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FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY OECD
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This work is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD The opinions expressed and the arguments. employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of OECD member countries. This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory to the delimitation. of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory city or area. You can copy download or print OECD content for your own use and you can include excerpts from OECD publications databases. and multimedia products in your own documents presentations blogs websites and teaching materials provided that suitable. acknowledgment of OECD as source and copyright owner is given All requests for commercial use and translation rights should be. submitted to rights oecd org,Photo credits,Shutterstock Kzenon. Hero Images Corbis,Khoa vu Flickr Getty Images,Hadi Davodpour CC0 1 0 Universal CC0 1 0. What is the TALIS PISA Link, he OECD study Teaching Strategies for In TALIS 2013 participating countries and economies. Instructional Quality is based on the analysis of had the option of applying TALIS questionnaires. the TALIS PISA Link database to a PISA 2012 subsample with the purpose of linking. The Teaching and Learning International Student data on schools teachers and students. Survey TALIS is an international survey that examines This option is called the TALIS PISA Link database. teaching and learning environments in schools The TALIS PISA Link provides us with valuable. in countries and economies around the world information about teaching strategies and their. while the Programme for International Student relationship with the characteristics of the school. Assessment PISA assesses the extent to which the classroom and students outcomes A better. children near the end of compulsory education have understanding of these relationships can help. acquired the knowledge and skills needed for full teachers schools and education policy makers. participation in modern societies to design more effective policies with the aim of. improving the learning achievements of all students. OECD 2016 INSIGHTS FROM THE TALIS PISA LINK DATA TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY 3. What are the key features of the study,Teaching Strategies for Instructional. 8 Participating countries The survey, Australia Finland Latvia Mexico The TALIS PISA Link database.
Portugal Romania Singapore and consists of two surveys. Spain TALIS questionnaires for,teachers and school principals. Who are the teachers,with a special additional, Teachers who were working in questionnaire for mathematics. the school at the time of the teachers i e the mathematics. PISA 2012 study for at least module were available on. a year in the surveyed school paper and online,in the southern hemisphere PISA questionnaires in. countries and for at least particular student and school. two years in the northern questionnaires as well as. hemisphere countries student assessments in,Teachers instructing mathematics reading and. mathematics to 15 year old science As mathematics is the. students main domain of the PISA 2012,assessment measures for.
Teachers whose target class,mathematics are more accurate. falls into mathematics,and reliable than for other. Teachers who answered the domains this report on the. TALIS mathematics module1 TALIS PISA Link data focuses on. Teachers who responded to teachers teaching mathematics. the 24 items about classroom It is important to take into account. practices considered for this that this study was based on the. study findings of only eight countries, Across the eight participating and thus inferences regarding. countries the resulting sample frequencies and associations to. comprises 3 390 teachers from other national contexts should. 1 111 schools be made carefully These findings,should be considered as tentative. correlations that should be,explored further in larger scale.
1 The goal of the mathematics module is gathering more detailed information on teaching practices from those countries that participated in the. TALIS PISA Link option, 4 OECD 2016 INSIGHTS FROM THE TALIS PISA LINK DATA TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY. eachers are the most important ingredient Research and policy questions. of quality education Although this is deeply For the eight countries that participated in the TALIS. ingrained in the policy debate policy makers PISA Link option the study first identifies mathematics. need to identify what goes into high quality teaching teachers main instructional strategies based on their. in order to take action to improve policies teacher self reported classroom practices It then measures. training and professional development programmes the frequency with which teachers adopt each of. for teachers with the aim of improving the the teaching strategies and analyses the relationships. achievement of all students between each strategy and key student outcomes. This research aims to provide insight into the Cross country differences in the relationships between. strategies that lead to better student outcomes and teaching strategies and student outcomes as well as. the characteristics of teachers students and schools school socio economic composition are also looked. associated with the regular use of good teaching at as they are likely to affect these associations. practices This brochure highlights the main The report goes on to examine several factors that. findings of this research which is developed may enable the use of teaching strategies found to be. further in the paper by Le Donn Fraser and positively linked with student learning. Bousquet 2016,Questions guiding our research, What are the most common teaching strategies used by. mathematics teachers To what extent do these strategies. vary within and between schools, How do teachers instructional strategies contribute to. students mathematics performance and their attitudes. towards learning, How do characteristics of the school the classroom. and the teacher affect the implementation of teaching. strategies, OECD 2016 INSIGHTS FROM THE TALIS PISA LINK DATA TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY 5.
What are the most common teaching,strategies used today. he analysis of mathematics teachers classroom practices has highlighted the existence of three underlying. teaching strategies these are referred to as active learning cognitive activation and teacher directed. instruction,Active Cognitive Teacher directed,learning activation instruction. Consists of promoting the Refers to the use of practices Refers to teaching practices. engagement of students in capable of challenging that rely to a great extent on. their own learning students in order to motivate a teacher s ability to deliver. them and stimulate higher orderly and clear lessons. Under this strategy students,order skills such as critical. discussions group work Making explicit the learning. thinking problem solving, co operation reflection and goals providing a summary. and decision making, the necessary support to of previous lessons or asking.
foster these activities play a This strategy not only short fact based questions. central role encourages students to find are examples of practices. creative and alternative that help to structure,Furthermore the inclusion. ways to solve problems lessons,and use of information and. but enables them to,communication technologies,communicate their thinking. ICT in the classroom can,processes and results with. help to foster an interactive,their peers and teachers.
and individual learning,environment, It is important to keep in mind that these teaching Analysis of the TALIS PISA Link data Which. strategies are not mutually exclusive a teacher can teaching strategies are teachers using. present a summary of recently learned content It is generally recognised that teaching strategies are. teacher directed strategies encourage students to multidimensional how well they work depends on. work in small groups to come up with a joint solution the context in which they are applied There is no. to a problem or task active learning strategies and single strategy that can guarantee better student. expect students to explain their thinking on complex outcomes However research has highlighted a. problems cognitive activation strategies with number of practices that enable learning among. different frequencies students Hattie 2009 Marzano et al 2001. 6 OECD 2016 INSIGHTS FROM THE TALIS PISA LINK DATA TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY. Wayne and Young 2003 These include techniques The study classified practices into strategies through a. such as strong classroom management clear statistical empirical approach by using an exploratory. instructions helping students engage meaningfully factor analysis EFA Box 1 lists the practices that best. with the learning content applying formative characterise each teaching strategy. assessment and providing constructive supportive,TALIS PISA Link three teaching strategies2. The active learning strategy I connect mathematics concepts I teach to. Students work on projects that require at uses of those concepts outside of school. least one week to complete I go over homework problems that students. Students use ICT information and were not able to solve. communication technology for projects or,The teacher directed instruction strategy. class work,I explicitly state learning goals,I require students to work on mathematics. projects that take more than a single class I let students practice similar tasks until I. period to complete know that every student has understood the. subject matter,I let students evaluate their own progress.
I observe students when working on,Students work in small groups to come up. particular tasks and provide immediate,with a joint solution to a problem or task. The cognitive activation strategy I ask short fact based questions. I expect students to explain their thinking I present a summary of recently learned. on complex problems content, I encourage students to solve problems in I give different work to the students who. more than one way have difficulties learning and or to those. I require students to provide written who can advance faster. explanations of how they solve problems I refer to a problem from everyday life or. I encourage students to work together to work to demonstrate why new knowledge is. solve problems useful, 2 For more information about the teaching strategies in the eight countries participating in the TALIS PISA Link study please see the country profiles at. the end of this brochure, OECD 2016 INSIGHTS FROM THE TALIS PISA LINK DATA TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY 7.
Figure 1 graphs the frequency with which the frequently used in Portugal Mexico and Romania. mathematics teachers employ on average each Teacher directed instruction is also a widespread. strategy The figure shows that in every country the teaching strategy among teachers in every country and. active learning strategy is used less often than the particularly strong in Australia Latvia and Romania. other two teaching strategies cognitive activation Teachers from top performing countries such as. and teacher directed instruction Indeed while Finland and Singapore engage in each of these. most mathematics teachers report that they use types of strategies less often than teachers from. active learning practices only occasionally which other countries participating in the study This may. corresponds to a value of 2 on the circular axis they be explained by the self reporting nature of the TALIS. usually report using cognitive activation and teacher survey where teachers may tend to over or understate. directed practices frequently which corresponds to a their engagement in particular teaching practices. value of 3 see Figure 1 note based on a notion of social desirability In other words. The cognitive activation strategy is widely used by teachers may tend to answer following cultural. teachers in all participating countries and is more patterns of what is desirable or expected of them. Figure 1 Frequency with which teachers use active learning cognitive activation. and teacher directed instruction strategies,Mexico 3 Spain. 2 Active learning,Cognitive activation,1 Teacher directed. 0 Singapore,The axis represents the frequency,with which teachers engage in. each teaching strategy where,1 Never or almost never. 2 Occasionally,3 Frequently and,4 In all or nearly all lessons.
Source OECD 2012 Programme for International Survey Assessment PISA 2012 complete database. www oecd org pisa pisaproducts pisa2012database downloadabledata htm OECD 2013a Teaching and Learning International Survey TALIS. 2013 complete database http stats oecd org index aspx datasetcode talis 2013 20. The teaching culture in schools, Teachers who work in the same schools tend to adopt more similar teaching approaches than. teachers from different schools and this teaching culture is observed for each teaching strategy. However there are important cross country differences regarding the size and significance of this. school teaching culture Of the eight participating countries Latvia and Mexico show the strongest. school teaching culture while Singapore is the only country where there is no clearly observable. school teaching culture for any strategy Singapore s results seem to indicate that the school does. not exert a great influence on teaching strategies In this case individual teacher attributes such as. certification or years of experience could explain the differences in teaching strategies. For more information see Le Donn Fraser and Bousquet 2016. 8 OECD 2016 INSIGHTS FROM THE TALIS PISA LINK DATA TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY. Does the link between teaching strategies Figure 3 shows the relationship between teaching. and students achievement vary according strategies and teacher practices in advantaged. to the background of the students and in disadvantaged schools 3 The contributions. Figure 2 shows the association between teachers of the three teaching strategies to students. instructional strategies and students mathematics mathematics performance seem more pronounced. performance The findings show that overall a in socio economically advantaged schools than. frequent use of the cognitive activation strategy in disadvantaged ones For example the positive. which stimulates students critical thinking problem association found between the cognitive activation. solving and decision making skills is linked with strategy and student achievement in mathematics is. higher mathematics performance The association is stronger in socio economically advantaged schools. particularly strong in Australia Latvia Portugal and than in disadvantaged ones A possible explanation. Romania for this is that teachers working in schools with a. The relationship between the use of an active learning higher proportion of disadvantaged students usually. strategy and student mathematics performance have less training and are operating under more. presents a mixed pattern across countries In addition difficult circumstances for example they may have. it is not possible to observe an overall positive fewer resources more second language learners. association between teacher directed strategies and and more disruptive behaviour Consequently they. students maths outcomes Evidence from previous do not reap as many benefits from implementing. studies using PISA data has shown these types of cognitive activation practices as teachers working in. strategies are mostly used with students who score advantaged schools OECD 2014. at the lowest level of proficiency These situations Similar conclusions are reached regarding teacher. may be playing a role in some national contexts but directed instruction While no positive relationship. more research is needed to understand how these between the use of teacher directed instruction and. strategies take place in the classroom In sum the students mathematics performance was previously. results showed that depending on the country each found the bottom part of Figure 3 also shows that. teaching strategy presents mixed results regarding this relationship is negative at a significant level. their association with students maths achievement only for students enrolled in advantaged schools. A preliminary explanation concerns the limitations of It is however non significant for students in. a self reporting survey Although teachers attest to disadvantaged schools This finding could imply that. the frequency with which they engage in a particular a too frequent use of teacher directed strategies is. practice the TALIS PISA Link study does not have data only detrimental to the performance of advantaged. on how teachers engage in these practices This students while it does not negatively affect skills. study is lacking the data that only capturing practices acquisition among disadvantaged students The main. through classroom observations would allow and this message from this result is that different strategies. could explain why depending on the context the help different student groups and facilitate the. same type of practices have different outcomes learning of different types of tasks See Box 2 for a. more in depth discussion, 3 Advantaged schools are those located in the superior 50 of the distribution of the PISA school index of economic social and cultural status. Disadvantaged schools are those located in the inferior 50 of the distribution of the of PISA school index of economic social and cultural status. OECD 2016 INSIGHTS FROM THE TALIS PISA LINK DATA TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY 9. Figure 2 Associations between teachers teaching strategies and students mathematics performance. Active learning Cognitive activation Teacher directed instruction. Australia Portugal Latvia Finland Singapore Spain Romania Mexico. Mexico Spain Singapore Finland Portugal Australia Romania Latvia. Portugal Romania Australia Spain Latvia Mexico Finland Singapore. Note The bars represent the regression coefficients associated with the school index of a given teaching strategy The darker bars indicate regression. coefficients that are significant at the 5 threshold while controlling for a number of other teacher and school characteristics that might influence this. relationship For more information see Le Donn Fraser and Bousquet 2016. Countries are ranked in ascending order of the standardised regression coefficient associated with the teaching strategy of interest. Source OECD 2012 Programme for International Survey Assessment PISA 2012 complete database. www oecd org pisa pisaproducts pisa2012database downloadabledata htm OECD 2013 Teaching and Learning International Survey TALIS. 2013 complete database http stats oecd org index aspx datasetcode talis 2013 20. 10 OECD 2016 INSIGHTS FROM THE TALIS PISA LINK DATA TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY. Figure 3 Associations between teachers instructional strategies and students performance. in mathematics by school socio economic composition. Disadvantaged Advantaged,Active learning, Latvia Australia Finland Romania Portugal Spain Singapore Mexico. Cognitive activation, Mexico Spain Finland Latvia Singapore Portugal Romania Australia. Teacher directed instruction, Australia Mexico Romania Portugal Singapore Latvia Spain Finland.
Note The bars represent the regression coefficients associated with the school index of a given teaching strategy The darker bars indicate regression. coefficients that are significant at the 5 threshold while controlling for a number of other teacher and school characteristics that might influence this. relationship For more information see Le Donn Fraser and Bousquet 2016. Countries are ranked in ascending order of the standardised regression coefficient associated with the teaching strategy of interest estimated on the. data of students enrolled in the most socio economically advantaged half of schools. Source OECD 2012 Programme for International Survey Assessment PISA 2012 complete database. www oecd org pisa pisaproducts pisa2012database downloadabledata htm OECD 2013 Teaching and Learning International Survey TALIS. 2013 complete database http stats oecd org index aspx datasetcode talis 2013 20. OECD 2016 INSIGHTS FROM THE TALIS PISA LINK DATA TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY 11. Understanding the role of teaching directed practices. on students learning a dialogue between PISA and, The recent PISA publication Ten Questions for The report also looks at the overall association. Mathematics Teachers and How PISA Can between cognitive activation practices. Help Answer Them OECD 2016a explores as identified by student accounts and. the association of teacher directed practices mathematics achievement Similarly to the. as identified by student accounts with the results presented in this brochure the results. likelihood of correctly answering mathematics showed that cognitive activation practices. items of differing ranges of difficulty The are positively associated with student. results show that students exposed to teacher performance. directed instruction are slightly more likely to Thus teacher directed strategies can help. solve the easiest mathematics problems in PISA students succeed on easier tasks but they may. However as the difficulty of the item increases not be the best strategy in the long run to. this association becomes non significant prepare students for more complex tasks. Although the overall association is moderate,the evidence suggests that teacher directed. strategies seem to be more conducive to,solving easier tasks than more complex ones. How to better support the teacher instruction managing their classroom Results from TALIS 2013. strategies that lead to improved student showed that the level of self efficacy among teachers. outcomes in a country is highly correlated with teachers. Now that it is known that cognitive activation participation rate in professional development. strategies and to a lesser extent active learning Teachers who have confidence in their own abilities. strategies showed the strongest association with are more likely to engage in active teaching strategies. raising students achievement it is important to Also for both strategies and in almost all participating. understand the factors that determine the adoption countries the results show that the more a teacher. of these strategies co operates with other teachers in the school the. Tables 1 and 2 show the association of a range of more he or she tends to regularly use cognitive. school and teacher factors with cognitive activation activation and active learning strategies This suggests. and active learning strategies respectively Teacher that exchanging ideas and experience about teaching. self efficacy is the only factor that is associated with other teachers in the school observing each. with a more frequent use of both strategies in all other s classrooms and providing mutual support. participating countries Teacher self efficacy refers increases the likelihood of implementing of good. to the confidence teachers have in teaching and teaching strategies. 12 OECD 2016 INSIGHTS FROM THE TALIS PISA LINK DATA TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY. Table 1 Factors most significantly related to teachers use of cognitive activation. Block Factor Australia Finland Latvia Mexico Portugal Romania Singapore Spain. Teacher Constructivist,perceptions of beliefs,work and work. environment,self efficacy,Teacher relations Co operation with.
with other school other teachers,stakeholders,Classroom Classroom. composition disciplinary climate,and climate,School socio Heterogeneity. demographic of students with,composition and respect to their. mathematics mathematics,achievement performances,Proportion of. immigrant students,in the school,School climate Heterogeneity.
and student of students with,attitudes towards respect to their. mathematics attitudes towards,learning activities, Note and indicate a significant association at the 5 threshold and indicate a significant association at the 10 threshold. while controlling for a number of other teacher and school characteristics that might influence this relationship For more information see Le Donn. Fraser and Bousquet 2016, Source OECD 2012 Programme for International Survey Assessment PISA 2012 complete database. www oecd org pisa pisaproducts pisa2012database downloadabledata htm OECD 2013 Teaching and Learning International Survey TALIS. 2013 complete database http stats oecd org index aspx datasetcode talis 2013 20. Table 2 Factors most significantly related to teachers use of active learning. Block Factor Australia Finland Latvia Mexico Portugal Romania Singapore Spain. Teacher Teacher,perception of self efficacy,work and work. enivronment,Teacher relations Co operation with,with other school other teachers.
stakeholders,Classroom Proportion of low,composition academic achievers. and climate,Proportion of,academically gifted,disciplinary climate. School climate Heterogeneity,and student of students. attitudes toward with respect to,mathematics their confidence. mathematics, Note and indicate a significant association at the 5 threshold and indicate a significant association at the 10 threshold.
while controlling for a number of other teacher and school characteristics that might influence this relationship For more information see Le Donn. Fraser and Bousquet 2016, Source OECD 2012 Programme for International Survey Assessment PISA 2012 complete database. www oecd org pisa pisaproducts pisa2012database downloadabledata htm OECD 2013 Teaching and Learning International Survey TALIS. 2013 complete database http stats oecd org index aspx datasetcode talis 2013 20. OECD 2016 INSIGHTS FROM THE TALIS PISA LINK DATA TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY 13. What can schools do to promote good,teaching practices. 1 Allow teachers time to develop teaching 2 Support teachers efforts to find the best. strategies teaching strategy, A possible explanation for teacher directed instruction On the other hand in most countries in this study. being so common across participating countries is no positive association was found between teacher. that this type of strategy is less time consuming than directed instruction and student achievement in. active learning and cognitive activation strategies mathematics in four out of the eight countries. and requires less commitment from disengaged A possible explanation for this lack of association. students Both active learning and cognitive activation is that teacher directed strategies are more often. instruction strategies necessitate more planning and used with low performer students Echazarra. student dedication than teacher directed instruction et al 2016 However it is important to note that. Teachers who need to cover a lengthy curriculum the implementation of teacher directed strategies. or focus on preparing for standardised tests may should not necessarily be interpreted as negative. not have sufficient time to prepare for these lessons Presenting clear instructions or providing a summary. Boardman and Woodruff 2004 It is thus likely that of previous lessons are an important component of a. not many teachers have been adequately trained to successful learning climate Indeed a previous study. manage and implement the practices related to both conducted by the OECD has shown that teacher. of these strategies directed practices are positively associated with the. Therefore increasing the number of planning hours likelihood of answering easy items on the PISA 2012. for teachers can provide them with more time to mathematics test Echazarra et al 2016 Since this. develop more complex teaching strategies Providing study shows that when teacher directed instruction. support and advice on dealing with disruptive becomes the most frequently used type of instruction. classrooms would lead to fewer interruptions better it may have unfavourable consequences on student. time management and potential innovation in the learning the issue may be for the teacher to find the. lessons Likewise professional development activities right balance when in what way and with whom is. that focus on the implementation of active learning or it appropriate to use this type of practice. cognitive activation can be helpful to introduce these Teacher training programmes seeking to foster good. strategies to teachers teaching practices must therefore take into account. the social context in which the teacher performs and. provide support in managing challenging classroom, environments Box 3 briefly describes how this takes. place in the Finnish system, 14 OECD 2016 INSIGHTS FROM THE TALIS PISA LINK DATA TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY.
Finland Identifying student needs, Finland s special teachers fulfil a role of early has a pupils multi professional care group. diagnosis and support working closely with that meets at least twice a month for two. the class teachers to identify students in need hours and which consists of the principal the. of extra help and to work individually or in special education teacher the school nurse. small groups to give them the support they the school psychologist a social worker. need to keep up with their classmates It is not and the teachers whose students are being. left solely to the discretion of the regular class discussed The parents of any child being. teacher to identify a problem and alert the discussed are contacted prior to the meeting. special teacher every comprehensive school and are sometimes asked to be present. Source OECD 2011 Finland Slow and Steady Reform for Consistently High Results in Lessons from PISA for the United States. OECD Publishing Paris http dx doi org 10 1787 9789264096660 6 en. 3 Support school embedded professional a school embedded approach to professional. development and professional learning development is recommended This would include. communities for example participating in professional networks. As the results show it is essential for teaching undertaking collaborative research and engaging. strategies to be in tune with the context in which they in peer observation in their school Attempts to. are applied Teachers have reported that professional inculcate good teaching strategies in one teacher in. development involving the participation in learning a single school are less likely to be successful unless. communities co operation and peer observation has his or her school colleagues also engage in these. a positive impact on their practices Opfer 2016 strategies Teachers who have participated in training. Teachers collaborate and discuss their teaching in classroom practices could work as mentors to. practices with each other so it is not uncommon other teachers and share their experience Box 4. to observe that teachers from the same school shows an interesting example from New South Wales. share the same practices Since strategies seem where professional development is used to promote. to be more similar among teachers within the same professional learning communities. school than with teachers from different schools, OECD 2016 INSIGHTS FROM THE TALIS PISA LINK DATA TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY 15.

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