Fiber Optic Communication Systems Optiwave-Books Pdf

Fiber Optic Communication Systems Optiwave
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Course Outline,Introduction Modulation Formats 2 66. Fiber Loss Dispersion and Nonlinearities,Receiver Noise and Bit Error Rate. Loss Management Optical Amplifiers,Dispersion Management Techniques. Management of Nonlinear Effects JJ,WDM Lightwave Systems J. Historical Perspective,Electrical Era Optical Era,Telegraph 1836 Optical Fibers 1978.
Telephone 1876 Optical Amplifiers 1990,Coaxial Cables 1840 WDM Technology 1996. Microwaves 1948 Multiple bands 2002, Microwaves and coaxial cables limited to B 100 Mb s. Optical systems can operate at bit rate 10 Tb s, Improvement in system capacity is related to the high frequency of II. optical waves 200 THz at 1 5 m J,Information Revolution. Industrial revolution of 19th century gave way to,information revolution during the 1990s.
Fiber Optic Revolution is a natural consequence of the. Internet growth,c TRG PriMetrica Inc Back,Five Generations. 0 8 m systems 1980 Graded index fibers,1 3 m systems 1985 Single mode fibers. 1 55 m systems 1990 Single mode lasers,WDM systems 1996 Optical amplifiers. L and S bands 2002 Raman amplification,R es earch,B it R ate G b s. C ommercial,1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005,Lightwave System Components.
Generic System,Electrical Electrical,Input Optical Optical Output. Communication Channel,Transmitter Receiver,Transmitter and Receiver Modules. Driving Modulator Electrical Driving Demodulator,Circuit Electronics Input Circuit Electronics. Optical Optical Electrical,Output Input Output,Optical Optical Electrical. Photodetector,Source Modulator Demodulator,Fiber Optic Communication Channel.
Modulation Formats,Optical Carrier has the form,E t e A cos 0t. Amplitude shift keying ASK modulate A,Frequency shift keying FSK modulate 0. Phase shift keying PSK modulate, Polarization shift keying PoSK information encoded in the polar. ization state e of each bit not practical for optical fibers. Most lightwave systems employ ASK JJ,ASK is also called on of keying OOK J. Differential PSK DPSK is being studied in recent years I. Optical Bit Stream,Return to zero RZ,nonreturn to zero NRZ.
Bit Stream Generation,NRZ Data Clock,CW Data NRZ RZ. DFB Laser NRZ to RZ,Modulator Converter,LiNbO3 Modulators. CW Input NRZ Output,Employ a Mach Zehnder for PM to AM conversion J. RZ Duty Cycle is 50 or 33 depending on biasing Back. Variants of RZ Format, Optical phase is changed selectively in addition to amplitude. Three level or ternary codes 1 0 1 bits,CSRZ format Phase of alternate bits is shifted by.
Alternate phase AP RZ Phase shift of 2 for alternate bits. Alternate mark inversion Phase of alternate 1 bits shifted by. Duobinary format Phase shifted by after odd number of zeros. RZ DPSK format Information encoded in phase variations JJ. Phase difference k k 1 is changed by 0 or depending on J. whether kth bit is a 0 or 1 I,DPSK Transmitters and Receivers. Two modulators used at the transmitter end second modulator is JJ. called a pulse carver II, A Mach Zehnder interferometer employed at receiver to convert. phase information into current variations Back,Comparison of Signal Spectra. Optical Fibers, Most suitable as communication channel because of dielectric. waveguiding acts like an optical wire, Total internal reflection at the core cladding interface confines light.
to fiber core,Single mode propagation for core size 10 m. What happens to optical signal, Fiber losses limit the transmission distance minimum loss near. Chromatic dispersion limits the bit rate through pulse broadening II. Nonlinear effects distort the signal and limit the system J. performance,Fiber Losses,Definition dB km 10,L log10 Pin 4 343. Material absorption silica impurities dopants,Rayleigh scattering varies as 4. Waveguide imperfections macro and microbending,Conventional Fiber.
Dispersion,Dry Fiber II,Fiber Dispersion,Origin Frequency dependence of the mode index n. n c 0 1 0 2 0 2,where 0 is the carrier frequency of optical pulse. Transit time for a fiber of length L T L vg 1L, Different frequency components travel at different speeds and arrive. at different times at the output end pulse broadening. Optical Receiver Communication Channel Electrical Input Electrical Output Transmitter and Receiver Modules Optical Source Optical Modulator Driving Circ uit Modul ator Electroni cs Electrical Input Optical Output Photodetector E le ctri a Dem odulat r r ivng C irc t Dem odul t r Ele troni s Electrica l Outpu t Optic l Inp t Fiber Optic Communication Channel 7 66 JJ II J I Back Close

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