Fire And Gas Detection And Control In The Process Industry-Books Pdf

Fire and Gas Detection and Control in the Process Industry
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Table of Contents,1 Introduction 6,2 System Choices 7. 3 Initiating Devices 9, 3 1 Fire Detection 9, 3 1 1 Flame Detectors 9. Infra red IR Flame Detectors 9, Camera based Flame Detectors 10. Combining IR or UV flame detectors and cameras 11. Ultra violet UV Flame Detectors 11, Combined UV IR Flame detectors 11. 3 1 2 Smoke Detection 11, Point Smoke Detectors 12.
Ionisation Point Smoke Detectors 12, Optical Point Smoke Detectors 12. Combined Optical Smoke Heat Point Detectors 13, Laser Point Smoke detector 13. Beam Smoke Detectors 13, Aspiration Smoke Detectors 13. Camera based Smoke Detectors 13, 3 1 3 Heat Detection 13. Point Heat Detection 13, Linear Heat Detectors 14.
3 2 Gas Detection 14, 3 2 1 Combustible Gas Detection 15. Infra red Absorption Combustible Gas Detection 15. Point infra red gas detectors 15, Open path infra red gas detectors 16. Catalytic Gas Detectors 16, 3 2 2 Toxic Gas Detection 18. 3 2 3 Oxygen Depletion detection 19, 3 3 Leak Detection 19. 3 3 1 Point Leak detectors 19, 3 3 2 Camera based Leak Monitoring Systems 20.
3 4 Manual Initiation 20, 3 5 Other Signals 21,4 Mitigating Actions 23. 4 1 Start Water Fire Pumps 23, 4 2 Initiate Plant Alarms 23. 4 3 Local indication 24, 4 4 Close Fire Doors and allow egress 25. 4 5 Control Ventilation Systems 25, 4 6 Isolate Ignition Sources 26. 4 7 Unit Control Panel UCP trips 26, 4 8 Initiate Active Fire Protection 26.
4 9 Trip Plant 26, 4 10 Other Actions 26,5 System Architecture 28. 5 1 Logic Solver 30, 5 1 1 Initiating Input Device interfaces to the logic solver 30. 5 1 2 Serial addressable device interfaces 31, 5 1 3 Mitigating Output device interfaces 31. 5 1 4 Fire and Gas System application programming 32. 5 2 Indicating equipment 32, 5 2 1 PC Graphics 33. 5 2 2 Hard wired displays 38, 5 2 3 Addressable Displays 38.
5 2 4 Diversity of display 38, 5 2 5 Access and Security 38. 5 2 6 Specialised Fire and Gas Operator Functions 38. Alarm Resets 38, Inhibit bypass override disable isolate defeat etc 39. Additional Maintenance Functions 39, 5 3 Interfaces to other Systems 39. 6 To SIL or not to SIL 41,7 Abbreviations and references 42. Jon Hind 2009 Fire and Gas Detection and Control in the Process Industry. Page 5 of 40, fire and gas in the process industry jon hind paper doc printed 2009 11 09 23 30.
1 Introduction, Fire and gas detection systems have been around for many years . A childhood memory is of being taken by my late father to the Mines Rescue Station at. Boothstown Lancashire There I saw walls of canaries in cages Canaries were then a. mandatory requirement in coal mines They were used to detect the presence of Carbon. Monoxide , Vtupinamba Dreamstime com, Illustration 1 Canary in a cage. The coal industry has a continuous possibility of fire damp methane emanating from the. strata Great efforts are made not only to detect combustible and toxic gases but also to. ensure that equipment is safe for use in potentially explosive atmospheres . The process plant should be designed to be safe However there will always be residual. risks Layers of protection need to be designed in to detect any anomalies that the process. control system hasn t taken care of These additional layers should make the process safe . The fire and gas detection system provides an extra layer of protection to mitigate the. consequences when the other safeguarding layers have not been sufficient . The gas detection system can detect a discharge of combustible or toxic gas and take action. to minimise the leak and prevent it turning into a fire or explosion If a fire should result . systems can be attached to extinguish the fire and protect other areas from the actions of. the fire The same system usually with different detectors and principles can be used to. detect toxic gases give warning to personnel and provide the possibility of taking. automatic actions , Fires in process plants may be either like any other industrial fires for example electrical. fires in utility areas smouldering waste bins etc or an ignited leak of a product from the. process , Some companies use separate gas and fire detection systems This particularly applies to. the fire and gas systems designed to GOST codes Russia and former Soviet Union states . Generally the fire detection system and gas detection system is combined into one fire and. gas system A separation that may be made is to have one fire and gas system for the. process areas and another sub system for the utility or office accommodation areas . Systems can be single duplicated or triplicated Redundant systems are not new Systems. in the early 1980 s were being delivered with dual diversely located controllers dual. detectors and dual control outputs , Simple logic controllers have fallen out of general use in the fire and gas context Systems.
Jon Hind 2009 Fire and Gas Detection and Control in the Process Industry. Page 6 of 40, fire and gas in the process industry jon hind paper doc printed 2009 11 09 23 30. tend to offer a redundant solution and or high levels of diagnostics . A current issue is the application of IEC61508 IEC61511 SIL levels to fire and gas. systems and products applying these to detection actions and annunciation . 2 System Choices, Before technology choices can be made a risk analysis has to be undertaken The resulting. risk analysis and mitigation reports can be used to establish the integrity requirements for. the fire and gas system This is normally performed by a competent multidisciplinary. team The documents produced should be reviewed at regular intervals They may be. revised based on an evaluation of available detection and protection solutions These. documents are part of the project life cycle documentation . Several companies offer a service for 3D modelling of the plant so that the placement of. detectors can be confirmed in relation to the modelled fire and gas scenarios . Below are some of the issues that need to be considered when choosing a system and or. detectors , Codes standards and regulations Which are required for the installation Attention. should be paid to variations in national codes and orders of precedence . Codes standards and regulations are various including . Certification bodies ABS DNV and Lloyds Register etc . Company codes of practice , Insurance based FM LPC and UL etc . International standards IEC 61508 IEC 61511 and SOLAS etc . Local fire authorities State Fire Marshall etc , National and multinational codes EN54 API GOST ISA S84 KOST and NFPA 72.
etc , Project specific specifications , What is likely to produce the risk event What are the plant s raw materials by products. and final product , What are the chances of a fire or gas release . How big would the release be i e what size gas cloud or fire do you need to detect . How do you split the process plant into fire zones or fire areas . Are they called fire zones or fire areas , Should you use a fire zone number as part of device tag numbers . Can the fire zone naming or numbering hierarchy form part of the overall plant naming. or numbering system , Should you abbreviate fire area naming so that they fit into the length and presentation. restrictions of the Operator Interface , Is there a project agreed list of abbreviations .
Speed of detection response not forgetting that speed of response can be a trade off. against unwanted alarms Unwanted alarms can cause plant shut down which is costly. and itself increases risk , Are there company preferences such as vendor preference existing stocks spares. holding requirements commonality needs , Jon Hind 2009 Fire and Gas Detection and Control in the Process Industry. Page 7 of 40, fire and gas in the process industry jon hind paper doc printed 2009 11 09 23 30. Considerations for offshore systems they must be self contained i e must have no. need for service from onshore as the fire brigade can t be called out and there is nowhere. to run to , How localised should the alarm be Time saved locating the fire can reduce escalation. and life threatening circumstances , How will detectors be tested Which tests need to be performed manually Which tests.
can be carried out automatically What frequency of testing is needed Choosing. equipment that needs to be tested less often can mean shorter test periods and longer test. intervals Longer and predictable test intervals reduces staff presence thus lowering. exposure to risk to the staff on the process plant . What level of detail is required from the detector Intelligent use of diagnostic. information can be used to determine why unwanted alarms happen and enable. predictive maintenance again reducing plant exposure . Consider detection types that offer a view and a recording of alarm events sending. staff towards a risky situation seems counter intuitive . Consider what information is needed by the operator and what is needed by maintenance. personnel Are there other users , Carry out an alarm handling study including alarm discrimination to avoid flooding an. operator during a time of crisis , What symbols should you use on the operator graphics display should they be the same. as on any detection layout drawings Do they translate well from paper to screen . Which language to use Or multi language , Consider the level of integration if any the system is to have with other plant systems . and the Operator Interface Is it to be standalone partially integrated or fully integrated . Is the integrated system you are considering really integrated . Do the systems and devices chosen have a proven track record . What actions do you want the system to take , Where will the equipment be located Is it indoors outdoors will there be rain fog or. pollutants obscuring the detector or causing it to false alarm Is there anything in the. detection area that will reduce its effectiveness What IP ingress protection ratings are. required Will sunlight background heat or vibrations have an impact on the. performance , Hazardous area ratings consider not just normal circumstances but for example .
exposure during gas releases , One detection system will not cover all situations Even if detectors are bought through. the system supplier they may not be the manufacturer of all the devices So you need to. make sure all the elements will work together , Jon Hind 2009 Fire and Gas Detection and Control in the Process Industry. Page 8 of 40, fire and gas in the process industry jon hind paper doc printed 2009 11 09 23 30. 3 Initiating Devices, This section covers fire gas leak detection manual activation and other inputs to the fire. and gas detection system , The choice of detection type is determined by using the optimum detection for the.
application National and International code requirements and custom and practice Code. requirements may call for specific detector technologies Purchase price and life cycle. costs are also considerations ,3 1 Fire Detection, Fires can be detected from flame smoke or heat A combination of devices may be needed. for best results There is no perfect fire detector . 3 1 1 Flame Detectors, Flame detectors should not be confused with flame monitors The function of a flame. monitor is to alarm in the absence of a flame for example to cut the gas supply to a. furnace if the flame is extinguished Flame monitors are normally wired to a dedicated. burner control system not the fire and gas detection system . A flame detector should alarm on the presence of a flaming fire and ignore normal. phenomena that are not flames , Infra red IR Flame Detectors. These are currently a popular choice The detector relies on infra red radiation produced by. flames The level and wavelength of infra red radiation varies depending on the fuel of the. flame being detected The detector detects a flame within a cone of vision The shape and. length of the cone of vision varies between different models and manufacturers of flame. detectors In some detectors more than one wavelength of infra red radiation is used . Flame pattern recognition can be used to distinguish between constant sources of infra red. and flames Background infra red radiation can lead to reduced sensitivity and reduced. effective detection distances Careful placement is needed . Example uses General flame detection applications, Jon Hind 2009 Fire and Gas Detection and Control in the Process Industry. Page 9 of 40, fire and gas in the process industry jon hind paper doc printed 2009 11 09 23 30.
Picture courtesy of Draeger Safety,Illustration 2 Example flame detector. Camera based Flame Detectors, Camera based flame detectors use visual pattern recognition techniques to recognise flame. shapes They can relay a picture of the area under detection to the control room operator . thus minimising the need to send staff towards a risk Also a recording of events leading to. incidents may be made These records can be used to review the circumstances of an. incident Areas of the display that could cause false alarms e g a flare or reflections of a. flare can be masked from the detection area whilst still being visible to the operator In. addition a camera based detector can give the operator information about the current state. of the fire whereas a traditional flame detector can only indicate limited alarm levels . These detectors require that a flame is visible , Jon Hind 2009 Fire and Gas Detection and Control in the Process Industry. Page 10 of 40, fire and gas in the process industry jon hind paper doc printed 2009 11 09 23 30. Picture courtesy of Micropack Engineering, Illustration 3 Example camera based flame detector.
Example uses top decks of floating production vessels and external areas where flare. reflections are a problem , Combining IR or UV flame detectors and cameras. Some manufacturers combine flame detectors and cameras into one housing or product . Other solutions are to have the fire and gas system connected to the overall plant control. system and CCTV closed circuit TV system to automatically direct a CCTV camera at. the detection area This principle can be extended to all forms of detection . Ultra violet UV Flame Detectors, These detectors rely on the effective detection of ultra violet radiation produced by flames . This is the original type of flame detector and has been largely superseded by other. technologies Detection of hydrogen fires which used to mandate UV detectors can also. now be done by some infra red flame detectors , Example uses Speciality applications where speed is paramount hydrogen fires . Combined UV IR Flame detectors, These detectors have both UV and IR detectors in one unit . Example uses Where there is a combination risk when minimising unwanted alarms is. paramount where determined by code requirements ,3 1 2 Smoke Detection.
Smoke detection technology ranges from the battery powered detectors on sale generally. to sophisticated visual camera based detection systems . Jon Hind 2009 Fire and Gas Detection and Control in the Process Industry. Page 11 of 40, fire and gas in the process industry jon hind paper doc printed 2009 11 09 23 30. Point Smoke Detectors, Point detectors detect smoke at a fixed point They need to be placed where smoke. realistically could travel in the event of a fire . The majority in use rely on smoke accessing a chamber containing the detector element . These detectors therefore have a low IP rating and cannot be used in external areas With. the use of addressable systems each location can be pinpointed . Example uses Offices corridors switch rooms accommodation . Picture courtesy of Autronica Fire and Security A S. Illustration 4 Example point smoke detector, Ionisation Point Smoke Detectors. This used to be the predominant smoke detection technology It has been largely. superseded by optical or combined optical smoke heat detectors . These detectors use a small radioactive source and detect decreased conduction caused by. the ionisation of smoke particles in a detection chamber For this reason they are. susceptible to alarming in areas of high humidity . Example uses High energy fires where codes require . Optical Point Smoke Detectors, These detectors generally detect smoke particles inside a chamber by an increase of light. Jon Hind 2009 Fire and Gas Detection and Control in the Process Industry. Page 12 of 40, fire and gas in the process industry jon hind paper doc printed 2009 11 09 23 30.
scatter caused by smoke particles or by the smoke particles obscuring a light beam . Example uses general early warning with high sensitivity versions . Combined Optical Smoke Heat Point Detectors, Uses a heat sensor to sense a rapidly rising temperature caused by a high energy fire Heat. detectors are described in the next section , Example uses general ionisation detector replacement . Laser Point Smoke detector, Laser point detectors offer increased sensitivity over general purpose optical point smoke. detectors at the expense of increased cost per location They use the same principles as the. optical point smoke detectors , Example uses Early warning in telecommunications and similar areas . Beam Smoke Detectors, A beam of light is interrupted by smoke particles .
Example uses monitoring of large areas e g atria machinery spaces areas where it is. impractical or impossible to mount other detection types . Aspiration Smoke Detectors, Established technology provides early warning of fires often before smoke is visible . Provides area coverage by the use of sampling tubes and continuous detection for smoke. particles drawn through the tubes into the detection unit Requires power in field . Generally can only be used in a safe area The normal configuration of one unit is a single. point of failure , Example uses Instrument rooms telecommunications rooms control rooms . Camera based Smoke Detectors, Detectors that monitor the characteristic shape of smoke Continuous light is essential for. smoke detection ,3 1 3 Heat Detection, Heat detection is used where ambient temperatures or environment preclude the use of. smoke detection Linear heat detectors offer wide area coverage with some linear heat. detectors discriminating alarms both by temperature and location . Point Heat Detection, These detect high temperatures at a given point Descriptions have changed over time .
EN54 describes A1 A2 B C D E F and G types They are still commonly described as. Rate of Rise and Fixed heat detectors , Rate of Rise Detectors respond to a sudden increase of temperature whilst fixed detectors. are set to a fixed temperature , Example uses Kitchens turbine hoods where codes mandate usage . Rate Compensated describes a proprietary product extensively used in harsh. environments ,Example uses pump buildings generator hoods etc . Jon Hind 2009 Fire and Gas Detection and Control in the Process Industry. Page 13 of 40, fire and gas in the process industry jon hind paper doc printed 2009 11 09 23 30. Picture courtesy of Cooper MEDC Limited, Illustration 5 Example rate compensated heat detector.
Linear Heat Detectors, These detectors detect heat somewhere along the length of the device They vary from the. simple destructive types that burn through and signal an alarm to sophisticated systems. that monitor the actual temperature at a particular point . Example uses Tank rim seals large process vessels cable tunnels . 3 2 Gas Detection, In general gas detection is divided into combustible gas detection and toxic gas detection . This is a broad separation that breaks down in some cases e g some gases are both toxic. and combustible in the concentrations expected Historically there has also been a. separation in technology between combustible and toxic detection . Below are some of the issues you need to consider when choosing gas detectors . Most devices used in the oil and gas industry are set to detect methane CH4 or. hydrogen sulphide H2S , Many detectors show cross sensitivity i e a detector for detecting one gas will also. detect another at different readings So at the time of purchase it is important to specify. the gas that is to be detected and consider other gases that may be present that may. affect the readings , The nature of the gas should be considered e g H2S is heavier than air methane rises . propane sinks However they may not behave like that under a high pressure discharge . Altitude affects the readings of some detectors , Jon Hind 2009 Fire and Gas Detection and Control in the Process Industry.
Page 14 of 40, fire and gas in the process industry jon hind paper doc printed 2009 11 09 23 30. Portable personal gas detectors set for multiple gasses may be used in areas where toxic. gases may be present ,3 2 1 Combustible Gas Detection. Two mainstream technologies are available infra red absorption and catalytic types . Other types are available and in development e g metal oxide semiconductor sensors . Detection methods from the field of analysers may cross over to meet gas detection needs . Point detectors are calibrated against the lower explosive limit LEL of a certain gas . frequently methane The lower explosive limit for methane mixed in air is achieved at a. 5 concentration Typical alarm settings are 20 LEL and 60 LEL Confusion can arise. as these levels are traditionally labelled low gas and high gas whereas control instrument. engineers would use the term high alarm and high high alarm . Open path gas detectors are calibrated in LEL metres LELm This setting has evolved as. an analogue with the LEL range used in point detectors . Infra red Absorption Combustible Gas Detection, The technology uses the absorption characteristics of the hydrocarbon molecules to infra . red light The more hydrocarbon molecules are present the higher the absorption of infra . red radiation More than one type of hydrocarbon gas may be detected . This technology is more expensive than catalytic detection but it is used for many. applications as it doesn t need field calibration and proof test intervals are considerably. better longer than for catalytic types Speed of response is quicker than for catalytic. types The measured value doesn t drift unlike catalytic detectors And unlike catalytic. types the detector doesn t need oxygen for operation . Point infra red gas detectors, Point detectors record the gas concentration at the detector location T hey. need to be placed where a release of gas is considered possible They can be placed. remotely and connected to the sampling location by tubes with air sucked across the. detecting chamber Consideration needs to be given to the extra detection time added by. the transit time down the tube , Example uses Detection in confined spaces specific locations air inlets etc .
Jon Hind 2009 Fire and Gas Detection and Control in the Process Industry. Page 15 of 40, fire and gas in the process industry jon hind paper doc printed 2009 11 09 23 30.


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