Figures From Cmos Circuit Design Layout And Simulation -Books Pdf

Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation
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Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, Top of the wafer before oxidation. x Si 0 45 x ox, Top of the wafer after oxidation, Figure 7 3 Silicon oxide growth interface See also Fig 2 4 . Silicon wafers Heating elements, O 2 H 2 O N 2, Gas outlet. Quartz boat a Quartz tube, Heating lamps, Si wafer Gas outlet. Quartz enclosure, Figure 7 4 a Simplified representation of an oxidation tube furnace and b .
simplified diagram for rapid thermal processing , Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, Mass spectrometer. Ion source Accelerator column up to 1 MeV , x y electrostatic lens. Figure 7 5 Simplified diagram of an ion implanter The ions are created by an RF field. where they are extracted into a mass spectrometer An electrostatic lens. scans the ion beam on the surface of a wafer to achieve the appropriate dose . Electrostatically the ions can be counted to provide the real time dose . Concentration, R p R p, Distance x, Figure 7 6 Ideal implant profile representing Eq 7 5 Notice that the peak. concentration occurs below the surface and depends on the implant. Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, to t1 t2, Distance x.
Figure 7 7 Idealized limited source diffusion profile showing the effects of drive in. time on the profile Notice that the peak concentration occurs at the surface. of the substrate x 0 and that the area under the curves is constant . a Oxidized wafer Si d Develop resist Si, Photoresist. b Resist coating Si e Etch oxide Si, Mask Si,Exposed resist f Resist strip. c Align and expose Si, Figure 7 8 Simplified representation of the primary steps required for the implementation. of photolighography and pattern transfer , Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, plane wave .
Figure 7 9 The diffraction effects become significant as the mask feature dimensions. approach the wavelength of UV light Notice that the diffraction angle is. larger for the smaller opening , Figure 7 10 The relationship of the lens radii to the angle used to compute NA . Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, Developed resist. Figure 7 11 Depth of focus diagram illustrating the need to have planar surfaces. minimized topography during high resolution photopatterning . a No registration error b x y registration error c z rotation registration. Figure 7 12 Simple registration errors that can occur during wafer to mask alignment in. photolithography Other registration errors exist but are not discussed here . Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, Photoresist. Figure 7 13 Diagram showing a post etch profile Notice that because of isotropy in. the etch process the mask opening does not match the fabricated opening. in the underlying oxide film The difference between these dimensions. is called etch bias , Tank Tank Tank, Chemical Chemical DI water. solution 1 solution 2 Rinse, Figure 7 14 Simplfied diagram of a wet bench used for wet chemical cleaning and etching .
Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, Argon ions. Sputtered substrate Electric field, Figure 7 15 Simplified schematic diagram of the sputter etch process This process is. dominated by the physical bombardment of ions on a substrate . RF 13 56 MHz , Radicals neutrals , Figure 7 16 Simplified schematic diagram of a plasma etch process This process is. dominated by the chemical reactions of radicals at the surface of the substrate . Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, Ions Volatiles. Figure 7 17 Simplified schematic diagram of an RIE etch process This process has both. physical ion bombardment and chemical reaction of radicals components . Wafer carrier used to spin wafer, Polishing pad, Polishing table.
Spinning table, Figure 7 18 Simplified representation of a chemical mechanical polishing process used in. the fabrication process , Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, Metal Metal. Oxide Metal Oxide, Si Si, a Good step coverage b Poor step coverage. Figure 7 19 Extremes in thin film deposition coverage over a pre existing oxide step . Seam Void or keyhole , Tungsten Tungsten, Oxide Oxide Oxide Oxide.
Aluminum Aluminum, a Good gap fill b Poor gap fill. Figure 7 20 Gap fill profiles good and bad of a high aspect ratio opening filled with. a deposited film , Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, Crucible Melted Au. Figure 7 21 Simplified diagram of an evaporation deposition process . Sputterd target Wafer, atoms molecules , Figure 7 22 Simplified diagram of a sputter deposition process . Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, Silicon wafers.
Heating elements Pump, 500 700 C, 0 25 2 0 Torr, Figure 7 23 Simplified schematic diagram of a LPCVD . Pump Exhaust, Figure 7 24 Simplified schematic diagram of a PECVD reactor . Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, Figure 7 25 A typical CMOS process flow illustrating the difference between FEOL and. BEOL processes , Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, Table 7 1 Masks used in our generic CMOS process .
Layer name Mask Aligns to Times used Purpose, 1 active Clear aligns to notch 1 Defines active areas. 2 p well Clear 1 2 Defines NMOS sidewall, implants and p well. 3 n well Dark 1 2 Defines PMOS sidewall, implants and n well. 4 poly1 Clear 1 1 Defines polysilicon,5 n select Dark 1 2 Defines nLDD and n . 6 p select Dark 1 2 Defines pLDD and P ,7 contact Dark 4 1 Defines contact to poly.
and actives areas,8 metal1 Clear 7 1 Defines metal1. 9 via1 Dark 8 1 Defines via1 connects,10 metal2 Clear 9 1 Defines metal2. passivation Dark Top level 1 Defines bond pad, metal opening in passivation. Figures from CMOS Circuit Design Layout and Simulation Second Edition. By R Jacob Baker Copyright Wiley IEEE, Si 600 900 um Bulk polished silicon wafer. Epi 0 5 4 um Epi silicon wafer, Si 600 900 um Epitaxial grown layer on bulk Si .
Si 50 200 nm,BOX 50 200 nm, Si 600 900 um Silicon on insulator . Figure 7 26 The three general types of silicon wafers used for CMOS fabrication . p Si 100 uniformly boron doped, Figure 7 27 Simulated cross sectional view the top 2 m of the bulk wafer in Fig 7 26 .

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