Exploring Engagement In Tasks In The Language Classroom-Books Pdf

Exploring Engagement in Tasks in the Language Classroom
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engagement in tasks in the language classroom 51, engagement at the level of task engagement. In the field of educational psychology the concept of engagement has been a. topic of intensive study over the past decade This robust research is embodied. in a recent handbook of research in student engagement Christenson Reschly. Wylie 2012 and in a theoretical review of the construct Lawson Lawson. 2013 The research on engagement covers a broad spectrum of four contexts. that are hierarchical school community classrooms and learning activity see. Skinner Pitzer 2012 Due to the varied research contexts and foci defini. tions of engagement are highly variable with a lack of consensus in the literature. Reschly Christenson 2012 In each context different aspects of engagement. are highlighted as important to the particular outcomes sought at this level For. example the original research on engagement related to the level of school e g. Finn 1989 and regarded students participation or involvement as well as their. sense of belonging in school Outcomes were measured in dropout or retention. rates In contrast at the level of activity engagement concerns involvement in a. specific activity or task in class and the outcome sought is learning In foreign FL. or second language L2 settings outcomes sought relate to language use and or. development We use the term task here in a specific sense Following R Ellis. 2009 p 223 task refers to a particular kind of activity that involves a primary. focus on meaning Typically tasks require the use of participants own resources. e g their own language their own ideas and there is a clearly defined outcome. i e achievement of a nonlinguistic goal, The Nature and Importance of Engagement. While implicit learning is recognized as constituting the major part of language. acquisition conscious mental involvement has also long been recognized as es. sential to efficient learning of novel material N C Ellis 2015 Paying attention. is important whether one is trying to understand something unfamiliar or com. plex problem solve or learn a different way of doing something Baars 1997. Researchers of L2 acquisition have emphasized the need for L2 learners to pay. attention to the connections between language form and its meanings in use e g. Gass 2003 Leow 2015 Long 1996 Schmidt 2001 This research has tended. to focus on the construct of noticing differentiating between noticing at the level. of detection awareness and understanding Leow 2015 Robinson 1995 Pre. vious research recognizes gradations of cognitive involvement and teachers and. researchers alike use the word engagement as a near synonym However as we. will see here paying attention is just one dimension of engagement. Engagement refers to a state of heightened attention and involvement in which. participation is reflected not only in the cognitive dimension but in social behav. ioral and affective dimensions as well A seminal article on school engagement by. Fredricks Blumenfeld and Paris 2004 described engagement as a multifaceted. or multidimensional construct that includes at the least three components cog. nitive behavioral and emotional In applied linguistics each of these and other. Downloaded from https www cambridge org core IP address 149 202 202 5 on 04 Aug 2020 at 16 11 20 subject to the Cambridge Core. terms of use available at https www cambridge org core terms https doi org 10 1017 S0267190515000094. 52 jenefer philp and susan duchesne, dimensions are recognized as important to instructed language learning e g re. garding affect Schumann 1997 Swain 2013 regarding social factors see Philp. Duchesne 2008 yet each tends to be considered in isolation Increasingly. researchers acknowledge the need to take account of the interdependence of these. different facets of human experience e g Larsen Freeman Cameron 2008 In. the education literature these multiple dimensions are demonstrated to be overlap. ping and interdependent not isolated independent constructs Christenson et al. 2012 For example when people are involved in a learning activity experience is. more memorable when affective states are also aroused McGaugh 2013 Pekrun. Linnenbrink Garcia 2012 Weiss 2000 In contrast the student who is bored. or disinterested in a task is emotionally disengaged Similarly someone who is. disconnected with other group members and thus socially disengaged may also. be behaviorally off task not listening to responses of other members not con. tributing to the interaction They are unlikely to invest effort or persistence or to. direct attentional resources in effective ways to be cognitively engaged or even to. fully complete the task i e to be behaviorally engaged Analysis of engagement. allows us to include an emphasis both on attention the cognitive dimension and. on the affective behavioral and social dimensions that support effective learning. Christenson et al 2012 underscored the crucial role of engagement for learn. ing Student engagement drives learning it requires energy and effort is affected. by multiple contextual influences and can be achieved for all learners p 817. see also Gettinger Ball 2007 If we can understand engagement better we. are better equipped for investigating how to engage all learners Engagement is. a construct closely related to motivation Indeed it is described by some as the. visible manifestation or descriptor of motivation Ainley 2012 Cleary Zim. merman 2012 Martin 2012 Reeve 2012 Schunk Miller 2002 and by others. as the precursor of motivation Pekrun Linnenbrink Garcia 2012 Anderman. and Patrick 2012 suggested that for this reason it needs to be explored through. context specific research through observation of students in action that is in. the classroom context actually working on tasks in class Detailed discussion of. the relationship between motivation and engagement is outside the scope of this. article We note here however that it is a close and complex relationship for. further discussion see Reschly Christenson 2012, The Construct of Engagement. Descriptions of engagement tend to foreground characteristics such as interest. effort concentration active participation and emotional responsiveness That is. engaged students are not just going through the motions they expend focused. energy and attention and they are emotionally involved For example Skinner. and Pitzer 2012 characterized engagement as constructive enthusiastic willing. emotionally positive and cognitively focused participation with learning activities. in school p 22 The interdependence of the dimensions of engagement is a vital. characteristic of the construct Before we discuss this interdependence in greater. detail we will first identify the salient characteristics of each dimension in turn. Downloaded from https www cambridge org core IP address 149 202 202 5 on 04 Aug 2020 at 16 11 20 subject to the Cambridge Core. terms of use available at https www cambridge org core terms https doi org 10 1017 S0267190515000094. engagement in tasks in the language classroom 53, Cognitive Engagement.
Cognitive engagement involves processes such as sustained attention and mental. effort Helme Clarke 2001 often including self regulation strategies Helme. and Clarke 2001 identified a range of indicators of cognitive engagement in. collaborative activities including questioning completing peer utterances ex. changing ideas making evaluative comments giving directions explanations. or information justifying an argument and making gestures and facial expres. sions Further indicators of cognitive engagement could include private speech. and exploratory talk see Barnes 2008 Mercer Dawes 2008 Evidence may. come from audio and visual data lesson transcripts and observations or indirectly. through retrospective questionnaires and interviews such as stimulated recall see. Gass Mackey 2014 carried out postlesson, An illustration of cognitive engagement identified via retrospective interviews. comes from a study by Early and Marshall 2008 of a high school English class in. Canada These adolescent students with English as an additional language EAL. worked in groups to visually portray the meaning of a short story The teachers. and researchers found that having to personally express the key ideas of the story. using multimodal devices enhanced the students level of involvement with the. text both behaviorally through multiple readings and discussions and cognitively. understanding looking deeper In the following excerpt from an interview one. student commented, You know instead of saying it helped us understand it is more a matter of it forced. us to understand because we need to read it and read it and read it again so we. can come up with the symbols so it is more a matter of it forced us to understand. instead of helped us to understand you can t do this if you don t look at things. deeper Early Marshall 2008 p 386, Cognitive engagement can be demonstrated by phrases such as I think by causal. connectives such as because and by questions There may also be evidence of. argument or disagreement that reflects reasoning or exemplification In Example. 2 from Gibbons 1991 two primary school boys with EAL are involved in the. task of designing a platypus enclosure for a zoo Their cognitive engagement with. this task is seen in the exploratory nature of their suggestions Barnes Todd. 1995 Mercer 1995 It is also reflected in pauses hesitations reformulation and. repetition lines 1 3 They build on one another s suggestions each responding. with new ideas and giving reasons lines 4 5 6, 1 Joseph So if we have a sign that says if you find a platypus take it. take him to a no a staff member, Downloaded from https www cambridge org core IP address 149 202 202 5 on 04 Aug 2020 at 16 11 20 subject to the Cambridge Core.
terms of use available at https www cambridge org core terms https doi org 10 1017 S0267190515000094. 54 jenefer philp and susan duchesne, 2 Patrick No no don t touch it please don t touch yes yes that s what. we ll do we ll put please don t no please don t touch platypus. 3 Joseph No what is it what is it it s got something that s poisonous. 4 Patrick So that ll make the people walk away because they aren t going. to take it home if it s got something poisonous on it. 5 Joseph Please please don t touch the platypus because it has a poi. sonous spur, 6 Patrick Yes please do not touch the platypus because of its spur its. spur is dangerous and you will have to be taken to hospital right Gibbons. 1991 pp 27 28, Whereas this example involves a focus on content in Example 3 among adolescent. foreign language learners of Spanish Toth Wagner Moranski 2013 the focus. of engagement is on language itself as the students try to work out the underlying. rules governing the use of inchoative se in a report of an earthquake and storm in. 1 Alberto If the direct object is itself you would use you would use se. 2 Jose Well it s eh like the same thing as last time When the verb is eh. defined or like its ah what s the word I m drawin a blank here Al. berto specified there we go, 3 Alberto Eh yeah, 4 Jose When the verb is specified it follows the verb but when it s not it like. follows the direct object again, 5 Alberto Sounds good Toth et al 2013 p 294.
Each of these examples indicates concentrated effort from the participants as they. think about something they need to solve how to use symbols images and words. to synthesize a story Example 1 what should go in a platypus enclosure Example. 2 and how to explain the underlying rule for use of a particular linguistic form. Of course cognitive engagement is not only manifested in verbal form but also. may be seen in facial expressions and body positioning although verbalization of. thought processes allows it to be more evident to the observer Besides qualita. tive data sources there are also quantitative research instruments that investigate. engagement Two examples of survey instruments created to explore engagement. at the level of school use Likert scales and include items relevant to cognitive. engagement at the class level In the High School Survey of Student Engagement. http ceep indiana edu hssse Yazzie Mintz and McCormick 2012 p 750 in. cluded questions about U S students effort investment in work and learning. strategies Darr 2012 p 713 described a survey for New Zealand schools to. investigate students self perception of engagement It includes items such as. Downloaded from https www cambridge org core IP address 149 202 202 5 on 04 Aug 2020 at 16 11 20 subject to the Cambridge Core. terms of use available at https www cambridge org core terms https doi org 10 1017 S0267190515000094. engagement in tasks in the language classroom 55, I pay attention in class I find it easy to concentrate on what I am doing in. class and I take notice of the comments my teacher makes about my work. Behavioral Engagement, Behavioral engagement is typically described simply in terms of time on task or. participation Thus being on task is synonymous with behavioral engagement. Gettinger and Walter 2012 based on research in U S schools claimed that aca. demic engaged time that is the amount of time students are actively involved. predicts academic achievement and engagement is directly related to learning. outcomes see also Fredricks et al 2004 Similarly in earlier SLA research. measures of engagement involving word counts Bygate Samuda 2009 and turn. of engagement is on language itself as the students try to work out the underlying rules governing the use of inchoative se in a report of an earthquake and storm in Spanish Example 3 1 Alberto If the direct object is itself you would use you would use se 2 Jose Well it s eh like the same thing as last time When the verb is eh

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