Ferrous Materials And Non Ferrous Metals And Alloys-Books Pdf

Ferrous Materials and Non Ferrous Metals and Alloys
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16 Manufacturing Processes, forging dies Likewise for production of cold chisels punches and dies Springs. broaches and reamers can be produced for steel containing carbon As the percentage. of carbon further increases it can be used for production of milling cutters anvils. taps drills files razors metal cutting tools for lathes shapers planner and drawing. 2 4 WROUGHT IRON, The meaning of wrought is that metal which possesses sufficient ductility in order to. permit hot and or cold deformation Wrought iron is the purest iron with a small amount. of slag forged out into fibres The typical composition indicates 99 per cent of iron and. traces of carbon phosphorus manganese silicon sulphur and slag During the production. process first all elements in iron may be C S Mn Si and P are eliminated leaving. almost pure iron molten slag In order to remove the excess slag the final mix is then. squeezed in a press and reduced to billets by rolling milling The resulting material. would consist of pure iron separated by thin layers of slag material The slag characteristic. of wrought iron is beneficial in blacksmithy forging operations and provides the material. its peculiar fibrous structure Further the non corrosive slag constituent makes wrought. iron resistant to progressive corrosion and also helps in reducing effect of fatigue caused. by shocks and vibrations, Wrought iron is tough malleable and ductile and possesses ultimate tensile strength. of 350 N mm2 Its melting point is 1530 C It can neither be hardened nor tempered like. steel The billets of wrought iron can be reheated to form bars plates boiler tubing. forgings crane hook railway coupling bolts and nuts chains barbed wire coal handling. equipment and cooling towers etc, 2 5 CAST IRON, It is primarily an alloy of iron and carbon The carbon content in cast iron varies from 1 5. to 4 per cent Small amounts of silicon manganese sulphur and phosphorus are also. present in it Carbon in cast iron is present either in free state like graphite or in combined. state as cementite Cast iron contains so much carbon or its equivalent that it is not. malleable One characteristic except white cast iron is that much of carbon content is. present in free form as graphite Largely the properties of cast iron are determined by. Melting point of cast iron is much lower than that of steel Most of the castings. produced in a cast iron foundry are of grey cast iron These are cheap and widely used. The characteristics of cast iron which make it a valuable material for engineering. applications are, Ferrous Materials and Non Ferrous Metals and Alloys 17.
1 Very good casting characteristics, 2 Low cost, 3 High compressive strength. 4 Good wear resistance, 5 Excellent machinability, The main limitation of this metal is brittleness and low tensile strength and thus. cannot be used in those components subjected to shocks. The varieties of cast iron in common use are, 1 Grey cast iron. 2 White cast iron, 3 Malleable cast iron, 4 Nodular cast iron. 5 Chilled cast iron, 6 Alloy cast iron, 2 5 1 Grey Cast Iron.
It is the iron which is most commonly used in foundry work If this iron is machined or. broken its fractured section shows the greyish colour hence the name grey cast iron. The grey colour is due to the fact that carbon is present in the form of free graphite A. very good characteristic of grey cast iron is that the free graphite in its structure acts as. a lubricant This is suitable for those components products where sliding action is desired. The other properties are good machinability high compressive strength low tensile. strength and no ductility, In view of its low cost it is preferred in all fields where ductility and high strength. are not required The grey cast iron castings are widely utilized in machine tool bodies. automobile cylinder blocks and flywheels etc, 2 5 2 White Cast Iron. It is so called due to the whitish colour shown by its fracture White cast iron contains. carbon exclusively in the form of iron carbide Fe 3C cementite From engineering point. of view white cast iron has limited applications This is because of poor machinability. and possessing in general relatively poor mechanical properties It is used for inferior. castings and places where hard coating is required as in outer surface of car wheels. Only crushing rolls are made of white cast iron But it is used as raw material for production. of malleable cast iron, 18 Manufacturing Processes. 2 5 3 Malleable Cast Iron, Malleable cast iron is produced from white cast iron The white cast iron is brittle and. hard It is therefore unsuitable for articles which are thin light and subjected to shock. and vibrations or for small castings used in various machine components The malleable. cast iron is produced from white cast iron by suitable heat treatment i e annealing. This process separates the combined carbon of the white cast iron into noddles of free. The malleable cast iron is ductile and may be bent without rupture or breaking the. section Its tensile strength is usually higher than that of grey cast iron and has excellent. machining qualities Malleable cast iron components are mainly utilized in place of forged. steel or parts where intricate shape of these parts creates forging problem This material. is principally employed in rail road automotive and pipe fittings etc. 2 5 4 Nodular Cast Iron, It is also known as spheroidal graphite iron or Ductile iron or High strength Cast.
iron This nodular cast iron is obtained by adding magnesium to the molten cast iron. The magnesium converts the graphite of cast iron from flake to spheroidal or nodular. form In this manner the mechanical properties are considerably improved The strength. increases yield point improves and brittleness is reduced Such castings can even replace. steel components, Outstanding characteristics of nodular cast iron are high fluidity which allows the. castings of intricate shape This cast iron is widely used in castings where density as well. as pressure tightness is a highly desirable quality The applications include hydraulic. cylinders valves pipes and pipe fittings cylinder head for compressors diesel engines. 2 5 5 Chilled Cast Iron, Quick cooling is generally known as chilling and the iron so produced is chilled iron. The outer surface of all castings always gets chilled to a limited depth about 1 to 2 mm. during pouring and solidification of molten metal after coming in contact with cool sand. of mould Sometimes the casting is chilled intentionally and some becomes chilled. accidentally to a small depth, Chills are employed on any faces of castings which are required to be hard to. withstand wear and friction Chilled castings are used in producing stamping dies and. crushing rolls railway wheels cam followers and so on. 2 5 6 Alloy Cast Iron, Alloying elements are added to cast iron to overcome inherent deficiencies in ordinary. cast iron to provide requisite characteristics for special purposes The alloy cast iron is. 20 Manufacturing Processes, extremely tough wear resistant and non magnetic steel about 12 to 14 per cent.
manganese should be added, 5 Nickel It may be termed as one of the most important alloying elements It improves. tensile strength ductility toughness and corrosion resistance. 6 Chromium Its addition to steel improves toughness hardness and corrosion. resistance, 7 Boron It increases hardenability and is therefore very useful when alloyed with. low carbon steels, 8 Cobalt It is added to high speed steels to improve hardness toughness tensile. strength thermal resistance and magnetic properties It acts as a grain purifier. 9 Tungsten Tungsten improves hardness toughness wear resistance shock resistance. magnetic reluctance and ability to retain hardness at elevated temperatures It. provides hardness and abrasion resistance properties to steel. 10 Molybdenum It improves wear resistance hardness thermal resistance ability to. retain mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and helps to inhibit temper. brittleness, 11 Vanadium It increases tensile strength elastic limit ductility shock resistance and. also acts as a degaser when added to molten steel It provides improvement to. hardenability of steel, 12 It is a very good deoxidizer and promotes grain growth It is the strongest carbide.
former Titanium is used to fix carbon in stainless steel and thus prevents the. precipitation of chromium carbide, 13 Niobium It improves ductility decreases hardenability and substantially improves. the impact strength It also promotes fine grain growth. 2 7 STAINLESS STEELS, The only material known to engineers which possesses a combination of various properties. such as wide range of strength and hardness high ductility and formability high. corrosion resistance good creep resistance good thermal conductivity good. machinability high hot cold workability and excellent surface finish is stainless steel. Alloy steels have been developed for a specific purpose We shall study them as follows. They are known as stainless since they do not corrode or rust easily in most of. environment and media Stainless steels can be further divided into the following three. categories, 1 Ferritic stainless steel It is that steel when properly heat treated and finished resists. oxidation and corrosive attacks from corrosive media Ferritic stainless steels contain. 12 18 chromium 0 15 to 0 2 carbon besides iron and usual amounts of manganese. and silicon The steels are stainless and relatively cheap They are magnetic in nature. Structure of these steels consist of ferrite phase which cannot be hardened by heat. Ferrous Materials and Non Ferrous Metals and Alloys 21. treatment These steels are actually iron chromium alloys and cannot be hardened. by heat treatment Such type of steel is utilized in manufacture of dairy equipment. food processing plants etc, 2 Martensitic stainless steel These steels contain 12 18 chromium and 0 1 to 1 8. carbon These steels can be hardened by heat treatment but their corrosion resistance. is decreased Steels with 12 to 14 chromium and 0 3 carbon are widely used for. table cutlery tools and equipment Steel with little less carbon percentage and higher. percentage of chromium are used as springs ball bearings and instruments under. high temperature and corrective conditions, 3 Austentic stainless steels These are the most costliest among all stainless steels In.
these steels besides chromium nickel is also added Nickel is a very strong austenitic. stabilizer and therefore the microstructure of these steels is austentic at room. temperature These steels contain 12 to 21 chromium and 8 to 15 nickel and carbon. less than 0 2 The most familiar alloy of this group is known as 18 8 stainless steel. i e 18 chromium and 8 nickel plus other Other elements like carbon manganese. and silicon in very small quantities, 2 8 TOOL STEELS. Tool steels are specially alloyed steels designed for high strength impact toughness and. wear resistance at room and elevated temperatures They are normally used in forming. and machining of metals So the requirements in a tool steel are that it should be capable. of becoming very hard and further that it should be able to retain its hardness at high. temperatures normally developed during cutting of materials This property is known. as red hardness Further tool steel should not be brittle for smooth working. 2 8 1 High Speed Steel H S S, It is the name given to the most common tool steel As the name implies it can cut steel. at high cutting speeds These steels are high in alloy content have excellent hardenability. maintain their hardness at elevated temperatures around 650 C are quite resistant to. wear and contain relatively large amounts of tungsten or molybdenum together with. chromium cobalt or vanadium They are used to produce cutting tools to be operated. for various machining operations such as turning drilling milling etc A typical. composition of H S S is tungsten 18 chromium 4 and vanadium 1 carbon 0 75 to. 0 9 and rest iron, 2 8 2 Molybdenum High Speed Steel. This steel contains 6 tungsten 6 molybdenum 4 chromium and 2 vanadium and. have excellent toughness and cutting ability The molybdenum high speed steel are better. and cheaper than other types of steel It is particularly utilized in drilling and tapping. operations, 24 Manufacturing Processes, Fernite Cermentite Peartite. Glubules Acicular troostite, Sorbite Martensite, Fig 2 2 Steel microstructure in heat treatment process.
1 To remove structural inhomogeneity, 2 To relieve internal stresses. 3 To soften the metal for easy machinability, 4 To remove the gases trapped inside the structure. 5 To refine the grain to obtain the desired structure. 6 To alter ductility toughness and electrical properties. The various types of annealing process are described below. Full annealing During this process heating phase results in fine grained austenite and. thus fine grained structure is obtained on cooling This results in improvement in. mechanical properties high ductility and high toughness It is the process where. hypoeutectoid steel is heated 30 50 C above the critical temperature holding it for some. time at that temperature which heats the metal thoroughly and phase transformation. takes place throughout This is followed by slow cooling in furnace. 14 Manufacturing Processes CHAPTER 2 Ferrous Materials and Non Ferrous Metals and Alloys 2 1 INTRODUCTION Ferrous materials metals may be defined as those metals

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