Gender Inequalities In The Cultural Sector-Books Pdf

Gender Inequalities in the Cultural Sector
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Gender Inequalities in the cultural sector, Culture Action Europe. Report compiled by Sandrine Pujar April 2016, Through its over 130 members Culture Action Europe CAE gives voice to about. 80 000 cultural organisations active in all disciplines across the EU and beyond with. the aim of putting culture at the heart of decisions making process and the public. debate both at the European and local level Since 1992 CAE previously EFAH. promotes arts and cultural diversity as a cornerstone of the European project and as. an essential component for sustainable democratic societies that want to forge a. better life for the current and future generations. Culture Action Europe thanks the European Commission for their support This communication. reflects the views of Culture Action Europe and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any. use which may be made of the information contained therein. Copyright 2016 Culture Action Europe All rights reserved. Table of Contents, INTRODUCTION 4, I GENDER EQUALITY IN CULTURE WHY DOES IT MATTER 5. 1 THE HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE 5, 2 THE CULTURE S TRANSFORMATIVE POWER PERSPECTIVE 10. 3 THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE 14, II GENDER EQUALITY IN THE CULTURAL SECTOR STATE OF THE.
2 MAIN PATTERNS WITH THEIR CAUSES WORK SEGREGATION BY SEX IN THE. CULTURAL INDUSTRIES THE IMPACT OF STEREOTYPES 20, 2 1 SEXISM AND SOCIAL STIGMA 26. 2 2 THE BURDEN OF DOMESTIC AND CARING RESPONSIBILITIES 27. 2 3 WOMEN S DIFFICULT ACCESS TO NETWORKS OF INFLUENCE AND FUNDING 27. 3 GOOD PRACTICES WHAT CAN BE DONE 29, 4 AN INSUFFICIENT IMPLEMENTATION OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING DESPITE THE. HIGH LEVEL COMMITMENT TO THE POLICY 31, 5 UNESCO S FINAL RECOMMENDATIONS 33. BIBLIOGRAPHY 35, INTRODUCTION, Women are strongly represented and even overrepresented in the cultural and. creative sector or at least in some fields of this sector However despite what one. could think when looking at their quantitive superiority in public cultural. institutions or programmes of higher education in culture management and the arts. the creative sector is far from offering equal opportunities for women and men The. barriers found in the creative sector for women are not different from those. observed in other economic sectors, Such conclusions can look all the more surprising since the commonly shared.
perception of the culture and arts world might let one think that it is immune to. problems of gender inequality affecting other professional sectors Prejudices about. the cultural sphere prevent some from being aware and even imagining the. existence of discriminatory practices According to Fleur Pellerin former French. Minister of Culture and Education many people believe that the world of art and. more generally the world of culture is fundamentally based on a spirit of freedom. an opposition to prejudices and even by a certain taste for contravention Gender. Equality Heritage and Creativity UNESCO p 93 The creative sector is commonly. and generally perceived as being more easily accessible and open to all individuals. and as requiring a lower skills threshold, Over the past two decades a few reports have been published in Europe on the topic. but most of the time at a national scale and in hardly more than one cultural field. public cultural institutions art museums heritage institutions cultural industries. or artistic discipline performing arts music production cinema etc at a time The. first and only large scale and transversal study conducted so far is UNESCO s. Gender Equality Heritage and Creativity from 2014 My report thus will consist of. a synthesis of the observations formulated in this landmark document with those. from the above mentioned per discipline analyses by European researchers since. Europe is the focus of this paper This does not mean however that the present. paper will not resort sometimes to examples from other parts of the world when. they are particularly enlightening to understand what is at stake First it shall be. demonstrated why ensuring gender equality particularly in the cultural sector is. capital Then it will be described how gender inequalities manifest themselves on. the ground why in the way they do and how cultural actors can try to overcome. GENDER EQUALITY IN CULTURE, WHY DOES IT MATTER, The Human Rights perspective. At present gender discrimination is so frequently defended by reference to culture. religion and tradition that it seems safe to conclude that no social group has suffered. greater violation of human rights in the name of culture than women 1. Farida Shaheed UNESCO s Special Rapporteur, in the field of cultural rights. Because access and participation in culture is a fundamental right and. fundamental rights apply to everyone without distinction of any kind. including gender, Regarding access participation and contribution to culture which will be in what. follows referred to as cultural rights the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. UDHR adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 states that. everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community to. enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits Article 27. paragraph 1, But this comes only after article 2 of the same text has specified that the everyone.
who is referred to and is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this. Declaration includes absolutely all individuals all human beings without. distinction of any kind such as race colour sex language religion political or other. opinion national or social origin property birth or other status. So the gender equality principle among others is enshrined in the UDHR like a. watchdog set in front of any authority who would be tempted to deprive someone or. a particular category of people man or woman from the enjoyment of their cultural. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization Gender Equality Heritage and. Creativity Foreword by Farida Shaheed Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights UNESCO. Paris 2014, More broadly one can see in the combination of articles 2 and 27 an early. expression and defence of the principle of diversity of cultural expressions whose. recognition would later culminate with the adoption of the Convention on the. Protection and Promotion of Diversity of Cultural Expressions by 140 States in. 2005 Gender which similar to all the criteria mentioned in the UDHR colour. language religion national or social origin property etc is a form of diversity can. be an unexpectedly complex issue that goes beyond the male female division In her. chapter of the UNESCO study dedicated to Gender and Intangible Cultural. Heritage Janet Blake reports that some native North American tribal groups. recognize up to seven different genders including transgender and double spirited. people UNESCO report p 51 By virtue of the principle of diversity of cultural. expressions special attention is paid in the Convention to the status and role of. women in society With the aim to contribute to a new international framework for. the governance and management of culture the Convention ensures artists. cultural professionals practitioners and citizens worldwide can create produce. disseminate and enjoy a broad range of cultural goods services and activities. including their own 2 provided that due attention is being paid to the special. circumstances and needs of women as well as various social groups including persons. belonging to minorities and indigenous peoples article 7 of the Convention This. shows awareness of the fact that gender blind access to human rights cultural. rights in this case is neither granted nor obvious and suggests that respect for. diversity of cultural expressions as a norm is less welcome in certain contexts than. it is in others, In this regard the UDHR was careful to add to its first set of safeguards against. potential discrimination principles of equality between individuals a second one. not linked this time to social boundaries but related to geopolitical ones. Furthermore no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political jurisdictional. or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs whether. it be independent trust non self governing or under any other limitation of. sovereignty art 2 Cultural Human Rights are for anyone whether women or. men anywhere, And therein lies the problem some would say How can the United Nations. advocate for the universal character of what they present as fundamental human. rights and recognize at the same time the diversity of cultural expressions knowing. that cultural specificities are often used as a justification to explain and legitimate. the existence of human rights violations among which are gender based. discriminatory practices especially against women When human rights and. http en unesco org creativity convention about, women rights in particular are contested for being alien contradictory to in. opposition with particular cultures what is said to be universal is rejected for being. nothing more than western according to those who don t want to subscribe. The Universalism vs Relativism debate is a recurrent one which has been treated. extensively in international literature on human rights since the 1960s In her. foreword to the report Gender Equality Heritage and Creativity UNESCO Special. Rapporteur in the field of cultural right Farida Shaheed reiterates some of the. arguments commonly used against those who would argue that struggling for. women s human or cultural rights and gender equality is disrespectful of cultures. traditions or religions giving lower status to women than to men and are. threatening the diversity of cultural expressions on the pretext of universalism. The reason why discourses claiming that women should not benefit from the same. rights as men has little relevance is that they are based on the idea that this is how. things work have always worked and must keep on working in given societies and. that the communities who perpetuate allegedly discriminatory traditions are doing. nothing but safeguarding and transmitting an immutable and invaluable heritage. The point is that these discourses present cultures as being monolithic static. ahistorical UNESCO report p 5 thus essentializing them. Yet as reminded by Shaheed culture is never static and is constantly evolving. Cultural practices evolve or are discarded as community perceptions shift and. alternatives are pursued History and historical changes have proved that nothing. is essential Things are what they are at one point and change because of a game. of power because of the state of power relations at a given time So that the. question to be answered when trying to understand the functioning of a society is. who holds the power And in the case of culture which can be described as what. defines a community s collective identity and ensure social cohesion one may ask. who in the community holds the power to define its collective identity. How does the state of power relations between men and women and more groups. in a given society shape the prevailing definition of gender and genders roles. Culture and gender are social constructions the result of fluctuating power. relations This is why essentializing discourses cannot be accepted as valid. arguments to claim that a particular culture is intrinsically discriminatory to. Invoking culture cultural specificities to justify gender based discriminations. prevent people from holding accountable the institutions authorities and actors. who maintain such rules It is necessary to adopt a reflective critical and analytical. view to understand and explain the power relations that underpin discriminatory. practices embedded in many societies institutions structures at all levels starting. with family But since there is no way to irrefutably demonstrate that only one or. more groups should hold power over the others or that one or more groups should. have no or little right to express themselves why not give all a chance to contribute. to the definition of their community s collective identity which is not written in. stone The maintaining of community cohesion should not be detrimental to one. group in the community and to women in particular, That being said Shaheed also stresses that the question when adopting a human.
rights perspective is not to determine whether and how culture and tradition. prevail over women s human rights but how to ensure that women own both their. culture including religion and tradition and their human rights UNESCO report p. 5 It is not so much about trying to impose to different cultures a new hierarchy of. their priorities women s human rights over tradition instead of the contrary as. about ensuring that women have equal say as men in the definition of what makes. tradition Did they agree with it subscribe to it take part in the discussions leading. to the validation of the practice and were they listened to as seriously as their male. counterparts It is about women s empowerment, Concretely for Shaheed women should enjoy the right to equally determine and. interpret cultural heritage decide which cultural traditions values or practices are. to be kept intact which are to be retained but modified and which are to be. discarded altogether The right to participation includes th. Culture and gender are social constructions the re sult of fluctuating power relations This is why essentializing discourses cannot be accepted as valid arguments to claim that a particular culture is intrinsically discriminatory to women Invoking culture cultural specificities to justify gende r based discriminations

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