Fire Sprinkler Systems Monitoring-Books Pdf

Fire Sprinkler Systems Monitoring
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A P P L I C A T I O N S G U I D E, Fire Sprinkler, Systems Monitoring. Preface 1 Testing Maintenance and Service 7, Supervisory Switches 7. Fire Sprinkler Systems 2, Wet Pipe 2 Principles of Operation Product Placement 7. Dry Pipe 2 Maintenance and Service 9, Deluge 3 Pressure Switches 9. Pre action 3 Principles of Operation Product Placement 9. Standards 3 Maintenance and Service 10, NFPA 3 Explosion Proof Detectors 10.
Building and Fire 5 Principles of Operation 10, Product Placement Maintenance and Service 10. Testing Laboratories 5, Alarm Bells and Horn Strobes 10. Fire Sprinkler Systems Monitoring 6, Principles of Operation 10. Vane Type Water Flow Detectors 6, Testing and Maintenance 10. Principles of Operation 7, Product Placement 7 Glossary 11.
Before the first automatic sprinkler system was developed in the 1870s a sprinkler system consisted of a perforated pipe a valve a person to open the. valve and an elevated barrel or tank filled with water A more dependable system was created in response to increased fire loads and increased values of. buildings and their contents A more advanced sprinkler system became possible as technology became more sophisticated. Sprinkler systems automatically detect and then control suppress or extinguish fires Water supplies can come from city water mains dedicated storage. tanks or ponds Valves and alarm devices control and monitor the water s flow Distribution pipes send water to the sprinkler heads using a municipal. water source to maintain and increase water pressure according to design criteria Modern systems can detect a fire condition and discharge water quickly. before a fire grows to a fatal or catastrophic size reducing fire deaths by nearly 100 percent Understanding your fire sprinkler system can be life saving. After reading this guide you will be more knowledgeable about the water flow detectors supervisory switches pressure switches explosion proof prod. ucts and alarm bells within a fire sprinkler system. This guide provides information for the proper application installation and maintenance of System Sensor sprinkler and notification products Installation. must comply with all code requirements such as NFPA and comply with directives from Authorities Having Jurisdiction AHJ AHJ directives always take. precedence over other codes and have final authority. System Sensor was founded in 1984 and has become the largest manufacturer of fire detection and notification appliances in the world More than 1 900. System Sensor associates collaborate to build quality products for conventional detection intelligent detection audible and visible AV notification heat. ing ventilation air conditioning HVAC monitoring and sprinkler systems monitoring High production standards and strong customer engagement. contribute to the solid demand for System Sensor products. Every day we aim to develop advanced ideas that deliver advanced solutions. A P P L I C A T I O N S G U I D E F I R E S P R I N K L E R S Y S T E M S M O N I T O R I N G. Section 1 There are four types of fire from the surge to slowly drain out If sustained water flow. Fire Sprinkler sprinkler systems wet pipe dry occurs as when a sprinkler is activated due to a fire condi. Systems pipe deluge and pre action tion the reservoir cannot drain the water fast enough and the. These choices allow sprinkler water motor gong or alarm pressure switch is activated. systems to provide an array of, of hazard and environmental protection customized to each Wet Pipe Sprinkler System with Maintained Excess. individual situation Pressure, Wet pipe sprinkler systems with maintained excess pressure. Wet Pipe Sprinkler Systems are offered with an alarm check valve In this type of sys. Wet pipe sprinkler systems are the most common systems tem excess pressure is pumped in just above the alarm check. They have the fewest number of components and require less valve to hold the clapper down even during a city water surge. installation time than other systems A wet pipe sprinkler This type of system eliminates false alarms caused by surges. system has a series of piping systems connected to regularly in the municipal water supply. distributed sprinkler heads fed by a main riser Maintenance. is minimal so financial savings are also realized There are two ways to measure pressure loss in this type. Wet pipe sprinkler systems cannot be installed in an area A pressure switch is connected to the system above the. where distribution pipes are exposed to freezing tempera check valve When a sprinkler head is activated the switch. tures such as parking garages because they always contain detects a drop in pressure and sends an alarm Usually a. water supervisory pressure switch is used to monitor leaks in. the system, The operation of a wet pipe sprinkler system depends on A pressure switch is connected to the alarm port of the. the heat reactive sprinkler heads When a fire starts its heat alarm check valve When the sprinkler head is activated the. causes a fusible glass bulb or metallic heat sensor within the alarm check valve opens When the valve opens the alarm. sprinkler head to shatter or melt and separate Either action port is exposed to the incoming water supply The pressure. causes water to discharge from the distribution piping strik switch detects the pressure change and sends an alarm. ing the deflector on the open sprinkler head and spraying. water onto the fire in an engineered pattern or throw Wet Pipe Sprinkler System with a Straight Pipe Riser. Wet pipe sprinkler systems with straight pipe risers located. Wet pipe systems are fixed temperature installations meaning downstream of a check valve or backflow preventer are the. each sprinkler head is activated only if exposed to a predeter most common wet pipe sprinkler systems The straight pipe. mined temperature as low as 155 F or as high as 286 F riser or vertical supply pipe within the sprinkler system does. not have a retard chamber or alarm port like other types of. There are three types of wet pipe sprinkler systems wet pipe wet pipe sprinkler systems Instead this system has a riser. sprinkler system with an alarm check valve wet pipe sprin check valve. kler system with maintained excess pressure or wet pipe. sprinkler system with a straight pipe riser A riser check valve utilizes a vane type water flow switch. to monitor water flow in the sprinkler system When a con. Wet Pipe Sprinkler System with an Alarm Check Valve tinuous flow of water more than 10 gallons per minute. When water enters the fire sprinkler system piping it occurs a standard check valve or a water flow switch mon. becomes non potable and unsuitable for drinking To keep itors the system and activates an alarm after a predetermined. the non potable water from leaking back into the city water amount of time The amount of time delay is selected on the. supply an alarm check valve can be installed The alarm flow switch to prevent short duration city water surges from. check valve is a small device consisting of a spring valve causing false alarms The time delay mechanism allows a. clapper and alarm port predetermined alarm delay time to be set If water surges. beyond the predetermined time an alarm will sound, The spring holds the valve clapper closed so that water will. flow only in one direction Water will not flow out of the Dry Pipe Sprinkler Systems. sprinkler head until a predetermined temperature causes Dry pipe sprinkler systems are installed in areas where dis. the individual sprinkler head to activate When a sprin tribution pipes are subject to freezing temperatures such. kler head is activated the clapper opens allowing water to as unheated buildings and parking garages Unlike wet. flow through the valve to feed the system As the alarm port pipe sprinkler systems that contain water dry pipe sprin. becomes exposed to water pressure it causes a water motor kler systems contain compressed air The compressed air is. gong mechanical bell or A V device to sound A water flow supplied by an electric air compressor nitrogen bottles or. switch or detector connected to an electric bell horn or other source. horn strobe has become the most common water flow alarm. notification device replacing the mechanical water motor Dry pipe sprinkler systems also have a valve clapper and. gong The alarm port also becomes exposed to the incoming alarm port The dry pipe valve clapper is held closed by a. water supply where an alarm pressure switch can be installed pressure differential between air pressure and water pres. to send an alarm signal to a panel sure at the valve interface Supervisory pressure switches. are used to maintain the pressure on the system side and. To prevent a city water surge from activating alarms a retard can send a low or high pressure signal to a panel The panel. chamber can be installed The retard chamber is a metal res then either turns on a pump or releases pressure from the. ervoir that holds the water during a brief city water surge system through a ball valve to ensure that the right pres. A drip valve at the bottom of the reservoir allows the water sure is maintained in the system When a fire starts its heat. S Y S T E M S E N S O R, causes a sprinkler head to open and the compressed air is There are a few specialized applications where wet pipe and.
released When the air pressure drops to a trip point usually dry pipe systems are not suitable In these instances deluge. 10 psi below normal a dry pipe valve opens and a rush of or pre action sprinkler systems are used These instances. water from the main line floods the distribution pipes With are called special hazards applications. the rush of water from the main line through the open clap. per valve the alarm port is exposed to water Once exposed Deluge Sprinkler Systems. a pressure switch senses the increase in pressure and sounds Deluge sprinkler systems are installed in high hazard oper. an alarm ations such as power generating stations aircraft hangers. petrochemical and munitions plants and areas that store. Dry Pipe Valve items such as flammable liquids These systems work with. The dry pipe valve is located above the main system control independent fire detection systems to deliver water immedi. valve and must be installed in a heated area or enclosure to ately to the protected area. keep the water below the valve from freezing The purpose. of the dry pipe valve is to keep water from entering the pipes Deluge sprinkler systems work similarly to the wet pipe. and potentially freezing sprinkler system except the system incorporates open sprin. kler heads or nozzles that do not operate individually The. The dry pipe valve has a one way clapper that is partially water is held back by an electric solenoid valve that is con. covered with water called the priming water to seal the nected to a compatible releasing panel An initiating device. valve seat and has an intermediate chamber that connects such as a smoke detector sends a signal to the monitoring. the valve to the alarm line panel which energizes the release circuit which opens the. solenoid valve, Pressure Switches, There are two types of pressure switches connected to the Water is not adequate to control fires in areas where flam. alarm line an alarm pressure switch and a supervisory air mable liquids are manufactured or stored Sometimes a foam. pressure switch Both switches monitor the air pressure on concentrate is mixed with the water in a part of the system. the system side of the dry pipe valve referred to as a proportioner This foam is called Aqueous. Alarm pressure switches measure pressure changes within a Fire Fighting Foam or AFFF The foam and water combination. system and send alerts to the panel and to an annunciator causes the concentrate to expand when released through the. Supervisory air pressure switches monitor air pressure on sprinkler head depriving the fire source of oxygen required. the system side of the dry pipe valve They perform the fol to support combustion of flammable materials. lowing two functions, The first supervisory switch monitors low air pressure Pre action Sprinkler Systems. and prevents the accidental operation of the dry pipe Pre action sprinkler systems are installed in water sensitive. valve due to low air pressure from an air compressor fail environments such as computer rooms and refrigerated ware. ure or other leaks in the system houses These areas require systems that will operate only. The second supervisory switch monitors high air pres in an actual fire condition to save the building and its com. sure to prevent damage to the clapper and rubber gaskets ponents from severe fire damage. in the dry pipe valve High pressure can damage the pipe. If air pressure is too high the valve won t operate until The pre action system is similar to a dry pipe system except. it bleeds off some of the system air that air pressure may or may not be used It is also similar. to the deluge system except that the valve is electronically. Note held closed and standard closed sprinkler heads are used. The pressure switch does not require a delay mechanism This design eliminates operational delays and water dam. because water surges are not present with this type of age The valve will only open if an independent detection. system system installed in the same area as the sprinkler system is. Vane type switches should not be installed on a dry pipe activated verifying a fire condition In effect opening a pre. APPLICATIONS GUIDE FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS MONITORING Section 1 Fire Sprinkler Systems There are four types of fire sprinkler systems wet pipe dry

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