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FRUIT BREEDING PAST PRESENT AND FUTURE1
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efficiency of selection through molecular markers and the direct transfer of useful genes into adapted. genotypes through recombinant DNA transgene technology Folta and Gardiner 2009. DOMESTICATION, Fruit tree culture originated occurred in various locations including the Fertile Crescent Asia and. the New World in the late Neolithic and Bronze Age About 8000 years ago a period known as the. second Neolithic Revolution occurred in the Fertile Crescent that involved a change from villages to. urban communities Childe 1958 This development of urban centers is associated with the. development of a settled agriculture This coincides with the beginning of fruit culture which involved. a long term commitment to a unique piece of ground In the case of the date and olive a fruit orchard. can remain productive for over a century It is fruit culture that bonds humans to a particular piece of. land and may be a link associated with the concept of territoriality the development of city states and. eventually nationhood, Zohary and Spiegel Roy 1975 proposed that fruit culture in contrast with mere collection. originated 4000 to 3000 BCE Although some information before this period is based on archeological. remains much of it is by inference and conjecture Perhaps the earliest pictorial evidence of fruit. growing occurs in a 1 m tall alabaster vessel known as the Uruk vase found in Jemdet Nasr levels at. Uruk that date from about 3000 BCE Uruk Erech is on the Euphrates just north of Basra Iraq The. imagery from vase base to rim depicts water at the bottom cultivated plants barley and sesame and. domestic animals above followed by attendants bearing baskets of fruit offerings presented to the. Goddess Innana later known as Istar in a marriage ceremony to a king Bahrani 2002 Unfortunately. the fruits cannot be identified but they are large and of various shapes Predynastic drawings in Egypt. depict the date palm, The development of fruit culture in the Fertile Crescent evolved at two loci the Tigris. Euphrates civilization of Mesopotamia and the Nile valley culture of Egypt Information on the ancient. origins of fruit culture comes from archeological remains of fruit and from pictorial and literary. evidence The high culture of Mesopotamia and Egypt produced a rich art in which fruit is a common. motif A trove of paintings and sculpture and desiccated remains is found in Egyptian tombs and. monuments The Sumerian discovery of writing in the 3rd millennium BCE and Egyptian writings. somewhat later inaugurated the literary tradition that survives today as a result of the near. indestructibility of the baked clay tablets used for cuneiform script the wide use of stone carving for. hieroglyphics and the preservation of papyrus in desert tombs Later infusions of species and. technology came from Greece Persia Turkey India China and New World civilizations By classical. times in Greece and Rome fruit culture had achieved a sophisticated level not exceeded for over a. millennium, The first fruits crops to be domesticated appear to be the date palm olive grape almond fig. and pomegranate Asian temperate pome fruits apple pear quince medlar and stone fruits. apricot cherry peach and plum were fully domesticated by antiquity Citrus fruits were. domesticated early in China but reached the West in waves starting with citron Tropical Asian fruits. mango and banana and fruits from the Americas avocado papapa and pineapple were developed in. prehistory A number of popular fruits and nuts were only domesticated in the 18th to 20th centuries. including various brambles vacciniums pecan and kiwifruit while many fruits although extensively. collected and marketed are in the process of domestication lingonberry various cacti durian. Domestication of fruit crops resulted from selection of elite natural variants with further improvement. arising from recombinants produced by natural intercrosses involving selected types Cultural. practices often unique to each crop such as irrigation pollination control grafting Fig 1 rootstocks. pruning and training storage and processing were developed to extend use increase productivity and. improve quality,Fruit Domestication and Genetic Alteration.
Fruit crops are characterized by a number of common features Noteworthy is the obvious. appeal of taste which many consider delicious often a combination of sweetness acidity and. aromatic constituents The desirable taste and colors of many fruits is a naturally selected trait. associated with seed dispersal often mediated by mammal Steyn 2012 Most fruit crops are highly. cross pollinated and tree fruits generally have long juvenility and long life Most importantly some. fruit crops have the ability to propagate vegetatively by such factors as off shoots cuttings or. nucellar seed Subsequent progress in the improvement of fruit crops resulted from continual selection. in seedling populations especially from natural inter crosses among elite clones or with wild or. introduced clones that vastly speeded up the process This process has been efficacious and in spite of. progress in plant breeding many grower selected clones are still being grown. Domestication of fruits involves a combination of events including species selection recurrent. selection of elite clones and vegetative propagation combined with horticultural technology such as. irrigation in dry climates pruning and training pollination in the case of date palm and storage and. processing technology Genetic changes associated with domestication of fruits Table 1 include the. breakdown of dioecy loss of self incompatability induction of parthenocarpy and seedlessness. polyploidy and allopolyploidy loss of toxic substances ease of vegetative propagation and loss of. spines thorns or pubescence Other changes due to selection include increase in fruit size increase in. sugar content and increase in storage and shelf life Factors contributing to genetic improvement. include interspecific recombination polyploidization and continued selection involving generations. of sexual recombinants, Many fruit crops differ from their wild progenitors by a few characters that have appeared as. mutations Table 2 Typically these mutations are not advantageous to the plant in its natural setting. as they reduce fitness but would clearly have been immediately selected by humans The changes from. bitter to sweet seed in almond and seeded to seedless fruits along with parthenocarpy banana and. plantain citrus fig grape persimmon and pineapple would have negative fitness but very positive. selective value Parthenocarpy has two advantages it eliminates the need for pollination and is one. path to seedlessness which has proved important in grape banana and citrus In dioecious fruit crops. mutations inducing hermaphroditism strawberry grape and papaya are associated with. domestication Others mutations associated with domestication include loss of spines brambles. pineapple pome fruits and citrus loss of fruit pubescence peach and changes in growth habit. mutations pome and stone fruits In many fruit crops fruit color mutations sports have become. increasingly important especially in apple pear and grapefruit Some of these mutations are not. heritable because they do not occur in the appropriate meristematic layer. The development of fruit growing evolved from an interaction of genetic changes and. cultivation technology often unique for each species Janick 2005 Some idea of how this has. occurred can best be inferred from the history of two recent domesticates cranberry and kiwifruit. What occurred in these crops probably occurred in the past with others although each crop is unique. with its own set of problems and prospects and each has its own story Both cranberry and kiwifruit. were widely appreciated and entered commerce from wild stands long before domestication The. cranberry had been collected in North America since colonial America but only became cultivated. in the 19th century Successful cultivation involved developing a series of practices to grow a plant. adapted to aquatic conditions The kiwifruit a dioecious vine native to China has been appreciated. since the 8th century in China and probably much earlier but was never cultivated there It was. introduced to England and North America in the beginning of the 20th century but New Zealand. claims the honor of domestication While the plant was introduced to England and the United States. the plant languished there emphasizing the key role of champions A cultivation system worked out. by New Zealand nurserymen and growers involved training and pruning on a trellis with provision. for pollination The preferred pistillate and staminate clones Hayward and Bruno respectively. were selected from seed introduced into New Zealand from China After the germplasm was. selected cultivation techniques established and markets developed the technology was quickly. transferred and kiwifruit became a world fruit crop in less than 25 years. In both cranberry and kiwifruit the early elite selections of wild plants were of high quality and. could be vegetatively propagated by cuttings in the case of cranberry and grafting in the case of. kiwifruit Selection combined with the ability to fix unique combinations by vegetative propagation. was the key breeding technique in these two crops as in all fruit crops Breeding work has continued. but even after 100 years the selections made very early still dominate the industry. In both cranberry and kiwifruit related species are under consideration as potential new crops. In kiwifruit the related yellow fleshed Actinidia chinensis has been introduced and the small fruited. hardy A arguta also known as tara fig is under consideration as a new domesticate and now widely. planted in northern home gardens In the vacciniums two related crops blueberry especially. lowbushtypes in Maine and lingonberry in Sweden were also widely appreciated and harvested from. the wild but with remarkably different outcomes Blueberry had more promise as a commercial fruit. than did cranberry or lingonberry because the fruit could be consumed fresh as well as processed and. there was greater diversity in a number of species While the domesticates of cranberry and kiwifruit. are little changed from their wild forms the blueberry has undergone remarkable transformation due. to interspecific hybridization and ploidy manipulation The culture of blueberry was dependent on the. understanding that the vacciniums are an acid loving species and required the ammonium form of. nitrogen Intensive selection and breeding with various species of different ploidy levels transformed. this crop into a relatively large industry of wide adaptation Lingonberry on the other hand a large. Scandinavia export crop from forest collection never became domesticated probably because there. was no shortage of collectable fruit This crop is still based on merely managed wild plantings. FRUIT BREEDING, Fruit breeding as an organized activity is a 19th century innovation Current progress was. achieved through intensification of the same forces that have occurred during domestication with. increasing emphasis on increased adaptability through hardiness lowered chill requirement. photoperiod insensitivity resistance to biotic stress plant architectural modifications and selection of. color mutations Molecular techniques hold out the promise of increasing the efficiency of selection. through molecular markers and insertion of individual genes through transgene technology. Early beginnings of fruit breeding technology can be demonstrated in strawberry and pear. The modern strawberry is derived from hybrids between two octoploid 2n 56 native American. species both usually dioecious Fragaria virginiana indigenous to the East coast of the North America. but reaching Europe in the 17th century and F chiloensis native from Alaska to Chile Hybrids. between these two species were produced naturally in Brest France early in the 18th century when a. pistillate clone of the large fruited F chiloensis introduced by Am dee Fran ois Fr zier a French. army officer and spy whose family name curiously derives from the French word fraise for. strawberry was inter planted with staminate plants of F virginiana The new hybrids now known as. F ananassa or pineapple strawberry after their shape and aromatic flavor initiated the modern. strawberry industry Selection through the years has resulted in tremendous changes as the plant. evolved from a predominantly dioecious species with male and female plants into a hermaphroditic. species in which flowers contained both stamens and pistils The development of the day neutral. character from interspecific crosses has resulted in continuous fruit production and has transformed the. industry Modern breeding has greatly increased fruit size and firmness. Systematic breeding of European pear was first carried out by Jean Baptiste Van Mons. 1765 1842 a Belgian physician pharmacist and physicist and an early apostle of selection in plants. He collected clones of pear and sequentially planted open pollinated seed of the best material making. new selections for eight generations An early fruit book The American Fruit Culturist 1863 by John. J Thomas 1810 1895 states that the mean time from seed planting to fruiting in the first cycle was. 12 to 15 years 10 to 12 in the second cycle 8 to 10 by the third 6 to 8 by the fourth and 5 by the. fifth By the 8th generation several fruit trees fru. somewhat later inaugurated the literary tradition that survives today as a result of the near indestructibility of the baked clay tablets used for

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