Fly back transformer Design,4 Parameters required to design transformer. Item Symbol Unit Required condition,Output voltage Vo Vdc. Rated output current max Io Adc, Power Overload protection operating current Iolp Adc. supply Input voltage Vac Vac Min Max,specification Input frequency fac Hz Min. Conversion efficiency,Switching frequency fsw kHz,Input capacitance of the electrolytic. Using part Secondary side diode VF VF Vdc,Used maximum magnetic flux density B T. Effective magnetic path length of core le mm2,Effective cross section area of core Ae Mm. Using core,Relative permeability amplitude,permeability. Fly back voltage Vr Vdc,MOSFET surge voltage estimate Vsgm Vdc. Diode surge voltage at secondary side,Usage Vin cr. Input voltage when setting operation mode Adc,condition Vin cc. Output current when setting operation Io cr,mode Io cc. Continuity level when setting operation,For continuous mode only. 5 Parameters to be calculated,Item Symbol Unit,Output power Po W Po Polp. Ripple voltage estimate Vripple Vdc Vripple Vripple olp. Minimum input voltage Vdc min Vdc Vdc min Vdcolp min. Maximum input voltage Vdc max Vdc,Input current Pin W Pin Pinolp. Switching cycle T us T Ton,Maximum MOSFET voltage Vds max Vdc. Maximum diode voltage at secondary side Vd max Vdc. Calculating,Primary side inductance Lp uH,parameters. Number of turns at primary side Np Tn,Number of turns at secondary side Ns Tn. Number of turns of VCC Nvcc Tn,Core gap length lg mm. Peak current at primary side Ipeak A, Current at primary side effective value Iprms Arms. Current at secondary side effective value Isrms Arms. Output capacitor current effective value Icrms Arms. Magnetic flux density in core Bc T, July 2016 DT Fly Back transformer AN 174E Rev1 0 2 8 Fuji Electric Co Ltd All rights reserved. Fly back transformer Design,6 Design flow of transformer for Fly back. Step Item Description,Determine whether the critical mode discontinuous. Step 0 Determine operation mode mode or continuous mode should be used for the. Temporarily determine the power supply specification. Step 1 Determine parameters,and using parts,Determine the Fly back voltage based on breakdown. Step 2 Determine Fly back voltage voltages of the MOSFET to be used and diode at the. secondary side, The turns ratio is determined based on the Fly back. Step 3 Determine turns ratio, Operation condition under critical Determine each condition at the design points. or continuous mode, Calculate Duty and Lp under the operation condition of. Step 5 Calculate Duty and Lp,Obtain the maximum Duty for the power supply. Step 6 Calculate D max on OLP,specification, Obtain the maximum current Ipeak flowing through the. Step 7 Calculate Ipeak primary side with Lp set in Step 4 under the maximum. Duty condition, Calculate the number of turns at the secondary side Ns. Determine number of turns at, Step 8 based on the specification of core to be used LP and. secondary side Ns, Calculate the number of turns at the primary side Np. Determine number of turns at, Step 9 based on the number of turns at the secondary side and. primary side Np,turns ratio, Calculate the number of turns for VCC Nvcc based on. Determine number of turns for, Step 10 the voltage of VCC to be used and number of turns at. the secondary side, Calculate the air gap in the transformer to satisfy the Lp. Step 11 Determine Gap,Check the calculation results Here check that the. Step 12 Check calculation result maximum magnetic flux density and the Fly back. voltage are consistent with the respective target values. Calculate the current value at each part under the. continuous operation condition when checking a heat. generation for example, Step 13 Calculate current at rated output Here check the calculated current values and numbers. of turns at the primary and secondary sides And if it is. expected not to be turned with the estimated core,bobbin select a core again. Check Duty continuity level peak current etc under. Step 14 Check operation status,any operation condition. July 2016 DT Fly Back transformer AN 174E Rev1 0 3 8 Fuji Electric Co Ltd All rights reserved. Fly back transformer Design,7 Design of transformer for Fly back. Step 0 Determine operation mode,Determine an operation mode. If you want to operate it in continuous current mode under a desired condition select the Continuous. current mode sheet, If you want to operate it in discontinuous or critical current mode under a desired condition select the. Critical current mode sheet,Temporarily determine a core material to be used. Select the core to be used by using the output power described in the catalog as a guide. Step 1 Determine parameters,Input a power supply specification. Input a power supply I O specification Input the efficiency using estimate. The minimum input voltage varies depending on the output power and input capacitance of the. electrolytic capacitor In this sheet the estimates are automatically calculated. Input the conditions for parts to be used, For the electrolytic capacitors which have its own temperature characteristics and deteriorate over. time input the input capacitance considering those factors. The used maximum magnetic flux density varying depending on the using core material is generally. between 0 25 and 0 3T,Vac 2 Vdc min,Vdcolp min,Step 2 Determine Fly back voltage. Determine a rough standard of the Fly back voltage. Determine the Fly back voltage Vr checking the balance between the breakdown voltage of. MOSFET to be used and diode voltage at the secondary side. Input an estimate about 30 V since the surge voltages Vsgm Vsgd are not clear at the design. Generally for wide power supply 90 to 264 ACV use 600 to 900 V for the breakdown voltage If. using an item with a breakdown voltage of 600 V consider a margin and set the Fly back voltage to. 80 to 110 V,Vds waveform Vsgm,Vds max Vr Vdc max Vsgm. Vd max Vo Vdc max Vsgd,Step 3 Determine turns ratio. The turns ratio n is determined when the Fly back voltage is determined. July 2016 DT Fly Back transformer AN 174E Rev1 0 4 8 Fuji Electric Co Ltd All rights reserved. Fly back transformer Design, Step 4 Operation condition under critical or continuous mode. Set under what condition the transformer is to be operated on the critical or continuous mode. If the critical mode is selected input the input voltage and output current where you want it to operate. in the mode Note that for this input voltage the input ripple voltage is not considered. If it is operated in the discontinuous mode set the voltage and current not to reach the critical mode. under the minimum input voltage and maximum output current conditions. If designing it in the continuous mode input the input voltage output current and continuity level k at. the design point,Ipeak 1 Id Ipeak,Ipeak Ipeak1,Step 5 Calculate Duty and Lp. Obtain the primary side inductance Lp to operate it under the condition set in Step 4. Input an estimate for Lp from the calculation result. For critical mode For continuous mode,Vindc 2 Ton 2 fsw 1 k Vdc 2 Ton 2 fsw. 2 Pin 1 k 2 Pin,Step 6 Calculate D max,Calculate the maximum Duty during operation. The operation condition for the maximum Duty is the maximum output overload protection operating. current and minimum input voltage, The operation mode for the maximum Duty is the continuous here. Vdcolp min Vr,Step 7 Calculate Ip peak, Calculate the maximum current flowing through the primary side. 2Lp Pinolp Vdcolp min 2 Ton max 2 fsw,2Lp Pinolp Vdcolp min 2 Ton max 2 fsw. Vdcolp min Ton max,1 k max Lp, July 2016 DT Fly Back transformer AN 174E Rev1 0 5 8 Fuji Electric Co Ltd All rights reserved. Fly back transformer Design, Step 8 Determine number of turns at secondary side Ns. Calculate the number of turns at the secondary side. Input the calculation result rounding it up to the next whole number. Step 9 Determine number of turns at primary side Ns. Calculate the number of turns at the primary side, Input the calculation result rounding it up to the next whole number. Step 10 Determine number of turns for VCC voltage Nvcc. Calculate the number of turns for the VCC voltage, Input the Vcc voltage according to the operation voltage of IC to be used. The voltage of the VCC voltage coil wavers depending on the conditions of input voltage and output. current Thus the number of turns for the VCC voltage calculated here is a rough guide The number. of turns should eventually be determined by actually operating it. Step 11 Determine gap, Obtain the air gap required for core materials to be used. The gap calculated here is a rough guide Generally manufacture the transformer by giving priority to. the L value,0 Np 2 Ae le,Step 12 Check calculation result. Check the calculation result because the L value and number of turns were set to arbitrary values. Ensure that the used maximum magnetic flux density does not exceed the magnetic flux density input. in the Parameter, Ensure that the Fly back voltage is not much of a difference than the set value. July 2016 DT Fly Back transformer AN 174E Rev1 0 6 8 Fuji Electric Co Ltd All rights reserved. Fly back transformer Design,Step 13 Calculate current at rated output. Obtain the current value at the rated output or at the maximum output. Obtain the currents at the primary and secondary sides for a rough guide of coil material to be used. for the transformer, Obtain the current effective value flowing through the output capacitor to select the electrolytic. Vr Vdc min,For continuous mode,Id Imean Ipeak1,IF Ispeak1. For continuous mode,Im ean Iprsm D Ip Ipb,Lp f Isrms 1 D Isp Isb. Ipeak Im ean Icrms Isrms 2 Io 2,Ipeak 1 Im ean,Step 14 Check operation status. Check the operation status at any desired point, Input an input voltage and output current whose operation status you want to check and the. waveforms are displayed Note that for this input voltage the input ripple voltage is not considered. Also note that this operation check is not suited for ICs equipped with the frequency reduction. Duty vs Id Vds,3 00 Vds 450,100 If the Vds waveform has a. 50 step the mode becomes,0 00 0 Discontinuous,0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 1. July 2016 DT Fly Back transformer AN 174E Rev1 0 7 8 Fuji Electric Co Ltd All rights reserved. Fly back transformer Design, 1 The contents of this note Product Specification Characteristics Data Materials and Structure etc were. prepared in July 2016 The contents will subject to change without notice due to product specification change or. some other reasons In case of using the products stated in this document the latest product specification shall. be provided and the data shall be checked, 2 The calculation results that you obtain via the method described in this material should be used only as an. indication, The calculation results values obtained using this material do not assure the Fuji Electric products and its. operations, 3 When reprinting or copying all or a part of this note our company s acceptance in writing shall be obtained. The contents will subject to change without notice due to product specification change etc. Application examples and component in this sheet is for the purpose of assisting in the design. Therefore This sheet has not been made in consideration of the margin. Before using Please design in consideration of the parts variation and use condition. July 2016 DT Fly Back transformer AN 174E Rev1 0 8 8 Fuji Electric Co Ltd All rights reserved.

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