Gardner Engine Forum Philosophy,Contents Page,The aims of the Forum are to promote and foster. interest in all Gardner engines Chairman s Notes 2. Subscription Membership Sec 3, The annual subscription to the forum is 10 00 Starter Extractor 4. This magazine will be published twice a year,The Common Touch 5. Price of each issue to non members 2 75,Overseas subscription 18 00 New Members 11. Forum Officers Not Just LXB 12,Chairman Mike Johnson T Type Catalogue 15. 5 The Green Wrenbury,Nantwich Cheshire,Rally 2013 16. CW5 8EY Tele 01270 780093,Old Advert 24,Secretary Yvonne Crane. 7 The Green Wrenbury,Members Adds 25,Nantwich Cheshire. Treasurer Judith Gray 29 Verity Walk,Wordsley Stourbridge West Midlands DY8 4XS. Tele 01384 827745,Advertising Rates,Membership Secretary Joe McCool Artasooley. Free for Members Personnel Ads,Bendurb Co Tyrone Northern Ireland BT1 7LN. Trade page,Tele 07802 572441,25 per 2 editions,Editor Webmaster Steven Gray 29 Verity Walk. Wordsley Stourbridge West Midlands DY8 4XS,Tele 01384 827745. Note 1 Please note that all information in this publica. tion is given in good faith and is not necessarily Cover Picture. checked for accuracy and hence the Gardner Engine, Forum cannot accept responsibility for any errors 6LXB powered Erf. Owned by new member, Note 2 All material contained in this newsletter is the. copyright of the Gardner Engine Forum and must not. be reproduced without permission,Note 3 The Gardner Engine Forum does not specifi. cally endorse advertisements placed in this publication. and it does not accept responsibility for the products. advertised,Chairman s Notes, It has been a long hard winter on the boats thankfully now gone and. summer is here with a bit of warmth about it although as I write this it. is pouring down, Yvonne and I have just had the busiest winter on record moving boats. all over the North West and beyond We had three boats frozen in at. one stage real fun it was Arrangements are starting to get underway. for the 2011 Rally at Bugsworth I hope to visit there shortly to liaise. with their Chairman about who does what etc, I have also recently visited Henley on Thames for the Thames Tradi. tional Boat Rally as we have been invited to attend there in 2013 It is. only a possibility at this stage the Committee is considering. Please see article elsewhere in journal page 23, The project to restore a 6L2 seems to be struggling Out of four cylinder. blocks all are porous so maybe that idea is doomed however by the. time you read this I may have acquired something else to play with. Watch this space,Membership Secretary, As the new membership secretary I would just like to say hello to all. Firstly thanks a lot to Bob Heath and Steve Gray who have given me so. much help since I took on the role I know I must be trying their patience. with all my questions, My intention is to use a computer as much as I can to automate the renewal. reminder process and to produce acknowledgements, For this reason it is important that I have email addresses for as many. people as possible If you suspect yours is missing from our database. perhaps you could let,me know Best email,address for me is. tangent gardner gmail,com If you have inter,net access but no. email address give me,a call and I will help you,set one up It is quite. painless and free,Email will help reduce,costs for everyone and. is a super means of,communication but if,you prefer not to use. email this is not a problem I will continue to use conventional methods. My background I am an engineer with a love for old barges Our 50ton. 61 X 13 X 3 6 Snark is powered by a marinised 5LW and does the job. remarkably well My sons and I have a small business restoring engines. and we are very passionate about all things Gardner. I am really honoured to be appointed membership secretary and I will do the. job to the very best of my abilities, Joe McCool Artasooley Benburb Dungannon N Ireland BT71 7LN. Tel 07802572441,Starter Motor Extractor, When dismantling core engines I find that starters siezed in the end plate. are often a challenge Despite copius volumes of penentraing oil despite. despite treats with a sledge hammer they refuse to budge Starters are now. valuable items and the risk of damaging them must be minimised For this. reason we fabricated the starter jack shown in the figures below It works well. More details if required from Joe McCool tangent gardner gmail com. The Common Touch,Although diesel engines have,been used in passenger vehi. cles since the 1930s it took the,advent of electronic engine. management in the 1980s to,allow them to compete in ear. nest with spark ignition SI en,gines for passenger car sales. The thermal efficiency advantages of the compression Ignition CI en. gine have never been in doubt but for passenger car applications there. had always been issues with the CI engine s perceived lack of refine. ment particularly during cold starts and at idle The stigma of association. with commercial vehicles and taxis turned buyers away particularly in. premium sectors The rapid growth of diesels in passenger cars since. then they now account for more, Power Unit for the Mercedes Benz 260D than half of European car sales. The worlds first mass produced diesel,used in cars It used a Bosch inline pump. is largely due to developments in,injection technology Engine. power fuel consumption emis,sions performance and refine. ment have all made immense,strides in a short time. Compression ignition combus,tion demands high compression. ratios as the charge air tempera,ture must be raised sufficiently. high to ignite fuel The high com,pression ratio naturally leads to. high thermal efficiency Cl en, gines burn a heterogenous mixture which always has excess air and the. power output of the engine is controlled by the quantity of fuel injected By. contrast conventional SI engines burn a homogeneous mixture and as a. result are tied to a relative small range of combustible air fuel ratios which. means engine power must be regulated by adding a throttle valve to the. intake to control the amount of combustible air fuel mixture reaching the. cylinders The use of a throttle inevitably leads to high pumping losses Cl. engines consequently have a considerable efficiency advantage particu. larly at part loads where road vehicle engines operate most of the time. Early diesel engines used inline piston type injection pumps which remain. in use today only on large commercial vehicle engines. A significant advance came when Bosch developed the compact. VM distributor type injection pump in the 1960s but the real breakthrough. for passenger car diesels came with the introduction of electronically. controlled injection pumps in 1986 Sensors delivered information on. accelerator pedal position engine speed Intake air pressure and the. temperatures of the intake air coolant and fuel to an ECU which contained. a series of predetermined control maps Both fuel quantity and in injection. timing were under electronic control providing more precise control of fuel. delivery Engine power improved while fuel consumption and emissions. fell Electronically controlled diesels also benefited from slower smoother. idle an area where direct injection diesels in particular struggle to meet. customer expectation, The introduction of the Bosch Unit Injector System UIS brought further. Improvements UIS integrated a small high pressure pump into the injector. for each cylinder normally operated by a rocker arm from an overhead. camshaft Injection timing and quantity were controlled by a solenoid valve. commanded by the engine control ECU While the idea of providing a. dedicated injection pump for each individual cylinder was nothing new it. was standard practice on large industrial diesel engines In the early 20th. century the integration of a Small pump into the injector in UIS brought. significant benefits Because the unit was compact and hydraulically. efficient peak injection pressures of up to 2 200 bar could be generated. Supplementary electronically controlled pilot injection in the low speed low. load range could also be implemented to improve cold start performance. and reduce combustion noise, In all of these Systems the maximum Injection pressure was directly. related to the engine speed and the quantity of fuel injected which is less. than ideal High injection pressures are desirable because they improve. fuel and air mixing throughout the engine speed range leading to more. complete combustion and the reduction of particulate emissions but with. the side effect of an increase in NOx emissions requiring aftertreatment. Decoupling Injection pressure from engine speed required a fundamental. change in injection system design separating the pressure generation and. injection timing functions of the existing injection pump or unit injector into. two individual stages, This was achieved by the accumulator or common rail diesel injection. system originally developed by Fiat and Magneti Marelli The rail which. gave the system its name carried high pressure fuel delivered by a single. pressure pump to all the injectors Injection timing and metering of the fuel. quantity were determined by the ECU and controlled by solenoid operated. injectors as in UIS injection The first generation common rail system. CRS introduced on the Alfa Romeo 156 JTD and Mercedes C220 CDI in. 1997 used a simple pressure regulating circuit to control fuel pressure in. the supply rail In later systems this was augmented by a pump control. system which matched pump delivery to the amount of fuel injected. reducing the recirculation of excess fuel through the hot engine bay and as. a result reducing fuel temperatures, A further refinement was the introduction of piezo injectors which were. significantly faster in operation than existing solenoid injectors As a result. the piezo Injectors could deliver multiple injection events during each. combustion cycle with much greater precision allowing the use of pilot. injection to reduce noise and NOx and post injections to minimise soot. by extending burning Into the exhaust stroke The piezo injectors were. also smaller potentially reducing the overall height of the powertrain and. allowing easier positioning of the injector in a modern four valve combus. tion chamber,Bosch describes its latest CRS as a fourth. generation system which features a new,CP4 pressure pump designed to deliv. er injection pressures of up to 2 000,bar These very high injection. pressures delivered first by,UIS injection and more. recently by developed,common rail sys,tems have al. obsolete pre chamber diesel combustion,systems which offered excellent mixture formation. but higher heat losses and therefore higher fuel consump. tion For passenger cars the focus is now firmly on direct. injection systems using multiple injection and exhaust gas recircu. lation to reduce the harsh combustion noise often associated with direct. injection which initially limited it to commercial vehicles. Today the best direct injection Cl engines can largely meet SI standards of. refinement and as a result sales in Europe have grown enormously When. common rail technology was first brought to market in 1997 22 of cars. sold in Europe were diesels Now diesels account for half of all European. passenger car sales with the highest share of sales in Belgium 74. France 71 and Spain 68 Bosch s production of common rail diesel. injection systems exceeded eight million units in 2007. Although CRS is now firmly established in Europe there is massive potential. for expansion elsewhere With the US remaining the biggest potential. growth market in the medium term While vehicle fuel prices in North. America are still considerably less than those in Europe they have more. than doubled since 1990 and the rise has stimulated market interest in more. economical vehicles Diesels offer high torque mimicking in that respect the. large displacement gasoline engines American consumers have traditional. ly chosen but offer much better fuel economy Currently diesel engined. cars and light commercials make up around 5 of US vehicle sales around. 800 000 units annually but Bosch expects diesel s market share to triple to. 15 by 2015 supported by a fact based marketing campaign which aims. to bring the benefits of diesel to the notice of American consumers. Common rail engines will also drive diesel growth in the emerging Asian. markets Bosch predicts annual sales of around 1 3 million units in China. and around the same number in India by 2010 with sales continuing to. increase as both markets develop Suppliers of diesel injection equipment. are already setting up production facilities in these areas Bosch has. established plants at Nashik and Bangalore manufacturing injector compo. nents and high pressure pumps respectively while Denso expects to. begin production of CRS equipment in China in 2009 With these markets. in mind Bosch is developing low cost common rail systems with injection. pressures in the 1 100 1 450 bar range for low price vehicles costing. below 7 OOO It expects such vehicles to make up 13 of the world. passenger car market by 2010 a volume of around 10 million vehicles a. While low cost CRS is the focus of development for emerging Asian. markets the more mature European and North American markets present. different challenges imposed by tightening emissions legislation and in. particular the significant reductions in allowable emissions of nitrogen. oxides NOx NOx is produced during combustion when airborne nitrogen. reacts with oxygen which occurs readily when very high temperatures are. generated during combustion Euro 5 due to come into force in 2009. reduces the NOx limit from 250mg per kilometre to 180mg km and the. 2014 Euro 6 standard will reduce that still further to just 80mglkm. Methods of meeting these standards using a combination of improvements. to the diesel combustion process have already proved successful in. commercial vehicle diesel engines These include the use of higher. charge air pressures through more aggressive useturbocharging higher. rates of cooled exhaust gas recirculation EGR and higher injection pres. sures at part load and using high speed injectors to deliver up to eight. separate injections in each combustion cycle Promising recent research in. this area by Delphi has seen test engines deliver low NOx and soot. emissions without a fuel consumption penalty by significantly advancing. the injection timing at part load producing a prolonged pre mixing phase. then increasing swirl and injection pressure to reduce soot formation. This is a form of pre mixed charge compression ignition PCCI which is a. halfway house between existing diesels and the potentially even more. effective homogeneous charge compression ignition HCCI which is. being developed by several OEMs and their suppliers In HCCI a combus. tible mixture is compressed to the point where it self ignites in cylinder. conditions being controlled by varying the rate of EGR the valve timing and. in one design the compression ratio to control the timing of ignition. Although the system can keep NOx levels low it can produce unacceptable. levels of HC and CO and costs are high The technology is still in its early. stages of development and it is too soon to say whether it will definitely. achieve all that is hoped of it, While research continues into more advanced combustion techniques. careful development of diesel injection can meet the requirements of the. Euro 6 test but the tighter US standard seems certain to require the use of. after treatment in the form of urea injection and a selective catalytic. reduction converter which assists the conversion of Ox and urea into. nitrogen and steam Though this system works well it remains to be seen. whether consumers will ensure the liquid urea system is refilled during. scheduled maintenance or will instead take the cheaper option of allowing. it to remain empty and inactive The latter seems likely unless drivers are. required by law to maintain their vehicles correctly Changes to the emis. sions tests which are part of mandatory annual vehicle inspections might. be necessary to ensure these systems continue to provide the emissions. performance they are capable of when new, The future for diesel in the short to medium term seems likely to develop in. two different directions In more sophisticated markets such as Europe and. the US the emphasis remains on maintaining power and refinement while. reducing fuel consumption and raising emissions performance This will. lead to ever higher injection pressures more complex multiple event injec. tion strategies and innovative combustion modes such as PCCI and HCCI. to further reduce combustion noise and combat NOx and particulate soot. emissions In developing markets such as China and India the challenge. will be to retain the fuel consumption and emissions benefits of sophisticat. ed diesel injection while using lower injection pressures and reducing the. unit cost of the system so it can be applied to the very low cost vehicles. which will make up the bulk of sales in these markets In both cases. developments of CRS injection seem certain to play a major role. www EuropeanAutomotiveDesign com,August 2008 Author Andrew Noakes. Welcome to New Members,Mr B Ledger of Basinsgtoke,Mr E Byrne of Bromsgrove 4L2. Mr I M Thompson of Kingswinford 3LW with 2UC Gearbox. Mr P Comber of Ukfield 6 8LXB,Mr A Goldthorpe of Penistone. Mr E Hales of Llanelli,Mr H Scarrott of Totton 4LW. Mr D Sheen of Stanley 4LW,Mr J Mann Maldon of Maldon. Mr J A Fielding of Accrington,Mr P Mathews of Warksworth New Zealand. Not Just LXB,A few more Metro bus Engine Choices, West Midlands Metrobuses were powered by Gardner 6LXB engines. Wrong say the knowledgeable there were 22 Rolls Royce Eagles and a. couple of Cummins L10s Very true but what of those with Gardner 6LXC. engines the one 8LXCT and the unheard of 6LXBG, To start at the beginning the two Rolls Royce prototypes were not original. ly intended to be testing alternative engines but alternative transmissions. Although widely used in Germany the Voith D851 was comparatively new. to the UK and MCW were keen to explore alternatives GKN were hoping. to market the SRM transmission through their driveline division in based in. Aldridge the SRM had a chequered history having originated years earlier. in Sweden then manufactured in Italy and been marketed by Hawker. Siddley in Coventry at one stage Hence 7006 7 were initially specified with. Gardner engines and SRM gearboxes when GKN pulled out the first. reaction of WMPTE West Midland Transport Executive was to cancel. them but with murmurings of the long term security of Gardner supply and. after quiet discussions with MCW Development I persuaded the Director. responsible to retain the order but with the Rolls Royce Eagle Voith combi. nation Thus 7006 and 7007 emerged and paved the way for the other 20. when the predicted engine delivery problems loomed. The disastrous strike at Gardner resulted in the next non standard engines. A group of us were summoned to a discreet meeting in Manchester where. we were to ask to see someone with a female name I seem to recall not. exactly ring twice and ask for Flossie but along those lines in a state of great. security we were ushered in to find a number of senior Gardner engineers. with piles of drawings and a few castings this was Gardner in exile plans. were being drawn up to have some components made outside to enable. contracts such as the WMPTE order to be fulfilled it appeared that a. surplus of truck 6LXC engines existed that could be recalled and adapted. to become to all intents and purposes 6LXBs A number of engines were. obtained from ERF I think reworked and supplied to MCW in service they. would have looked and run like 6LXBs although internally the pistons and. a few other parts were to 6LXC standard, After the supply scare MCW were keen to find a viable alternative the. Eagle although well built and reliable was heavy on fuel and through the. Metroliner and Metrorider development programmes MCW were already. familiar with Cummins The L10 was proving successful in buses else. where and MCW were therefore keen to have local service experience. which resulted in the West Midlands trials From an operator viewpoint. however standardisation was a valuable asset and further Cummins. Metrobuses would not have helped in this direction. In an attempt to improve environmental conditions new noise level legisla. tion was introduced in which a lower level was required on buses with. engines under 200bhp there were two levels within each class one for. new vehicles and one for vehicles in service A new 6LXB Metrobus would. just squeeze past the test without undertrays but was so close that every. vehicle would have to be tested individually which would be expensive and. disruptive MCW therefore sought to bring the level sufficiently below the. mark so that type approval would apply Hence undertrays were supplied. against the wishes of WM and other operators who knew they would inhibit. maintenance and quite posibly drop off be left off and otherwise cause. One day the receptionist at Summer Lane rang me and said there was a. bus for me to lock at Parked outside was new undelivered 2622 in the. hands of MCW Development Engineer Les Pearson and his fitter Colin. Eccles who wouldn t tell me what was different but just asked me to drive. it In reality I couldn t notice much difference apart from it sounding unusual. but on opening the back a turbocharged 6LXCT was revealed it was. derated to give similar performance to a 6LXB but the reduced noise from. the turbo engine would probably have been sufficient to allow type approval. In the event the higher cost of the engine coupled with lack of enthusiasm. from MCW management terminated the test and 2622 was delivered soon. after with a standard 6LXB, Although I have drawings of a Metrobus Mk 111 using a 5LXCT that. development was to late and another story MCW closed and Gardner s. faded And I thought that no more trials would come however in the. mid 1990s interest in gas power surfaced Daf championed LP G while. Volvo supported CNG both were heavy on fuel due to the lower efficiency. of the spark ignition engine but particulate emissions and noise were very. low At WM we looked at various conversions including a Guide Friday VIR. inspected in Acocks Green which though technically efficient looked. amateurish and unlikely to withstand long term operation I was then. approached by a consultant engineer working for Power Torque in Coven. try who were hoping to develop a Gardner LPG conversion in conjunction. with Gardner Avon themselves They wanted to borrow a bus convert it. and then put it into service we were less enthusiastic but offered them a. newly withdrawn Metrobus on loan on the basis that if successful the. engine and tanks could be transferred to an operational vehicle later. Indeed formal application was made for a grant for a trial route conversion. in Coventry, Ex Park lane Mkl Metrobus 2182 was accordingly despatched to Coventry. and by April 1999 it was ready to be revealed In view of the possibility of. press coverage the rather tired bus was whisked into Wheatley Street for. a spruce up that actually took the form of a hand repaint and very well. done to after which I was asked to try the vehicle The transformation was. amazing the engine was incredibly smooth and quiet with no diesel knock. and the unladen performance appeared well up to standard Gardner. seemed impressed and issued a coloured brochure and press pack for the. 6LXBG as they called it with photographs clearly showing that it was a. WMT bus though no enthusiast seems ever to have picked up on the. conversion They offered fully converted fully remanufactured engines in. practice with the effective end of Gardner and interest in LPG waning the. project quietly disappeared the engine was removed and 2182 sold as a. non runner marking the virtual end of Metrobus Gardner experiments. within West Midlands, Martin Fisher From the Aston Manor Transport Museum News Edition.
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n DRILL with a STANDARD drill. n COUNTERSINK with a STANDARD countersink (82 o to 100). n TAP with a STANDARD Unified Thread Series tap. n For Miniature Series inserts, screw the insert onto the threaded mandrel and turn the insert into the tapped hole. n When the tool handle is depressed, a special spring-