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Experimental methodology in English teaching and learning
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Executive Editor Stephen Frail,Editorial Assistant Caroline Beimford. Marketing Manager Jeremy Intal,Digital Media Editor Lisa Dotson. Media Project Manager Pam Weldin,Managing Editor Linda Behrens. Production Project Manager Maria Piper,Senior Operations Supervisor Mary Fischer. Operations Specialist Diane Peirano,Art Director Cover Jayne Conte.
Cover Designer Bruce Kenselaar,Cover Art Deco Alamy. Full Service Project Management Anandakrishnan Natarajan Integra Software Services Ltd. Composition Integra Software Services Ltd,Printer Binder Courier Westford. Cover Printer Lehigh Phoenix Color Hagerstown, Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced with permission. in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within text. Copyright 2014 2011 2007 Pearson Education Inc All rights reserved Manufactured in. the United States of America This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should. be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction storage in a retrieval. system or transmission in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying. recording or likewise To obtain permission s to use material from this work please submit a. written request to Pearson Education Inc Permissions Department One Lake Street. Upper Saddle River New Jersey 07458 or you may fax your request to 201 236 3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are. claimed as trademarks Where those designations appear in this book and the publisher was. aware of a trademark claim the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Christensen Larry B,Experimental methodology, Research methods design and analysis Larry B Christensen University. of South Alabama R Burke Johnson University of South Alabama Lisa A Turner. University of South Alabama Twelfth edition,ISBN 13 978 0 205 96125 2 alk paper.
ISBN 10 0 205 96125 8 alk paper, 1 Psychology Experimental Textbooks 2 Psychology Experiments Textbooks. 3 Experimental design I Johnson Burke II Turner Lisa Anne III Title. BF181 C48 2014,150 72 4 dc23,2013010295,10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. ISBN 10 0 205 96125 8,ISBN 13 978 0 205 96125 2,A01 CHRI1252 12 SE FM indd 2 08 06 13 5 41 PM. Brief Contents,P a r t I Introduction 1,1 Introduction to Scientific Research. 2 Research Approaches and Methods of Data Collection 25. P a r t II Planning the Research Study 63, 3 Problem Identification and Hypothesis Formation 63.
4 Ethics 88,P a r t III Foundations of Research 131. 5 Measuring Variables and Sampling 131,6 Research Validity 158. Pa r t I V Experimental Methods 187,7 Control Techniques in Experimental Research 187. 8 Experimental Research Design 217,9 Procedure for Conducting an Experiment 249. 1 0 Quasi Experimental Designs 269,1 1 Single Case Research Designs 291.
Pa r t V Survey Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research 313. 1 2 Survey Research 313,1 3 Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research 342. P a r t V I Analyzing and Interpreting Data 373,1 4 Descriptive Statistics 373. 1 5 Inferential Statistics 407,A01 CHRI1252 12 SE FM indd 3 08 06 13 5 41 PM. iv Brief Contents,P a r t V II Writing the Research Report 447. 1 6 Preparing the Research Report for Presentation or Publication 447. Appendix 479,Glossary 480,References 495,A01 CHRI1252 12 SE FM indd 4 08 06 13 5 41 PM.
Preface xvii,P a r t I Introduction 1, C h a pte r 1 Introduction to Scientific Research 1. Introduction 2,Methods of Acquiring Knowledge 3,Intuition 3. Authority 4,Rationalism 4,Empiricism 5,Induction and Deduction 6. Hypothesis Testing 7,Naturalism 8, Kuhn and Paradigms 9 Feyerabend s Anarchistic Theory. of Science 9,What Exactly Is Science 10, Basic Assumptions Underlying Scientific Research 11.
Uniformity or Regularity in Nature 11,Reality in Nature 11. Discoverability 12,Characteristics of Scientific Research 12. Control 12,Operationalism 13,Replication 14,The Role of Theory in Scientific Research 15. The Role of the Scientist in Psychological Research 16. Curiosity 16,Patience 17,Objectivity 17,A01 CHRI1252 12 SE FM indd 5 08 06 13 5 41 PM. vi Contents,Objectives of Psychological Research 18.
Description 18,Explanation 18,Prediction 19,Control or Influence 19. Pseudoscience 20,Summary 20,Key Terms and Concepts 22. Related Internet Sites 22,Practice Test 22,Challenge Exercises 23. C h a pte r 2 Research Approaches and Methods of Data Collection 25. Introduction 26,Variables in Quantitative Research 27. Experimental Research 29,Causation 30, Required Conditions for Making the Claim of Causation 31.
The Psychological Experiment 32, 1 Objective Observation 32 2 Of Phenomena That Are Made. to Occur 32 3 In a Strictly Controlled Situation in Which One or More. Factors Are Varied and the Others Are Kept Constant 33. Example of an Experiment and Its Logic 33,Advantages of the Experimental Approach 35. 1 Causal Inference 35 2 Ability to Manipulate,Variables 36 3 Control 36. Disadvantages of the Experimental Approach 36, 1 Does Not Test Effects of Nonmanipulated Variables 36 2 Artificiality 37. 3 Inadequate Method of Scientific Inquiry 37,Experimental Research Settings 37.
Field Experiments 37,Laboratory Experiments 39,Internet Experiments 39. Nonexperimental Quantitative Research 40,Correlational Study 41. Natural Manipulation Research 44,Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Studies 46. Qualitative Research 48,Major Methods of Data Collection 50. Questionnaires 51,Interviews 52,Focus Groups 53,A01 CHRI1252 12 SE FM indd 6 08 06 13 5 41 PM.
Contents vii,Observation 54,Existing or Secondary Data 55. Summary 58,Key Terms and Concepts 59,Related Internet Sites 60. Practice Test 60,Challenge Exercises 61,P a r t II Planning the Research Study 63. C h a pte r 3 Problem Identification and Hypothesis Formation 63. Introduction 63,Sources of Research Ideas 64,Everyday Life 64. Practical Issues 65,Past Research 65,Bias in Research Ideas 67.
Ideas Not Capable of Scientific Investigation 67,Review of the Literature 68. Getting Started 69,Defining Objectives 69,Doing the Search 69. Books 69 Psychological Journals 70 Computerized,or Electronic Databases 70 Internet Resources 73. Obtaining Resources 78,Additional Information Sources 78. Feasibility of the Study 79,Formulating the Research Problem 80.
Defining the Research Problem 80,Specificity of the Research Question 81. Formulating Hypotheses 82,Summary 84,Key Terms and Concepts 85. Related Internet Sites 85,Practice Test 85,Challenge Exercises 86. C h a pte r 4 Ethics 88,Introduction 89,Research Ethics What Are They 89. Relationship Between Society and Science 89,Professional Issues 90.
Treatment of Research Participants 93,A01 CHRI1252 12 SE FM indd 7 08 06 13 5 41 PM. viii Contents,Ethical Dilemmas 93,Ethical Guidelines 98. Beneficence and Nonmaleficence 100,Fidelity and Responsibility 102. Integrity 102,Justice 103,Respect for People s Rights and Dignity 103. APA Ethical Standards for Research 104, Ethical Issues to Consider When Conducting Research 104.
Institutional Approval 104,Informed Consent 105, Dispensing With Informed Consent 105 Informed Consent. and Minors 107 Passive Versus Active Consent 107,Deception 109. Debriefing 111,Coercion and Freedom to Decline Participation 113. Confidentiality Anonymity and the Concept of Privacy 114. Ethical Issues in Electronic Research 116,Informed Consent and Internet Research 116. Privacy and Internet Research 117,Debriefing and Internet Research 118.
Ethical Issues in Preparing the Research Report 118. Authorship 119,Writing the Research Report 119,Ethics of Animal Nonhuman Research 120. Safeguards in the Use of Animals 120,Animal Research Guidelines 121. I Justification of the Research 121,II Personnel 122. III Care and Housing of Animals 122,IV Acquisition of Animals 122. V Experimental Procedures 123,VI Field Research 124.
VII Educational Use of Animals 124,Summary 124,Key Terms and Concepts 126. Related Internet Sites 127,Practice Test 127,Challenge Exercises 128. P a r t III Foundations of Research 131, C h a pte r 5 Measuring Variables and Sampling 131. Introduction 132,Defining Measurement 132,A01 CHRI1252 12 SE FM indd 8 08 06 13 5 41 PM. Contents ix,Scales of Measurement 132,Nominal Scale 133.
Ordinal Scale 133,Interval Scale 133,Ratio Scale 134. Psychometric Properties of Good Measurement 134,Overview of Reliability and Validity 134. Reliability 135, Test Retest Reliability 135 Equivalent Forms Reliability 135 Internal. Consistency Reliability 135 Interrater Reliability 136. Validity 136, Validity Evidence Based on Content 138 Validity Evidence Based on Internal. Structure 138 Validity Evidence Based on Relations to Other Variables 139. Using Reliability and Validity Information 140,Sources of Information About Tests 141.
Sampling Methods 141,Terminology Used in Sampling 141. Random Sampling Techniques 144,Simple Random Sampling 145. Stratified Random Sampling 146,Cluster Random Sampling 149. Systematic Sampling 149,Nonrandom Sampling Techniques 150. Random Selection and Random Assignment 151, Determining the Sample Size When Random Sampling Is Used 152.
Sampling in Qualitative Research 153,Summary 154,Key Terms and Concepts 155. Related Internet Sites 156,Practice Test 156,Challenge Exercises 157. C h a pte r 6 Research Validity 158,Introduction 159. Overview of Four Major Types of Validity 159,Statistical Conclusion Validity 160. Construct Validity 160,Threats to Construct Validity 161.
Participant Reactivity to the Experimental Situation 161. Experimenter Effects 164,Internal Validity 166,Threats to Internal Validity 167. History 168 Maturation 170 Instrumentation 171 Testing 171. Regression Artifact 172 Attrition 173 Selection 174 Additive and. Interactive Effects 174,A01 CHRI1252 12 SE FM indd 9 08 06 13 5 41 PM. x Contents,External Validity 175,Population Validity 176. Ecological Validity 178,Temporal Validity 178,Treatment Variation Validity 179. Outcome Validity 179, Relationship between Internal and External Validity 180.
Summary 181,Key Terms and Concepts 181,Related Internet Sites 182. Practice Test 182,Challenge Exercises 183,P a r t I V Experimental Methods 187. C h a pte r 7 Control Techniques in Experimental Research 187. Introduction 188, Control Techniques Carried Out at the Beginning of the Experiment. Randomization 189,Matching 195,Matching by Holding Variables Constant 195. Matching by Building the Extraneous Variable into the Research Design 195. Matching by Yoked Control 197,Matching by Equating Participants 198.
Control Techniques Carried Out During the Experiment 200. Counterbalancing 200,Randomized Counterbalancing 202. Intrasubject Counterbalancing 203,Complete Counterbalancing 204. Incomplete Counterbalancing 205,Control of Participant Effects 207. Double Blind Placebo Method 207,Deception 208,Control of Participant Interpretation 208. Control of Experimenter Effects 210,Control of Recording Errors 210.
Control of Experimenter Attribute Errors 210,Control of Experimenter Expectancy Error 212. The Blind Technique 212 The Partial Blind,Technique 213 Automation 213. Likelihood of Achieving Control 213,Summary 214,Key Terms and Concepts 214. Related Internet Sites 215,A01 CHRI1252 12 SE FM indd 10 08 06 13 5 41 PM. Contents xi,Practice Test 215,Challenge Exercises 216.
C h a pte r 8 Experimental Research Design 217,Introduction 218. Weak Experimental Research Designs 218,One Group Posttest Only Design 219. One Group Pretest Posttest Design 220, Posttest Only Design with Nonequivalent Groups 221. Strong Experimental Research Designs 222,Between Participants Designs 225. Posttest Only Control Group Design 225, Strengths and Weaknesses of the Posttest Only Control Group Design 227.
Within Participants Designs 228, Strengths and Weaknesses of Within Participants Designs 229. Mixed Designs i e Combination of Between and Within 230. Pretest Posttest Control Group Design 231, Advantages and Disadvantages of Including a Pretest 232. Factorial Designs 234, Factorial Designs Based on within subjects independent variables 240. Factorial Designs Based on a Mixed Model 241,Strengths and Weaknesses of Factorial Designs 242. How To Choose or Construct the Appropriate Experimental Design 243. Summary 244,Key Terms and Concepts 246,Related Internet Sites 246.
Practice Test 246,Challenge Exercises 247, C h a pte r 9 Procedure for Conducting an Experiment 249. Introduction 250,Institutional Approval 250,Research Participants 251. Obtaining Animals Rats 252,Obtaining Human Participants 252. Sample Size 254,Apparatus and or Instruments 257,Procedure 259. Scheduling of Research Participants 259,Consent to Participate 260.
J H Lee Experimental methodology in English teaching and learning English Teaching Practice and Critique 26 At one level these three hypotheses all examine the relationships among different

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