaks Who is heard Who benefits and who is. disadvantaged Who can access and enjoy heritage Who decides limitations to. heritage Who has the power to make decisions over individual and community. resources Who decides which heritage expressions deserve protection These are. some of the questions raised in the UNESCO report Once again as for any other. element belonging to culture and as discussed before power relations. Smith L 2008 Heritage Gender and Identity B Graham and P Howard eds The Ashgate Research. Companion to Heritage and Identity Aldershot Ashgate Publishing Quoted in the UNESCO report p 54. undoubtedly also power relations between genders are involved in these decisions. Powerless individuals and groups within a society won t participate to the same. extent as others in the selection of the things which deserve to be considered. heritage and it seems that women are in a weak position. One has to look no further than cinema s version of art history in order to get a good. illustration of Laurajane Smith s statement about the predominantly masculine. character of heritage At the end of the book Film and the Visual Arts 4 Steven. Jacobs provides us with a list of feature films having an artist as the main. character He indicates that only real but of course fictionalized professional. artists and famous amateur and outsider artists are included Jacobs 180 182 It. is interesting to note that out of a total of 102 listed feature films on 71 artists until. 2011 year of the book publishing only 7 biopics were dedicated to women artists. Fictions about art and artists art fictions as H Perry Chapman5 called them are. illustrations of what remains from the scholarly works coming from the universities. or official institutions of knowledge production when they are exploited in popular. forms of artistic expression concerned with artistic subjects. The results of Jacobs survey on biopics of artists are thus quite representative of. male artist s long supremacy in the field of historical research and of the obscurity. by contrast surrounding the life courses of women artists whose works and name. often remain hidden from art history and heritage by extension. As confirmed by the UNESCO report women s contribution to the creation of. heritage is undervalued and they are often deprived from the possibility to. participate in its identification In heritage interpretation their role is often. restricted to bearing and birthing the men who succeeded to it p 34 The. exclusion of women s contributions to the creation of heritage is partly due to the. fact that in all societies women s activities have been traditionally identified with. and relegated to the private or domestic sphere while the public sphere seen as. more relevant important and prestigious has historically been men s monopoly In. the same vein the dismissal of certain forms of women s contributions to heritage is. often explained by their belonging to what is considered as merely falling under. female role traditional food production and preparation textile weaving and. making pottery are some of the examples mentioned in the UNESCO report rather. than practices to be valued and safeguarded as heritage. Moreover gender considerations have been proved to sometimes limit researchers. access to information and heritage locations The UNESCO report mentions cases. Jacobs Steven Framing Pictures Film and The Visual Arts Edinburgh University Press 2011. Chapman H Perry Art Fiction in Art History Vol 32 4 September 2009 pp 785 805. when because of gender restrictions and protocols male researchers were not. allowed to interview and record female knowledge holders on women s affairs and. likewise for female interviewers on men s affairs These observations led to the. conclusion that gender roles that render people invisible in their societies may also. make them invisible to the external gaze p 42 Yet negative rare or inexistent. portrayal of women through a nation s heritage cannot but lead to a reinforcement. of the contemporary inequalities suffered by them unequal perception of their. value contribution to and usefulness for society Women s underrepresentation. and exclusion from heritage interpretation counters pluralism in historical. narratives and undermines women s contribution to and recognition within. heritage UNESCO report p 39, However due to the fluctuations of power relations throughout history heritage as. culture is not static but submitted to changes in circumstances needs knowledge. and values p 33 The conditions governing heritage identification interpretation. access safeguarding and transmission have sometimes evolved toward greater. inclusiveness, For example heritage practices which initially had gender restrictions are perceived. or practiced today without restrictions The report mentions cases when sex. specific transmission of heritage evolves and gets to include both women and men. For example compagnonnage in France a network for on the job transmission of. knowledge and identities and a training system for young people which was. previously for men only now includes women In addition cases when heritage is. practised exclusively by one sex do not imply that the other sex is excluded or. discriminated Actually men and women often have complementary roles in. heritage practice interpretation transmission and protection and initiatives are. launched in order to raise awareness about the value of women s contribution to. heritage For instance in order to enhance foreground highlight the craftsmanship. of women lacemakers of Lefkara Cyprus and the importance of the. intergenerational transmission of this heritage apprenticeship workshops were. organised for young female and male artists educators archaeologists and. designers in 2013 Also by referring to a traditional theatre practice in South Korea. Namsadang Kari through which exclusively male actors perform a social satire that. mirrors issues such as the oppression of women in a male dominated society p. 36 the report shows how heritage can become a platform for awareness raising on. social problems, Heritage s close connection to identity makes it a potent instrument of voice and. representation for individuals groups and nations Consequently opening heritage. access creation identification interpretation and transmission to both women and. men would have two effects On one side it would efficiently contribute to. challenge gender norms and stereotypes by raising awareness about them and help. audiences to question them On the other side it would strengthen the value of. heritage practices within communities given that with more people involved and. feeling concerned heritage becomes more representative of society s diversity and. gains greater support,Through creative expression, We have focused mainly on heritage so far but the same conclusions could be.
drawn for creative expression Indeed creativity draws together not only. tradition but also imagination and innovation UNESCO report p 75 It offers. individuals the opportunity to question existing norms to reinterpret values and. identity narratives to propose alternative discourses and practices around many. issues including gender equality and in many different aspects of life the cultural. as well as the socio economic and political ones, Culture has a real transformative power over society through the potential of both. creative expression and heritage to impact and change minds perceptions and. opinions to initiate impulse social transformation by opening spaces for social. dialogue Heritage and creative expression have the potential to empower women. not only from a social civic and political point of view but also from an economic. one provided that their freedom of expression is ensured and respected on one. hand and promoted through employment and entrepreneurial opportunities in the. cultural industries and activities on the other hand. The project with the Cypriot lacemakers not only highlighted these women s. contribution to heritage but also boosted their teaching and income generating. activities Indeed the development of a tourist economy around heritage sites for. example and the commerce of cultural goods constitute a financial windfall whose. benefits could be shared by a greater number of women for the benefit of their. communities overall development social inclusion progressive eradication of. poverty and economic growth through enlarged ownership of development. processes This aspect of the positive effects associated with gender equality in. culture will be discussed in the following point But it appears clearly now that. women s enjoyment of their cultural rights access participation and contribution. to culture goes hand in hand or even paves the way for the realisation of their other. human rights,The sustainable development,perspective. In its capacity to address both the economic and social aspects of poverty culture can. enhance the integration of the social economic and environmental aspects of. development which is a precondition for sustainability UNESCO report p 76. Because culture is a driver of sustainable development and sustainable. development cannot be achieved without gender equality. Over the past 60 years gender equality and access and participation to culture have. come from being seen respectively as a prerequisite for the realization of human. rights and one of the fundamental human rights to being internationally recognised. as tools to achieve global sustainable development The evolution of the. international literature produced on these subjects since the 1948 Universal. Declaration of Human Rights mostly under the United Nations impulse mirrors. this shift of focus, In 2000 gender equality was one of the eight Millennium Development Goals. identified by the United Nations MDG 3 Promote gender equality and empower. women with the aim of alleviating extreme poverty by 2015 The importance of. this goal for global sustainable development was reaffirmed when last year on. September 25th 2015 world leaders made gender equality the fifth of the seventeen. priorities selected for the new 2030 agenda for sustainable development The. underlying idea is that ensuring sustainable development implies recognizing and. building on the capacities of each person and the available resources within his or her. environment Everybody women as well as men needs to be involved and. mobilised Societies cannot afford to leave aside one single group in the often. gigantic effort required to lastingly fulfil their social economic and environmental. needs That s why guaranteeing the same rights to women and men is essential so. they can all be given equal opportunity to contribute Gender equality from this. point of view is not only a legitimate right but also a social and political necessity. UNESCO Report 16, Culture was in turn to gain increasing recognition as a driver and enabler of. sustainable development with the 2013 Hangzhou Declaration Placing Culture at. the Heart of Sustainable Development Policies adopted in China during a conference. organised by UNESCO The document stresses what a source of meaning and. energy a wellspring of creativity and innovation culture can be enabler and how. it contributes to inclusive social cultural and economic development harmony. environmental sustainability peace and security driver UNESCO p 14 especially. when development policies take cultural contexts into account. Regarding economic development UNESCO s report reveals that in 2011 world. trade of creative goods and services totalled a record US 624 billion with an average. annual growth rate of the sector of 9 per cent since 2002 These figures demonstrate. that the cultural industries and the creative economy are an important sector for. economic growth since it generates income and employment. Thus both gender equality and culture are tools to achieve sustainable development. If culture is an enabler and driver of sustainable development it seems logical that. efforts must be done to ensure access to culture for all And if as we demonstrated. sustainable development needs gender equality sustainable development trough. culture cannot be achieved without gender equality It has been proved that women. help strengthening creative sectors particularly in the developing countries as. much as the cultural and creative industries help strengthening their economic. opportunities and active participation in public life Once more the two issues. gender equality and culture are closely intertwined This idea was validated in the. UN General Assembly resolution 68 223 on Culture and Sustainable. Development 20 December 2013 which highlighted the role of gender equality in. achieving sustainable development through culture, As a consequence UNESCO stresses the importance of ensuring gender equality in.
access to income generating activities and economic opportunities at and around. cultural sites since it s not always guaranteed The case of the women divers. Haenyeo of Jeju Island Republic of Korea is a good illustration of how women can. be vulnerable in maintaining their livelihoods when faced with factors such as the. pressures of new technology or external competition due to their own weaker socio. economic position and more limited access to productive resources UNESCO p 44. This traditional practice which has been passed down across generations from. mother to daughter is progressively losing its female only character and female. practitioners altogether This is due to the recent rise of tourism on the island which. has brought back into focus this particular form of diving thereby increasing its. income generating potential Attracted by the economic opportunity new male. divers with more sophisticated equipment imposed a very fierce competition on. their female counterparts who lost control over the market Beyond the economic.


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